The content of the article:
Among the many varieties of apple trees, a horticulturist will find a fruit tree that responds to its characteristics, the needs of an amateur or professional. Selective work on the development of new clones and the adaptation of known ones are carried out in all countries of the Northern Hemisphere. The result is trees with new protective genes and other changes in the structure and fruit bearing of the apple tree. Try to imagine the famous and diverse varieties of apple trees with a photo.
Classification of varieties by feature
In order to determine which sapling is necessary for your garden, you need to know the characteristics of the terrain. These concepts include:
- What frosts are typical for the area in winter, and how long they last;
- whether there is a prolonged warming in the winter with a sharp cooling;
- how deep is the layer with groundwater in the area where the garden grows;
- when there is a steady warm weather;
- how many days the period of positive temperatures during the growing season continues.
From these introductions come when choosing apple varieties for long-term cultivation, and choose the taste of the fruit and the time of their storage.
By laying a garden of any fruit plants, you need to select the zoned varieties - recommended for cultivation in this region.
First of all, it is necessary to choose varieties that are suitable for winter hardiness. Those apple trees that develop well in the central part of Russia are not suitable for Eastern Siberia. If at a tender age they can be saved, then subsequently the apple tree will suffer from freezing every year. You can not raise a tree. Frost resistance is transmitted genetically when forming a variety
Apple Tree Ranet
An example of such a tree, which is a small-fruited apple-tree, is Ranetka. The apple tree was a crossed Siberian small-fruited apple-tree with chinese. Apples are small, weighing up to 12 grams, but full of flavor and smell. Apples do not cause allergies and are included in the composition of baby food. They are good in compotes and jam "with legs."
Trees are tall, winter-hardy and are given a harvest every year. They are not sick with scab and are undemanding to the conditions of detention. On the basis of crossing with other varieties, the apple trees of the Dobrynya, Saninka, Kitayka, and Purple Rappers were hatched.
A branch of a rennet on a large-berry apple tree will be a useful and exotic addition.
Recommended by the State Register for use in the Middle Urals and Eastern Siberia winter-hardy large-bred variety Spartacus. This variety is popular in areas where apples have recently been imported fruit. A variety was cultivated at the Samara experimental station by breeder Kedrin S. P. Grafted on the Chinese or Zhigulevsky forest apple tree, Spartak's seedlings begin to bear fruit even before landing on a permanent place. In the photo the apple tree Spartacus on the described rootstock, ready for planting.
The tree quickly awakens from hibernation and begins an accelerated vegetation. Harvest is filmed in the first days of September, but within a month they are in a leash typing. Apples 90-130 g, there are also large specimens at the beginning of fruiting. Fruits are removed when they acquire a red-striped color. When cultivating, it should be taken into account that the variety is medium-resistant to scab, so preventive treatments during vegetation are mandatory. The branches of the young tree are pointed at an acute angle, so the deviation of the skeletal branches in a horizontal position is required, otherwise it is inevitable that the future will break under the weight of the fruit.
Apple Tree of Imant
Yablonya Imant will not grow in Siberia, but frost resistance allows it to be cultivated in the climate of the Moscow region. A variety of Belarusian breeding, obtained by crossing Antea and Liberty with the introduction of the gene against the scab. To grow an apple tree it is possible on a seed stock and on a clone. In this case, the stamping tree begins to bear fruit for the second year after planting. This grade is suitable for industrial use in the Moscow region.
Yablonya Imant is genetically protected from scab, little is defeated by stem diseases, cracking and cancer. On the stem at the age of five, the apple tree yields up to 25 kg of lined fruits. Apples are large, up to 200 grams in weight. The main color is green, but the surface red color covers the entire fruit. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour. Preservation of fruits at low temperatures until June.
Apple-tree Colon-shaped Medoc
Apple-tree Colon-shaped Medoc is an autumn variety. The amber apples clinging to the tree are fabulously beautiful. It seems that they shine from the honey that has absorbed them. Autumn sort, cleaning is carried out at the beginning of September, apples are kept for a short time, only a month, but from them excellent workpieces are obtained. Apple trees are demanding for fertility, and depending on nutrition, fruits can weigh from 100 to 250 grams.
The tree is a column with a height of up to two meters and a diameter of not more than 25 centimeters. With a compact planting, each apple tree is a column-shaped Medoc sapling giving up to 10 kg of amber fruit. The tree is fast-growing, it can yield a harvest in the first year after planting. Planting thickened, 60 cm between the stems and a meter between the rows. The variety tolerates a frost of 40, but for guaranteed preservation it is better to lead a winter shelter. Pests rarely attack Medoc, care is simplified.
Apple trees for the middle band
For zoning in warmer climatic conditions, the varieties of Russian breeding, American, French, Baltic are much larger. Among them there are species with an average winter hardiness, which easily tolerate frosts of 20-30 degrees, tall trees and medium-sized ones. Therefore, imagine these types of apple trees in terms of their rate of early fertility. It is essential to get a harvest 5 or 9 years after the scion. The time of harvesting depends on the seed stock or on the clone a cultivated variety is planted.
Low-grown compact stems are represented by varieties of apple with photos:
- winter - Sun, Orel striped;
- mid-ripening varieties Champion;
- early varieties of Elena.
In one garden, varieties of different maturation periods are usually cultivated, allowing to have medicinal fruits within a year. Summer varieties are consumed within a month after removal, winter ones, under appropriate conditions, are preserved until the middle of summer.
Apple Tree Elena
So, apple tree Elena refers to summer grades. The variety of the Belarusian selection was accepted for breeding in 2001 and for this region it is a winter-resistant culture with a taste of apples on a five-point scale on - a very good indicator. Trees of medium height, on dwarfish stocks, bear fruit for the second or third year. The apple tree is resistant to scab. Ovary on apple tree Elena is abundant, it needs thinning, so as not to overload the tree. In Belarus, apples ripen in late July.
