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In recent decades, because of the spread of diseases of stone fruit crops, gardeners have faced a sharp drop in yields and even the need to cut down recently lush plantings. Not surprisingly, among the burning topics, the main place is occupied by diseases of the cherry and the fight against them, photos and descriptions dangerous illnesses will help the owners of household plots in time to identify the problem, cope with it and establish prevention.
Until the middle of the last century, unpretentious cherries, growing in gardens throughout the former Soviet Union, were virtually no serious enemies. And old, proven varieties regularly pleased the villagers, though not the largest and sweetest, but numerous berries. But since the sixties, in a number of regions, cherry trees increasingly even by the middle of summer stood almost without foliage, and berries were tied less and less. This is how the coccomicosis introduced from the north of Europe showed itself. Three decades later, Russian gardeners have met yet another formidable foe of stone fruit crops - moniliose. Today, these diseases are the main, but not the only enemies of cherry orchards on the territory of Russia. Trees and harvest on them are threatened by a scab, a holey spot, gum a devastation and other misfortunes.
In the zone of the greatest spread of diseases of cherries and pests are gardeners of the North-West of the country, Non-Black Earth Region and nearby regions. In relative safety, cherry planting of territories with warmer and drier climates, for example, the Caucasus, the Volga region, the Kuban and the south of the Chernozem region. But even here, without due attention, care and prevention, there is a high probability of plant disease.
Cockcomicosis: a description of cherry disease with photos
The greatest damage to the harvest is caused by fungal diseases of cherry. One of the most dangerous and insidious is coccomicosis. The spread of the disease is promoted by long wet periods, when air is warmed up to 20-24 ° C. Such conditions help the causative agent of infection, the fungus Coccomyces hiemalis, to develop unhindered, multiply and damage plants.
The disease manifests itself in the summer, and its characteristic features, first of all, are noticeable on the foliage:
- On the face side of the leaf plates, round brownish or reddish spots are formed.
- Gradually they expand, tissues in the middle dry out, and on the back side of the leaf appear areas with a pinkish coating.
- Affected coccomicosis foliage dies and falls down in the second half of summer, leaving the branches almost naked.
Judging only by external signs, coccomicosis could be considered a disease of cherry leaves. But this opinion is wrong! Because of the early loss of the green part of the crown, the cherry trees are weakened and unprepared for wintering. As a result, a part of the shoots to spring dies, damage is found on the trunk and skeletal branches.
Already in the first year after infection, the cherry reduces yield, the quality of pilaf decreases. If you do not urgently tackle the disease, cherry, as in the photo, dies in the next few years.
Premature leaf fall in the middle of summer should seriously alarm the gardener. All fallen leaves are necessarily collected and destroyed, and the plants are treated with Bordeaux liquor, ferrous sulfate solution or systemic fungicides. Re-treatment is carried out according to the instructions in 7-14 days field first.
The main measures to combat the fungal disease of cherries are aimed at destroying the pathogen and preventing its spread to healthy trees.
As prevention in the risk zone, as well as in wet weather, conducive to the spread cockcomycosis, sprinkling of cherries is carried out in the spring, even before the opening of flower buds, and at the end of the mass flowering plants.
In this case, one should remember about the possible toxicity of the sprayed products. The remaining fruits on the branches are removed, hands, breathing organs are protected with gloves and a respirator. In order to maximize the effectiveness of the drugs, they must fall on dry foliage and act unobstructed for 2-3 hours. Therefore, for treatment, it is better to choose a windless, fair morning or evening, when there is no danger of sunburn.
Moniliose of cherry: photo of disease and fight with it
Moniliasis or monilial burn is already familiar to gardeners of the middle belt of Russia, Kuban, Chernozem, southern regions of Siberia and the Urals. In some areas, a malicious fungus infected almost all the planting of cherries, but, in addition, the fungal disease of the cherry, caused by Monilia cinerea, is just as dangerous for other fruit crops as well.
Primary infection of the tree occurs during flowering, when the spores of the fungus penetrate and germinate through the pistil and pedicel into the depths of the wood tissues. However, noticing the spring sickness of cherries, gardeners often take its symptoms for the effects of freezing or unsuccessful handling of chemicals.
Indeed, drying under the influence of spreading fungus branches, flowers and young leaves are as if burnt. And lesions of moniliasis from the side look like large solid patches in the crowns of recently completely healthy trees.
Secondary infection occurs through the fruit in which the fungus spores mature. Outside, the berries look dry, mummified, often covered with a grayish coating. They hold fast to the branches and, if not removed, remain until the spring, becoming a new hotbed of infection.
Contributes to wet spring-summer weather, irregular cropping of the crown and violations of agricultural technology. If the prevention of the disease and its treatment is not given due attention, for several years the trees wither and die.
