Waterproofing of the pool with their hands: a review of technology + step by step example of work

Apparatus concrete the pool, despite the emergence of new structures is the most common form of execution in the construction of artificial stationary reservoirs.

However, this material has a property to absorb moisture which subsequently destroys the structure. Therefore, waterproofing of the pool - it's mandatory stage of the construction of such facilities.

The content of the article:

  • Why seal the pool?
  • Methods for moisture protection of concrete structures
    • Penetrating waterproofing compounds
    • Hydrophobic additives for concrete
    • Liquid glass - an effective tool
    • Liquid and viscous waterproofing
    • Coating polymeric films
  • Internal and external waterproofing basin
    • Protection of groundwater reservoir
    • Waterproofing inner surface of the bowl
  • How to make your own waterproofing
  • Useful videos on the topic

Why seal the pool?

Concrete - a material strong and durable, but it is characterized by high porosity. Leaked into the thickness of the material water is easily absorbed and retained for a long time, becoming a favorable environment for the development of mold.

When exposed to subzero temperatures such conductor wall becomes cold and the liquid freezing leads to cracking and mechanical failure of the structure.

Why spend waterproofing pools
Due to the porous structure of concrete or reinforced concrete array is not able to resist seepage of water into the interior structure

Apparatus reliable waterproofing of inner surface of the pool is not in doubt because it is filled with water. However, the degradation can occur from the outside.

For concrete typical so-called "capillary leak" fluid when moisture is drawn from the environment - soil, humid air, in contact with precipitation. In this regard, the outer side of the pool is also necessarily subjected to waterproofing measures.

Active leakage through the seams of the concrete structure
In the construction of the bowl from the pool of individual concrete slabs or blocks, bad waterproofing leads to the gradual destruction and washing out of solution in the seams and active appearance of leaks

Often, basin walls erected from individual blocks. In this case, the danger is the connecting seams. Joining strength is markedly lower the strength of concrete slabs. Therefore, if such a location begins to seep water, under the action of pressure fluid weight material rapidly destroyed.

It appears first drip leakage, then a small leak that washes particles solution and is converted into a decent flow.

Options for waterproofing and facing the pool
Material for the pool waterproofing must be compatible with the adhesives for ceramic tiles or for polymer finishing (+)

Methods for moisture protection of concrete structures

Waterproofing material may be surface, internal or combined. To ensure moisture protection of reinforced concrete structures or concrete blocks following means are used:

  • Substances which penetrate into the material - even clog microscopic cracks working on a capillary level;
  • Dopants introduced into the sand-cement mixture, - increase the hydrophobicity of the concrete;
  • Liquid glass - a composition which after curing forms a solid layer on the liquid-impermeable surface;
  • Liquid and viscous formulations - called liquid surface waterproofing rubber and forming a solid elastic membrane;
  • Roll film coating affixed to the surface of the concrete.

Each tool has its own characteristics, which define the scope and application method.

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Performing waterproofing measures
Operation to ensure waterproofing walls of the pool are performed both on the inside and on the outside. Apply one or complex compounds
Processing means on the basis of cement
Depending on the type and composition of the waterproofing material produced work on his device. Funds from the foundation cement is applied to the reinforcing synthetic mesh
Spray polymer waterproofing
Polymeric species waterproofing barrier is applied by spraying or painting. After polymerization, they are converted to a solid waterproof shell
Laying polymer membrane
Concrete basin bowl can be protected from the aggression of chlorine and nitrates by setting polymer membrane. Furthermore it will serve protective functions decorative coating
Performing waterproofing measures
Performing waterproofing measures
Processing means on the basis of cement
Processing means on the basis of cement
Spray polymer waterproofing
Spray polymer waterproofing
Laying polymer membrane
Laying polymer membrane

Penetrating waterproofing compounds

Penetrating material is a cement-sand mixture with active chemical additives. Diluted with water and applied to the well moistened surface.

The active substance in the presence of water start to react with the particles of the concrete mix - free lime. As a result, the insoluble crystals are formed and calcium hydrosilicates hydroaluminates.

