Many consider swimming pools to be attributes of “beautiful” life and associate them with expensive high-rise cottages and mansions. In fact, this is not entirely true. Any owner of a country cottage or house can pamper his family with a pool.
It is only necessary to competently carry out construction work. Special attention should be paid to protecting the structure from water. It is important to choose the right materials for waterproofing pools, in which we are ready to provide effective assistance.
The article submitted for consideration describes in detail all the variants of the systems for protecting the bowls of swimming facilities from exposure to water. We described in detail the main characteristics and methods of applying the compositions and waterproofing coatings. Taking into account our recommendations, you will not be mistaken in the purchase.
The content of the article:
- Why do we need waterproofing?
Types of pool waterproofing
- External moisture protection bowl
- Internal waterproofing pool
Materials for insulation
- Bitumen based coatings
- Cement based mortars
- Waterproofing penetrating type
- Waterproofing film coating
- Liquid rubber for waterproofing
- Insulating coating "liquid glass"
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Why do we need waterproofing?
Under waterproofing in construction refers to a set of works aimed at arranging effective protection from moisture. No exception and swimming pools. They must be protected from the destructive action of water.
It should be understood that the bowl is a complex structure, inside which there is a sufficiently large mass of water. It pushes against the walls of the pool, and when pouring or lowering additional forces are applied to them.
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Waterproofing measures necessary to protect the concrete bowl from the action of an aggressive environment, are carried out both inside and outside the walls of the pool bowl
The waterproofing device uses a wide range of coating materials, two- and one-component, made on a cement base.
Work on waterproofing is much faster if the sprayed polymer is chosen as the material.
At the highest rates, works are performed using rolled bitumen-polymer materials and polymer membranes.
Conducting waterproofing outside the pool
Polymer spray waterproofing
Pool waterproofing for pools
The slightest cracks or any other defects will become a serious threat to the entire structure. Under the influence of moisture, even microscopic defects quickly turn into a serious problem.
Therefore, it is very important to prevent the contact of water and the walls of the structure. More often built pools of concrete. This is a porous material that instantly absorbs moisture. It is very bad that the water inside the concrete structures quickly destroys them.
Waterproofing is necessary to protect the concrete structure from groundwater and water in the pool, which as a result significantly extends the life of the structure.
But not only concrete is threatened with excess moisture. Inside the walls of the bowl are usually reinforced with metal rods. Porous material freely passes water to the fixture.
As a result, it is subjected to corrosion and quickly crumbles. Thus, without proper waterproofing, the bowl that is experiencing serious loads will literally crumble in the shortest possible time.
A pool is a complex structure, experiencing constant loads associated with the water that fills it. The slightest base defects can provoke destruction. Without waterproofing this process will take place many times faster.
High-quality waterproofing pool must meet the following requirements:
- Durability and long service life;
- High resistance to adverse external influences;
- Good adhesion.
- High elasticity.
Ideally, the insulating layer should have all the above properties and at the same time form a seamless monolithic coating covering the entire surface of the bowl.
Not only the bowl, but also the outer side of the structure needs protection from moisture. For the arrangement of external waterproofing is often used clay lock
About how to pool waterproofingavailable to do it yourself, written in detail in this article. It also contains the materials necessary to form a perfect protection.
Types of pool waterproofing
Protecting the structure from water is carried out from the outside and inside, and therefore the waterproofing materials used are divided into two groups.
External moisture protection bowl
External waterproofing is used to protect the structure from flood and groundwater. It is relevant for street structures, recessed into the ground. Requirements for external waterproofing are similar to those that apply to waterproofing foundations.
The main difference lies in the shrinkage indicators and changes in the geometry of the bowl design, which arise under the influence of a considerable mass of water on it. Before the construction of the bowl, it is necessary to carefully study the soil structure in the selected area, find out the level of soil freezing, as well as the depth of groundwater.