Apple Tree Champion
The middle grade is Apple Tree Champion. The apple tree of the Czech breeding and rapidly spread across the European part in the forest-steppe of Ukraine. Even in Ukraine, the grade needs to be insulated for the winter.
The tree is low, the annual growth is small. Resistance to diseases and pests medium, high to scab. The variety is fast-growing and requires the presence of a pollinator for good fruiting. Fruiting is annual, abundant. Apples aligned, for 190 grams, are collected in September. The harvest lasts more than six months. The taste of red fruit is sweet and sour.
Apple tree Orel striped
The winter variety is the Orel striped apple tree. The variety was bred and entered the register, as recommended for industrial use, in 1986. For the middle zone of Russia, the Oryol region, winter hardiness is good. The variety is considered elite for yield and taste qualities of fruits. The only drawback, apples have a thin skin, and when cleaning and transporting, special care is required. The variety is resistant to scab and in 3-4 years comes into fruiting.
Apple Tree Sunny
Winter apple tree Sunny has received a residence permit in the gardens of central Russia in 2001. But the winter hardiness of the variety is excellent. Freezing of branches at 40. there were no consequences. It is suitable for growing on dwarf stocks and it itself has a low growth. Fertile variety is suitable for industrial gardens. Apple Sun is immune to scab at the gene level. Fruits ripen in the second half of September and are stored until the New Year.
Apple Tree Streifling
Tall varieties are the oldest and have long established themselves as reliable. They serve as a mother material for breeding new varieties of apple trees. Among them it is impossible to pass by the Baltic variety of apple tree Streifling. A huge tree of 8 meters high and the same spreading crown from a distance resembles an inverted cauldron. The tree is distributed in the middle belt with small winter temperatures. Apples are large up to 200 grams. The apple tree loves moisture and does not tolerate a drought. Remove apples in September, stored for 2-3 months. The fruits are fixed well and when delayed with cleaning they do not pour out, but they are worse preserved. Winter hardiness of apple trees Streifling average, but sufficient for its habitat. Apple tree does not bear fruit every year.
The representative of the American selection is apple Idared. The winter variety is grown in the south of our country and in Ukraine. The variety is intended for export deliveries for the commodity qualities of fruits. Filmed in September, they retain their commercial qualities for six months. The tree is unstable to scab disease.
Apple-tree Belfer-china is a pre-war variety of Michurin selection. A tall variety with late-autumn apples of excellent taste gave rise to many varieties of domestic selection. The fruit of this apple tree begins in the eighth or ninth year. Apple tree requires protection from pests and scab, has a low winter hardiness in the Michurinsky region.
Apple Tree of Borovinka
Variety apple-tree Borovinka refers to the old varieties of early maturation. This is a relatively early fruit variety. But the apples are not large, only 90 grams, the taste is average, the preservation is only one month. In addition, the fruits and leaves of this type of apple are strongly affected by scab.
Apple Tree Gloucester
Apple Gloucester can grow on a dwarfish rootstock or be a large sprawling tree. For the seedlings, the seedling is characterized by a long development to the first harvest. Therefore, it is possible to speed up maturity artificially:
- the formation of a crown with the bending of the branches into a horizontal position;
- the use of special drugs that inhibit the summer growth of branches;
- exclusion from the feeding of the nitrogen component.
On semi-dwarfish, the apple tree undergoes fruiting in the fourth year. The fruits are large, up to 200 grams. The taste qualities of apples are high, slightly sour. They are stored for up to 4 months and are not injured during transportation.
Apple Tree Kovalenkovskoe
The large-bodied apple-tree Kovalenkovskoe was bred by the breeder of Belarus. The variety is medium to fast-growing. On the dwarfish, the stock grows for the third year into an adult tree. Fruits of the summer ripening period, the first harvest is removed to Apple Spa. The taste of apples is acquired after a two-week rest after harvesting. Fruits do not crumble, ripening is stretched. The variety is assigned to the Central District of Russia and is distributed in the homeland of the establishment.
Apple Tree Jonathan
The apple tree of Jonathan belongs to the American guest on our continent. In the conditions of Russia, this variety of apples is grown only in the North Caucasus. Fruiting on medium rootstocks after 5 years. Apple tree gives fruits every year and the maximum yield from one apple tree is 490 kg. Apple tree is resistant to scab and often ill with powdery mildew. Fruits have an excellent dessert taste and long-term commodity preservation. The famous apple cultivar Idared is derived from Jonathan.
Apple Tree Apple
The French guest of the Florina apple tree took its place in the steppes and forest-steppes. Variety is winter, apples are sweet. A medium-sized tree with a rounded crown shape. The height of the tree is up to 5 meters. Blooming tree for a long time and has time to perfectly pollinate. Therefore, the binding of fruits is good. Harvest in October. Apples are well kept and become sweeter with time. The variety is resistant to scab and bacterial diseases.
Apple Tree Royalty
But apple trees are valued not only as fruit trees. The range of ornamental trees is also represented by well-remembered trees. Such species include the apple tree of Royalty, Niedzwiecki, Kitaika and more than 190 varieties of ornamental trees. Dwarf apple tree Royalty will become an ornament of any composition. It is compared in color with cherry blossoms. These decorative apple trees are a decoration of the landscape. The victorious flowering lasts two weeks, but then the bush with cherry leaves is decorative. The fruits of the apple tree Royalties are inedible.
In this collection, we tried to provide a little information on the apple tree world. But this is a small part of knowledge about this amazing tree of life.