Thus compacted concrete deep - waterproofing of active components by capillary suction penetrate even into tiny cracks. Formed in moisture barrier. When all the water molecules are reacted, crystal formation process is stopped. Resumption of liquid contact starts it again, causing even greater consolidation and waterproofing.

Action penetrating waterproofing
Immediately after application of the protective layer surfactants begin to interact with the water molecules and particles of concrete to form insoluble crystals. The capillaries are filled and microcracks which subsequently blocks the ingress of water into the interior of the material

The thickness of the formed layer can reach 10-20 cm. Protection is not afraid to mechanical damage, improves frost resistance of concrete and durability of the entire structure. However, 100% protection from moisture in contact with a liquid penetrating waterproofing does not. Therefore, it is used as a pretreatment prior to application of the main protective layer.

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Waterproofing joint plates
In the process of carrying out waterproofing works, special attention should be paid to places, creating a threat of leakage. For example, joints of concrete slabs necessary glue tape LITOBAND R
Sealing pipe release
To seal a pipe release recommended to use reliably adhering adhesive LITOBAND S
The application of the polymer paste
Glued on top for sealing the patches and tapes applied waterproofing agent, e.g., HIDROFLEX, manufactured in the form of a thixotropic paste
Processing waterproofing surfaces
HIDROFLEX composition after the polymerization process all parts of the surface of the pool bath. Means forming a strong elastic film
Waterproofing joint plates
Waterproofing joint plates
Sealing pipe release
Sealing pipe release
The application of the polymer paste
The application of the polymer paste
Processing waterproofing surfaces
Processing waterproofing surfaces

Hydrophobic additives for concrete

The operating principle of waterproofing additives same as that of the penetrating compounds. Only in this case not only protects the surface layer - the entire array becomes a hydrophobic material.

calcium hydroxide, or free lime in a conventional concrete eventually washed away, leaving a large number of microscopic capillaries and cavities. Added to the mixture of active additives have to pour concrete step reacted with calcium hydroxide and water molecules. Expanding in solution, they fill the resulting microcavities and pores.

Cast concrete structure or individual blocks acquire properties stone monolith. With further exposure to water surface structure further compacted. The construction of this concrete is not only the water resistance - high characteristic for him strength, frost and heat resistance, resistance to aggressive chemical compounds environment.

Additives not only contribute to filling of micropores - larger cavity lined with a layer of insoluble crystals. Due to this reduced maximum surface wettability and capillary effect is removed retraction.

hydrophobic concrete
Due to the properties of the concrete surface additives vary. Almost completely removed wettability due to the fact that during solidification it is covered with a layer of insoluble crystals

However, in addition to the positive properties of such a characteristic it has a drawback. The formation of water-resistant layer results in poor adhesion with adhesives and plaster. Therefore, before applying the finishing coating is required to carry out measures to improve the surface roughness of the material.

Liquid glass - an effective tool

Liquid glass - a solution of potassium silicate or sodium. The composition is a transparent liquid mass which during solidification forms a solid glass-like layer. The principle of operation of such a waterproofing solution based on the ability of spontaneous cure.

Due flowable texture, water glass fills the pores and crack the protected surface. Due to this being blocked entirely possible ways of passing the liquid. The composition imparts water resistance of the treated concrete surface and enhances its strength.

Application waterglass
Liquid glass has no color, no odor. It fills the pores and microcracks, forming a transparent moisture barrier layer on the surface

The composition is characterized by good adhesion and easy to apply - a roller, brush or by spraying. The treatment is carried out in two or three layers, with waiting full hardening the applied solution. Keep in mind that water glass is grasped very quickly. Therefore, for the work required some skill. This creates difficulties for self-sealing of the tank.

The solidified layer by properties similar to the glass - it is hard and quite brittle. For the surface treatment, constantly in contact with water, is used only as a basis for wrapping the polymer films.

Liquid and viscous waterproofing

Easy to apply and effective liquid funds are becoming more common. This compositions based on bitumen, latex, silicone polymers. They are applied to the surface of a conventional brush, spray or roller. Characterized by good adhesion with the surface. Fill microroughness, pores and cracks form a tight waterproof membrane.