It is very important that the level of the bottom plate of the bowl is not lowered below the depth of the groundwater. If so, waterproofing alone will not be enough. In this case, groundwater must be removed from the structure using a drainage system.
The internal waterproofing of the bowl protects the structure not only from moisture, but also from the damaging effects of chemical reagents, therefore it must be resistant to them
The most proven and affordable method of arranging external waterproofing is considered to be a clay castle, which is mounted directly during the construction period. After the soil is removed from the pit prepared for the pool, clay is poured into it and carefully tamped.
This is the clay castle. The best result is achieved when it is used in combination with other insulating materials: adhesive, coating or penetrating materials.
Select the option of an external hydraulic barrier for the bowl should be at the design stage. After pool construction it is more expensive and more difficult to eliminate the deficiencies and apply the material to the walls. And to protect the bottom will be impossible.
Internal waterproofing pool
Internal isolation of a bowl is obligatory for pools of any type. The insulating layer protects the material from which the structure is made from the damaging effects of moisture and chemical compounds.
Most often, the composition includes protection against disinfectors, which will necessarily be present in the water. The latter are relatively safe for humans, but for are an aggressive environment for building materials.
Waterproofing not only protects the pool from moisture, but also from possible leakage and corrosion. Internal insulation will be considered high-quality if it is resistant to the opening of holes and cracks up to 3 mm wide.
It is desirable that the waterproofing layer was low, but elastic. The material must have good adhesion to the base and maximum water resistance.
In addition, the insulation coating should resist hydrostatic and dynamic loads, fully comply with environmental standards. It would be good if waterproofing suppressed the activity of microorganisms. Another important nuance is full compliance with the type of finish chosen, otherwise it will be impossible to carry out a full lining of the bowl.
Internal waterproofing bowl is applied at the final stages pool construction. It is possible to choose material for it even after all the construction of the bowl has been completed, but always before the veneering.
Materials for insulation
For waterproofing bowls can be used a variety of materials. Each of them has certain advantages and disadvantages. To make an informed choice, you should carefully study the different types of isolation.
Waterproofing of the pool is carried out with the use of all types of waterproofing materials used to perform water protection of underground structures and hydraulic structures
Bitumen based coatings
Appeared on the construction market more than half a century ago. Available in the form of roll-up roll materials, roofing material, bitumen mastic.
Bituminous coatings have several advantages:
- High elasticity, which virtually eliminates damage to the insulation during operation and during further finishing work.
- Effective moisture protection.
- Long service life.
- The possibility of carrying out work on the laying of the material and subsequent finishing at any time of the year.
- Resistant to almost any aggressive effects, including chemicals.
- Most materials have an affordable price.
Despite the rather large number of advantages, bitumen coatings for waterproofing pools are used quite rarely. This is more true for roll-up roll materials that are difficult to apply.
Hot solutions are also not easy to install. The main obstacle to the use of bitumen materials for insulation of pools is poor adhesion with adhesives used for bowls decoration.
Bituminous rolled insulation materials for waterproofing pools have been used less frequently, since they are not always compatible with adhesives used for subsequent decoration
Cement based mortars
The composition of such mixtures usually includes three components. The first one is astringent. This is a high-quality cement that provides the material with strength and partially repels water.
The second - filler: quartz sand of fine fraction. The third is polymer additives. Various substances that increase the hydrophobic properties of the mixture, adhesion and elasticity. These can be synthetic resins or vinyl acetate.
Cement-based waterproofing provides a very durable, waterproof, breathable coating that can be easily finished.
Cement based waterproofing has many advantages:
- Good adhesion. The material keeps well on wood, brick, concrete, metal, etc. The adhesion of cement insulation is much higher than that of bitumen-polymer or bitumen.
- High abrasion resistance and mechanical strength.
- Permeability The insulation does not allow water to penetrate inside the base, but at the same time allows the moisture inside to evaporate. This ensures the absence of possible detachments.
- The possibility of applying, if necessary, not only on a dry, but also on a wet basis.