To minimize the number of foci of infection, it is necessary:
- remove the fallen leaves, and the ground under the trees carefully loosen;
- Cut, grabbing a piece of healthy wood, and destroy the affected branches of the monolithosis;
- remove and burn the remaining fruit.
In spring, before the opening of the buds, cherry plantings are sprayed with a Bordeaux liquid or other contact fungicide. Reprocessing is carried out in the second half of the flowering period. Particular attention is paid to plants that have already been attacked by harmful fungus in the past. If the disease of the cherry tree is noticed in spring in previously healthy trees, it will be necessary to resort to the help of systemic fungicides, for example, Skora, Topaz or Fundazol.
Cherry blossom and disease treatment
The hole spot is located on the third most pernicious spot. Klyasterosporiosis also refers to the fungal diseases of the cherry and affects not only the foliage and shoots, but also flowers. At first the disease manifests itself by the appearance of brownish-brown spots. As they grow, the tissues inside dry up and crumble, leaving large round holes. The sick foliage dries and falls off, the affected berries also do not fill up and wither. Spores of harmful mushroom winter:
- in the soil;
- on the remaining mummified fruits;
- inside cracks on the bark;
- on plant residues.
In addition to regular cleaning and destruction of fallen leaves and pruning of the crown, for prevention and treatment of the disease, cherries and soil around the spring are sprinkled with a solution of copper sulfate or Horus.
Developing according to the description, as in the photo, the disease of cherry requires urgent measures. In this case fungicides of complex action or Bordeaux liquid are used. Full-scale processing is carried out in several stages, beginning with the green cone stage, ending with summer days, when just over 20 days are left before harvesting.
Similar measures are taken to reveal the signs of brown spots and rust on fruit trees. In both cases, the gardener encounters the appearance on the leaves and ovaries of brown, reddish-brown or red spots that are the manifestation of the activity of harmful fungi. All these diseases negatively affect the yield and consumer properties of fruits, weaken the plants. Therefore, at the slightest delay, the garden will require not only the fight against diseases of the cherry tree, but also with pests for which the affected plants become coveted and easy prey.
Cherry blossom: description of the disease and its treatment
Most of the scab, also caused by fungi, occurs on apples and pears, but on private plots can affect and stone crops. If you find, as in the photo, a disease on a cherry, the fight against it should be carried out as seriously as with moniliosis or brown spot.
Dark with a cracked mid-spot scabs grow not only on the foliage. They capture the pouring berries and sharply reduce the quality of the crop, making the fruits practically unsuitable for food and for processing.
A good measure of prevention and control of fungal disease of cherries is:
- collection and destruction of fallen leaves;
- timely formation and sanitary trimming of the crown;
- digging the soil under the trees;
- spraying of plants and trunks with a solution of fungicide, copper chloride or Bordeaux liquid.
As in other cases, the treatment is carried out in several stages in accordance with the instructions to the means chosen by the horticulturist.
Gommoz: a description of cherry disease with photos
The drops of gum appearing on the trunk and branches of the cherry are also a disease. Gummosis or gum augmentation can be caused by several reasons:
- exposure to frost;
- improper use of fertilizing;
- left without due attention to mechanical damage to the cortex.
At first glance, a phenomenon that is harmless to plant life is actually a harbinger of the most unpleasant consequences. In the area where the cambium is broken, the proper development of wood is hampered or stopped, but the access to harmful fungi, other pathogens of diseases of cherry and pests is completely open.
In this case, it is equally important not to allow the appearance of new cracks, and also to heal the available ones as quickly and effectively as possible. In order to prevent gummed after sanitary pruning and the formation of the crown, garden gardening is mandatory. The formed damage is preliminarily irrigated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate.
General measures to protect cherries from diseases and pests
Unfortunately, the fungal and concomitant infections are so widespread today that it will not be possible to achieve a good harvest, hoping only for varietal characteristics and routine care. Preventive and curative use of fungicides on household plots is the norm. But even the most effective means have their weak points. Fungus already in the second or third year is able to adapt to a previously effective drug. Therefore, chemicals have to be changed on a regular basis, not forgetting the observance of agricultural technology and basic attention to planting.
In addition to spraying with fungicides, cherry trees need:
- in the sanitary pruning carried out in the spring;
- in the regular rejuvenation of fruit trees to the level of 3-4 years of wood;
- in the cleaning of fallen leaves and the removal of even inedible, dry fruits left on the branches;
- in competent fertilizer and compulsory irrigation of the garden.
If the disease is dangerous for stone crops in the region, the gardener is better at securing the selection of regional resistant varieties and hybrids already at the stage of planting a garden.