Application viscous waterproofing mastic
Waterproof viscous formulations can be applied without the involvement of specialists - with a brush or spatula. The compositions allow non-simultaneous layering - clutch material occurs at the molecular level, and is formed as a result of a seamless coating

Liquid insulators subdivided into aqueous emulsions and compositions based on organic solvents. The first is almost no smell, curing takes place only at the expense of polymerization processes.

Second during application and solidification emit toxic substances, it is therefore not recommended for smokers. After application, the solvent evaporates on the surface remains flexible hydrophobic base.

Funds often do not require pre-treatment. Applied in several layers. The result is a firm and elastic membrane, which has no joints and seams. Such waterproof barrier fears neither hammering or fluid pressure or shrinkage of a concrete structure and the appearance of a small crack. The film remains intact.

Waterproofing colored surface waterproofing pools
When using a colored liquid rubber waterproofing layer can perform the function of the topcoat, saving significant amounts of money

The following compositions are liquid and the surface waterproofing:

  • bitumen. This is a traditional hydro - viscous organic compound deep black color. Apply a hot way that makes the fire technology. Furthermore the coating does not withstand the low temperatures and serves only 6-7 years.
  • Bitumen-polymer. The composition does not require heating prior to application. Addition polymers makes the composition more elastic and cold-resistant. Increased adhesion to the treated surface. It is used outdoors or in ventilated areas.
  • Bitumen-latex or liquid rubber. Latex is harmless and odorless, so the tool can be used for interior applications.
  • Acrylic water-based solutions. Contain composed mineral fillers and pigments. It may be white or colored. These are used for finishing layer without requiring additional painting or cladding.

Colored plastic putty is often used alone, without any finish. In this case, to increase the durability and strength of the coating layer applied in the first mass utaplivajut fiberglass reinforcing mesh. Waiting for complete polymerization and coated with a second layer. Such a protective barrier can withstand even severe mechanical impact.

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Waterproofing small pool
Step 1: Regardless of the size and depth of the pool bath, it requires waterproofing. Protection is necessary for all underground structures including foundations, bowls of artificial reservoirs, sites w / w supports
Preparation of the pond to carry out protection
Step 2: Carefully examine the capacity of the artificial pond Before applying waterproofing. If necessary, it is necessary to carry out repair activities and apply primer to the surface
Waterproofing the pool
Step 3: After drying the primer on the inner surface of the basin applied waterproofing material. A small volume of the pond can be covered by hand
coating composition Technology
Step 4: conical bowl private pool is better to paint in the direction "of the flanges to the bottom." Polymer composition under its own weight will flow down, better hiding surface
Waterproofing small pool
Waterproofing small pool
Preparation of the pond to carry out protection
Preparation of the pond to carry out protection
Waterproofing the pool
Waterproofing the pool
coating composition Technology
coating composition Technology

A disadvantage of nearly all these compositions - negative effect on the finished coating has ultraviolet, up to the loss of flexibility and cracking. Therefore outdoor pools is further coated with a protective agent.

Coating polymeric films

Coating the surface of concrete PVC film refers to the most economical process for waterproofing the pool. The film is finished membrane thickness of 1-1.5 mm, supplied in rolls. It is lightweight, resistant to chemical attack, completely waterproof material.

The membranes may be flat - for easy cleaning, and rough surface - to cover the bottom of the ladders and children pools. Reinforced with fiberglass mesh are more durable and last longer. Unreinforced cheaper, but their life is only 5-6 years. After that, the polymer film is required to be replaced.

concrete waterproofing polymeric membranes requires a professional approach, and execute it with their own hands is quite difficult. It requires pre-treatment of the surface penetrating waterproofing or water glass. Stack film should be at a layer of geotextile, in order to avoid the occurrence of condensation and membrane eliminate friction of the rough surface.

This should provide good adhesion to the film surface to prevent delamination. Welding of joints made with special equipment. The connection must be impermeable - slightest inaccuracy will result in the penetration of liquid under a waterproofing layer.