- Environmental Safety.
- Quick drying. After 10-14 days, the surface treated with cement formulations is ready for further finishing. Additional training is not required - finishing materials are well kept on such a basis.
- Long service life.
Practice shows that throughout the life of the repair of cement waterproofing is not required. It is quite simple to apply and can fit on the surface of the most different configuration.
The cost of coverage is relatively low. The main drawback of cement waterproofing is high rigidity. It is not elastic, so if a crack appears in the cup, the insulating layer will inevitably be destroyed.
To level the main drawback of cement waterproofing high rigidity, it is worth using special two-component solutions and additionally glue all the joints with elastic tape
This problem is solved. On sale you can find special two-component compositions based on cement with a high content of the polymer component. Such mixtures are stacked in several layers. Between them is mounted reinforcing fiberglass mesh.
In addition, rubber-polymer elastic tapes are additionally applied to all internal corners. The result is an insulating coating, superior to bituminous in its characteristics. However, its cost is quite high.
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By the beginning of the work, the concrete base must be leveled, dried, perfectly cleaned. Moisten the surface before using the mixture directly.
Use for waterproofing devices better proven tools. Two-component water-repellent composition COVERFLEX has excellent adhesion, resistant to chlorine and sulfates
Waterproofing paste brand HIDROFLEX after application to the treated surface forms a waterproof elastic film of green color
The waterproof composition is supplied complete, includes two substances to be mixed before application. Available in white and gray
Means for waterproofing AQUAMASTER fully prepared for application. Applicable for waterproofing pools and other underground structures.
The composition which is quickly gaining working hardness is necessary for expeditious fixing of fixture and other details, elimination of pressure leak
Actively popular in the field of waterproofing pools ELASTOCEM brand compositions are affordable, easy to use. The solution is applied to a fiberglass mesh reinforcement.
In the arrangement of the pool, you will certainly need reinforcement tapes from LITOBAND, necessary to strengthen the corner joints
The specifics of the preparation of the concrete base
Waterproofing composition COVERFLEX
Waterproofing paste HIDROFLEX
White composition ELASTOCEM (A + B)
Ready to use AQUAMASTER
Fast setting LITOBLOCK AQUA
Popular variant ELASTOCEM MONO
Corner Reinforcement Tape
Waterproofing penetrating type
Insulation penetrating action is made in the form of a mixture, which includes high-quality Portland cement, filler and active chemical additives.
Additives are alkaline earth and alkali metal salts or polymers. After dissolving in water, a liquid working solution is obtained, which is applied to the base, forming an external protective coating.
Its main difference from analogs lies in the fact that the composition penetrates into the base through the pores, structural capillaries and microcracks. Here the mixture is converted to water-insoluble waterproofing crystals.
The base material becomes impervious to moisture and at the same time strengthens, which significantly prolongs its service life. This effect does not give any of the known types of waterproofing.
In addition, the coating and roll materials, when applied, form a non-breathing dense film on the surface. If there was moisture in the pores of the base, and this happens very often, it will remain inside, which can lead to the appearance of mold over time.
Penetrating formulations work differently. When it enters the pores of the base, they crystallize and at the same time displace moisture and vapors to the outside.
The principle of penetrating waterproofing is based on changing the structure of the processed building material, in the array of which all the pores and microcracks are filled to the depth of the mixture
Only after all the moisture has been removed from the base does the crystallization process stop and a protective layer forms on the surface. Penetrating mixtures can fill the thickness of the concrete base 35-40 cm deep.
At the same time, penetrating compounds completely seal cracks and other defects up to 0.4 cm wide. The service life of the material is 70-100 years, while the roll and coating analogues serve 25-30 years.
In addition to the advantages of penetrating waterproofing include the following:
- It forms an airtight seamless coating that is highly resistant to mechanical damage and to aggressive chemical attack. It does not crack and does not flake.
- Ease of preparation of the mixture and further installation. The composition can be applied on a wet basis. No need to pre-dry it.
