Apparatus concrete the pool, despite the emergence of new structures is the most common form of execution in the construction of artificial stationary reservoirs.
However, this material has a property to absorb moisture which subsequently destroys the structure. Therefore, waterproofing of the pool - it's mandatory stage of the construction of such facilities.
The content of the article:
- Why seal the pool?
- Methods for moisture protection of concrete structures
- Penetrating waterproofing compounds
- Hydrophobic additives for concrete
- Liquid glass - an effective tool
- Liquid and viscous waterproofing
- Coating polymeric films
- Internal and external waterproofing basin
- Protection of groundwater reservoir
- Waterproofing inner surface of the bowl
- How to make your own waterproofing
- Useful videos on the topic
Why seal the pool?
Concrete - a material strong and durable, but it is characterized by high porosity. Leaked into the thickness of the material water is easily absorbed and retained for a long time, becoming a favorable environment for the development of mold.
When exposed to subzero temperatures such conductor wall becomes cold and the liquid freezing leads to cracking and mechanical failure of the structure.
Apparatus reliable waterproofing of inner surface of the pool is not in doubt because it is filled with water. However, the degradation can occur from the outside.
For concrete typical so-called "capillary leak" fluid when moisture is drawn from the environment - soil, humid air, in contact with precipitation. In this regard, the outer side of the pool is also necessarily subjected to waterproofing measures.
Often, basin walls erected from individual blocks. In this case, the danger is the connecting seams. Joining strength is markedly lower the strength of concrete slabs. Therefore, if such a location begins to seep water, under the action of pressure fluid weight material rapidly destroyed.
It appears first drip leakage, then a small leak that washes particles solution and is converted into a decent flow.
Methods for moisture protection of concrete structures
Waterproofing material may be surface, internal or combined. To ensure moisture protection of reinforced concrete structures or concrete blocks following means are used:
- Substances which penetrate into the material - even clog microscopic cracks working on a capillary level;
- Dopants introduced into the sand-cement mixture, - increase the hydrophobicity of the concrete;
- Liquid glass - a composition which after curing forms a solid layer on the liquid-impermeable surface;
- Liquid and viscous formulations - called liquid surface waterproofing rubber and forming a solid elastic membrane;
- Roll film coating affixed to the surface of the concrete.
Each tool has its own characteristics, which define the scope and application method.
Penetrating waterproofing compounds
Penetrating material is a cement-sand mixture with active chemical additives. Diluted with water and applied to the well moistened surface.
The active substance in the presence of water start to react with the particles of the concrete mix - free lime. As a result, the insoluble crystals are formed and calcium hydrosilicates hydroaluminates.
Thus compacted concrete deep - waterproofing of active components by capillary suction penetrate even into tiny cracks. Formed in moisture barrier. When all the water molecules are reacted, crystal formation process is stopped. Resumption of liquid contact starts it again, causing even greater consolidation and waterproofing.
The thickness of the formed layer can reach 10-20 cm. Protection is not afraid to mechanical damage, improves frost resistance of concrete and durability of the entire structure. However, 100% protection from moisture in contact with a liquid penetrating waterproofing does not. Therefore, it is used as a pretreatment prior to application of the main protective layer.
Hydrophobic additives for concrete
The operating principle of waterproofing additives same as that of the penetrating compounds. Only in this case not only protects the surface layer - the entire array becomes a hydrophobic material.
calcium hydroxide, or free lime in a conventional concrete eventually washed away, leaving a large number of microscopic capillaries and cavities. Added to the mixture of active additives have to pour concrete step reacted with calcium hydroxide and water molecules. Expanding in solution, they fill the resulting microcavities and pores.
Cast concrete structure or individual blocks acquire properties stone monolith. With further exposure to water surface structure further compacted. The construction of this concrete is not only the water resistance - high characteristic for him strength, frost and heat resistance, resistance to aggressive chemical compounds environment.
Additives not only contribute to filling of micropores - larger cavity lined with a layer of insoluble crystals. Due to this reduced maximum surface wettability and capillary effect is removed retraction.
However, in addition to the positive properties of such a characteristic it has a drawback. The formation of water-resistant layer results in poor adhesion with adhesives and plaster. Therefore, before applying the finishing coating is required to carry out measures to improve the surface roughness of the material.
Liquid glass - an effective tool
Liquid glass - a solution of potassium silicate or sodium. The composition is a transparent liquid mass which during solidification forms a solid glass-like layer. The principle of operation of such a waterproofing solution based on the ability of spontaneous cure.