Pool, pasted PVC film
Polymeric membranes for waterproofing can be either solid, and coating imitating tiles or mosaics. This is an inexpensive way to create an interesting unique design of an artificial pond

Internal and external waterproofing basin

Measures for moisture protection of structural elements of the tank should be carried out on both sides. Distinguish internal and external waterproofing of the pool. External waterproofing arranged for the protection of buildings against the ingress of groundwater. Inner - protects the structure against the effects that their weight presses on the cup surface.

The choice of methods depends on the waterproofing of the pool installation location - outdoors or indoors, humidity, altitude of the aquifer, the type of soil.

Protection of groundwater reservoir

Protect the pool from the penetration of ground water should be at a stage of construction - to the construction of the cup. Under construction arrange a sandy base, on which are placed overlapping fabric roofing or other dense waterproof material.

In close groundwater also require waterproofing screen apparatus of clay or loam thickness of not less than 30 cm.

Application of penetrating waterproofing onto concrete
Application of penetrating waterproofing solution does not require special skills. It is possible to make a hard brush. If the structure is erected from separate blocks, it should be carefully treated so seams composition

For the hardening of concrete and increasing its hydrophobic properties in the sand-cement mixture is added special additives or water glass. However, this requires strict adherence to recipes and proportions. With self-construction of the pool it is quite difficult to do. At home, easy to handle ready-made design of the outside water glass or the penetrating waterproofing.

If the device pool in the house will be penetrating waterproofing protection against the infiltration of water from the pool. In this case, the concrete will begin to harden inside - towards the fluid movement without missing its outside and eliminating the flooding of the surrounding area pool.

In still bottoms (rock, poluskalnyh rocks, sands with low malovlazhnyh aquifers) penetrating treatment composition sufficient. But clay soils susceptible to frost heave and seasonal shifts. At such sites may cause microcracks in that moisture starts to retract. Surface treatment, particularly water glass, in this case not save.

Scheme exterior waterproofing basin
In order to progress heaving soils do not affect the technical condition of the facilities, they are removed from the trench before the construction of the pool. The free space is filled with river sand quarry or without clay inclusions

Therefore, prior to the construction of a concrete bowl from the trench are removed unstable during cold soils. It is mandatory held vytorfovka and extraction of loess loam and sandy loam.

Durable water repellent surface waterproofing is provided by applying a liquid or rubber. Formed after polymerization solid film withstands aggressive effect and soil pressure and will not be damaged during shrinkage of the concrete structure

Pool treated outside the bitumen-polymer composition
external walls of the basin Processing lubricative waterproofing creates seamless elastic layer moisture protection. The shape of the surface can be any

Waterproofing inner surface of the bowl

Work to protect the inner surface from the effects of water should be carried out carefully. Errors in waterproofing give rise to leakage and / or dampness concrete, which can not even notice. As a result, the material is destroyed, mold appears. Repair work in the end are very expensive.

Therefore, internal waterproofing is better not to save. To improve efficiency using several different methods. The protective coating of the bowl must meet the following requirements:

  • absolute moisture resistance;
  • elasticity simultaneously with strength;
  • ability to withstand hydrostatic and dynamic loads;
  • good adhesion to the surface;
  • resistance to biodegradation by microorganisms, and aggressive water contained therein antimicrobial additives (chlorinated drugs);

The material for waterproofing the inside of the pools must be environmentally safe and stable to UV light and temperature changes.

Such requirements are met the following types of waterproofing:

  1. Liquid rubber and polymeric compositions, water-based;
  2. deep penetration of materials;
  3. Protection of polymeric membranes.

You can use a combination of the three funds immediately, or be limited to two.

Tiling and mosaic pool
Finishing with tiles or mosaics aesthetically pleasing and can turn a simple pool into a work of art. This durable finish that can last for several decades. For protecting the concrete structure against possible water penetration through the seams need reliable waterproofing liner layer

Do not lose relevance and facing surfaces of ceramic tiles or mosaics reservoir cup. Such a coating is durable - it is resistant to any exposed, well washed and safely withstand water pressure.

The individual elements are totally waterproof. Hazards include seams. Even the use of water-resistant grout does not guarantee against the ingress of liquid.