- The ability to handle both new and old designs. The latter is relevant when carrying out repairs.
- Full environmental safety, both for people and for the environment.
- When applied to a reinforced concrete structure, the composition protects the metal component from corrosion, which extends the service life by about three times.
- The composition can be applied in any weather. The application temperature of the solution is from +75 to -30C. Formulations that can be applied on hot surfaces have been developed.
- After the mixture dries, it becomes a good basis for further finishing. No preparatory work is required.
The disadvantages of penetrating materials include the selectivity of application. They are not placed on very porous materials, such as expanded clay concrete, shale-ash concrete and the like.
A large number of pores will require a significant consumption of expensive insulation, which is very disadvantageous. In addition, the material should not be applied to the areas of the connection elements of water supply equipment with a concrete base.
Waterproofing film coating
It is a polyvinyl chloride or polyester film that fits into the bowl. Produced several varieties of such coverage. The least durability differs not reinforced cloth.
This is a single-layer material with low performance and low cost. This film is used most often to isolate prefabricated pool models.
The pvc film coating performs two functions for the pool bowl at once. It is a good waterproofing and beautiful decorative coating.
Reinforced films are characterized by greater reliability and durability. They are a multi-layer coating, where reinforcing polyester yarns are laid between the panels of the film.
Such a material can easily withstand fairly large loads without any signs of deformation. The outer coating of the films also varies. The most practical option - with an anti-slip layer.
Film coating is quite difficult to install. It is most often performed by specialists who have experience in carrying out such work and the skill of joining panels by means of hot air welding.
On sale you can find a film with acrylic coating, which prevents the active reproduction of microorganisms, which greatly facilitates the care of the pool.
The advantages of waterproofing films include:
- Attractive appearance. This coating is not only waterproofing, but also at the same time decorating the bowl. The material is available in a variety of colors and textures. Imitations of mosaic tile, stone and sand are especially good.
- High resistance to various aggressive environments, frost resistance.
- Easy to care. The covering easily washes the most usual soap solution.
- The possibility of laying in the process of building a new bowl or in the course of repair on the prepared old foundation. In this case, the cloth can be applied over the old finish, for example, laid on ceramic tiles.
- Low cost material.
Among the disadvantages, the relatively short service life of such a coating is considered the main one. It is about 5-10 years, after which the cloth needs to be changed.
This is due to the fact that during operation the film inevitably loses its saturation and is scratched. This happens especially quickly with intensive use of the pool; for household structures, the process usually proceeds more slowly.
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From the waterproofing polymer membrane with reinforcement perform internal coating of precast pools
Step 1: Before laying the inner insulating protective sheath, the bottom and walls of the pool are thoroughly cleaned of grains of sand, fine gravel and organic pollution.
Step 2: The cover of the basin, made to the size of the basin, is carefully placed inside the basin.
Step 3: For uniform laying of the membrane inside the pool, its edges are fixed on the sides of the bowl with clamps
Step 4: Razvuvshis not to damage the membrane, carefully level it inside the building, trying to get rid of the slightest folds
Step 5: To the side of the bowl, the waterproofing-decorative casing is fastened with nails, after which the clamps are removed
When performing subsequent work on the construction of a private pool should be attentive to the membrane, trying not to damage its careless movement.
Finish: After filling the pool bath with water, the line of fastening the polymer membrane is covered with a rod
Waterproofing and finishing bowl
Surface cleaning before installation
Protective and decorative coating
Fastening the edges of the material with a clamp
Leveling polymer shell
Fixing the membrane to the side of the bowl
Installing the rail on the sides
Installation of a new coating is quite complicated and is most often performed by experienced craftsmen. During its carrying out special technologies are used. Including hot air welding of the joints of the panels. Even a small mistake can lead to the ingress of water under the waterproofing carpet, which is unacceptable.
Liquid rubber for waterproofing
The coating is a modified latex-bitumen emulsion. It includes two mutually insoluble components - water and bitumen. At its core, this is a bitumen emulsion, whose performance has been improved with latex.
The name liquid rubber is somewhat unjustified, because the basis of the material is not at all rubber, as in classical rubber. However, it stuck. There are two main types of coating: one and two-component. The latter has a more complex composition and better characteristics. In addition, the material varies according to the method of application to the substrate.
This may be spraying, painting or pouring. I must admit that the first result gives the best result. True, its implementation requires special expensive equipment, which only trained workers can handle.
Liquid rubber has a high elasticity, which helps it to withstand sudden temperature changes and resist mechanical stress without problems.
Liquid waterproofing has many advantages:
- Forms a monolithic completely hermetic coating, on which there are no slightest joints.
- High adhesion to any base.
- It fills micro cracks and small base defects.
- Good elasticity, which suggests the ability after a short increase in size to return to its original position. Therefore, the coating is particularly resistant to temperature extremes and high humidity.
- Short installation time. The process of applying liquid rubber is mechanized, which allows it to be laid several times faster than, for example, pasty materials.
- Ecological safety of waterproofing material.
- Good coating maintainability. Defects are easily eliminated by applying a new portion of the mixture.
- Finishing coatings may be applied over the liquid rubber. It is possible to use without additional decoration. The material is available in various colors, which improves its decorative properties.
The disadvantages of liquid rubber include high sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation. Do not leave such a coating without applying a special protective layer, if the pool is located under the direct rays of the sun.
Another disadvantage is the rather high cost of coating, especially if it is applied by spraying. In this case, the cost of work on its application is added to the price of the material.
For the application of liquid rubber on the base can be used various methods, it all depends on the form of the composition. It may be sprayed or coated. The latter is much cheaper
Insulating coating "liquid glass"
Under this name is known composition based on water mixed with natural potassium or sodium silicates. It has a special viscosity and copes with waterproofing.
Small crystals that are visible in the material, after being deposited on the base, increase in size and fill all cracks and small defects. Liquid glass is completely impermeable to water and air.
In addition, the insulating coating also has antiseptic properties - microorganisms do not live on it. It is antistatic, that is, it does not accumulate static electricity. Liquid glass acts as a hardener for the base. It significantly strengthens the structure of the material on which it is applied.
In addition to the number of advantages of liquid waterproofing include:
- High degree of adhesion. The material fits perfectly on almost any base, penetrating into the smallest cracks and thereby fastening them.
- The resulting insulating coating has no seams and joints, is completely hermetic.
- High water repellency. The insulating layer is completely impermeable to water.
- Relatively small compared to other waterproofing materials, the cost of the finished coating.
- Economical consumption of liquid glass when laying an insulating layer.
- Environmental Safety. The composition of the waterproofing does not include toxic substances.
- An opportunity to lay a covering in the conditions of high humidity that is impossible for other materials.
Disadvantages of liquid glass is enough. First of all, it is a short service life. He is only 5 years old. After this time, the material begins to self-destruct.
The coating that forms liquid glass is quite fragile and eventually collapses, therefore it needs additional protection.
True, if it is covered with a protective layer of paint, it will last much longer. It is not recommended to use liquid glass on brick surfaces, otherwise the base may be destroyed. Another disadvantage is the difficulty in applying the material, as it dries very quickly.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. How to use liquid rubber for waterproofing a pool:
Video # 2. Pool waterproofing with PVC roll material:
Video # 3. Features of the use of liquid glass:
We were convinced that the range of waterproofing materials that can be used in the construction of swimming pools, is large enough.
When choosing the best option, you should consider the material from which the bowl will be made, the operating conditions of the structure and other features of a particular design. Only in this case it will be possible to expect that the new pool will serve for a long time and seamlessly.
Please comment on the material proposed for consideration in the block below the text of the article. We are interested in your opinion, stories about the experience of a private pool and a country site. We are waiting for useful tips, suggestions and photos on the topic.