Therefore, before the veneer surface is treated necessarily moisture barrier means. The combination composition penetrating daubed with mastic is the most effective waterproofing the pool, applied under the tile.

How to make your own waterproofing

The simplest and most effective method for self-pool waterproofing coating is penetrating, and then lubricative viscous compositions. However, the coating to be a reliable technology must be observed.

Ambient air during processing must not be below + 5 ° C. In hot weather, solar coating mastic shade sections or work in the morning and evening.

Mastic before applying the required mix thoroughly. For this purpose, ribbon mixer to avoid air entrainment in obmazochnuyu mixture.

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Partially ruined basin bowl
Step 1: In order to restore the technical characteristics of the basin will need a group of assets and complex works of repair, waterproofing, finishing,
Repair weak spots in the concrete
Step 2: The first step is carried out grouting of cracks in the concrete and repair them as well as all the problem areas in the concrete monolith
Priming on concrete
Step 3: After waiting for solidification repair compositions of the cup removed debris, and vacuumed applied primer
Processing and increased adjacencies
Step 4: In affected greatest pressure and the pool bottom line adjacency superimposed elastic synthetic polymer mesh and insulating composition
Processing of polymer waterproofing
Step 5: After polymerization, the partially applied waterproofing material they covered the entire inner surface of the basin
Application of a mixture based on cement
Step 6: top containment superimposed polymeric waterproofing material created based on cement
Staining walls, steps and bottom
Step 7: After applying the cement mixture to be next technological break, after which the repaired surface is coated and insulated emulsion paint
Filling the pool water
Step 8: After the specified period of paint manufacturer collect water pool. The first set decided to merge, although the means manufacturers are convinced that this is optional
Partially ruined basin bowl
Partially ruined basin bowl
Repair weak spots in the concrete
Repair weak spots in the concrete
Priming on concrete
Priming on concrete
Processing and increased adjacencies
Processing and increased adjacencies
Processing of polymer waterproofing
Processing of polymer waterproofing
Application of a mixture based on cement
Application of a mixture based on cement
Staining walls, steps and bottom
Staining walls, steps and bottom
Filling the pool water
Filling the pool water

Stages of waterproofing works:

  1. The concrete substrate is cleaned. Chipped, cracked conch and expand and obscure. The surfaces of the walls and bottom are aligned.
  2. The well moistened base coated insulation layer permeation. Seams, cracks, communications entry jobs are handled with special care. Waiting for drying.
  3. Surface is degreased using a weak acid solution, which is left for an hour. Then it is rinsed with water and neutralized residues 4-5% solution of soda ash.
  4. Completely dried treated with a base.
  5. Depositing a first layer of mastic 2-3 mm thick. Vertical surfaces are treated with a roller or brush. Horizontal - self-leveling method with subsequent distribution spiked roller to help remove air bubbles from the mass.
  6. Utaplivajut in slightly stiffen the waterproofing layer reinforced fiberglass mesh and are complete polymerization (hardening) of the composition.
  7. Apply second coat of mastic, the thickness of which may range from 1 to 3 mm.

Dry waterproofing layer should be at least 3 days, at the contact surfaces with water - 14-15 days. At this time, you can not step on the treated surface and walk on them.

To eliminate uneven drying to form a strong and flexible membrane applied coating during the polymerization periodically moistened with water and harboring film.

Waterproofing the pool of coating compositions
Bitumen-polymer mixture forms a seamless waterproof coating uniformly lining the entire inner surface of the pool. Such a tank is ready for finishing any type

It can be carried out both internal and external waterproofing the pool on this technology. Prepared in this way the surface is ready for finishing. You can oblitsevat tile pool okleit PVC film, or a color liquid rubber cover.

Useful videos on the topic

How to apply penetrating waterproofing. EXAMPLE surface preparation and treatment basin Vandex materials:

Waterproofing polymer membrane pool:

Moisture bowl with liquid rubber. Application by spraying allows to obtain an even layer of uniform thickness:

Whatever method waterproofing basin was held, check the reliability of the cover for leaks. For this container is filled with water and kept it for about 10-15 days. At this time, check around the pool area for leaks. And only in the absence of errors in the start to the finish of waterproofing finish.

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