Due flowable texture, water glass fills the pores and crack the protected surface. Due to this being blocked entirely possible ways of passing the liquid. The composition imparts water resistance of the treated concrete surface and enhances its strength.
The composition is characterized by good adhesion and easy to apply - a roller, brush or by spraying. The treatment is carried out in two or three layers, with waiting full hardening the applied solution. Keep in mind that water glass is grasped very quickly. Therefore, for the work required some skill. This creates difficulties for self-sealing of the tank.
The solidified layer by properties similar to the glass - it is hard and quite brittle. For the surface treatment, constantly in contact with water, is used only as a basis for wrapping the polymer films.
Liquid and viscous waterproofing
Easy to apply and effective liquid funds are becoming more common. This compositions based on bitumen, latex, silicone polymers. They are applied to the surface of a conventional brush, spray or roller. Characterized by good adhesion with the surface. Fill microroughness, pores and cracks form a tight waterproof membrane.
Liquid insulators subdivided into aqueous emulsions and compositions based on organic solvents. The first is almost no smell, curing takes place only at the expense of polymerization processes.
Second during application and solidification emit toxic substances, it is therefore not recommended for smokers. After application, the solvent evaporates on the surface remains flexible hydrophobic base.
Funds often do not require pre-treatment. Applied in several layers. The result is a firm and elastic membrane, which has no joints and seams. Such waterproof barrier fears neither hammering or fluid pressure or shrinkage of a concrete structure and the appearance of a small crack. The film remains intact.
The following compositions are liquid and the surface waterproofing:
- bitumen. This is a traditional hydro - viscous organic compound deep black color. Apply a hot way that makes the fire technology. Furthermore the coating does not withstand the low temperatures and serves only 6-7 years.
- Bitumen-polymer. The composition does not require heating prior to application. Addition polymers makes the composition more elastic and cold-resistant. Increased adhesion to the treated surface. It is used outdoors or in ventilated areas.
- Bitumen-latex or liquid rubber. Latex is harmless and odorless, so the tool can be used for interior applications.
- Acrylic water-based solutions. Contain composed mineral fillers and pigments. It may be white or colored. These are used for finishing layer without requiring additional painting or cladding.
Colored plastic putty is often used alone, without any finish. In this case, to increase the durability and strength of the coating layer applied in the first mass utaplivajut fiberglass reinforcing mesh. Waiting for complete polymerization and coated with a second layer. Such a protective barrier can withstand even severe mechanical impact.
A disadvantage of nearly all these compositions - negative effect on the finished coating has ultraviolet, up to the loss of flexibility and cracking. Therefore outdoor pools is further coated with a protective agent.
Coating polymeric films
Coating the surface of concrete PVC film refers to the most economical process for waterproofing the pool. The film is finished membrane thickness of 1-1.5 mm, supplied in rolls. It is lightweight, resistant to chemical attack, completely waterproof material.
The membranes may be flat - for easy cleaning, and rough surface - to cover the bottom of the ladders and children pools. Reinforced with fiberglass mesh are more durable and last longer. Unreinforced cheaper, but their life is only 5-6 years. After that, the polymer film is required to be replaced.
concrete waterproofing polymeric membranes requires a professional approach, and execute it with their own hands is quite difficult. It requires pre-treatment of the surface penetrating waterproofing or water glass. Stack film should be at a layer of geotextile, in order to avoid the occurrence of condensation and membrane eliminate friction of the rough surface.
This should provide good adhesion to the film surface to prevent delamination. Welding of joints made with special equipment. The connection must be impermeable - slightest inaccuracy will result in the penetration of liquid under a waterproofing layer.
Internal and external waterproofing basin
Measures for moisture protection of structural elements of the tank should be carried out on both sides. Distinguish internal and external waterproofing of the pool. External waterproofing arranged for the protection of buildings against the ingress of groundwater. Inner - protects the structure against the effects that their weight presses on the cup surface.
The choice of methods depends on the waterproofing of the pool installation location - outdoors or indoors, humidity, altitude of the aquifer, the type of soil.
Protection of groundwater reservoir
Protect the pool from the penetration of ground water should be at a stage of construction - to the construction of the cup. Under construction arrange a sandy base, on which are placed overlapping fabric roofing or other dense waterproof material.
In close groundwater also require waterproofing screen apparatus of clay or loam thickness of not less than 30 cm.
For the hardening of concrete and increasing its hydrophobic properties in the sand-cement mixture is added special additives or water glass. However, this requires strict adherence to recipes and proportions. With self-construction of the pool it is quite difficult to do. At home, easy to handle ready-made design of the outside water glass or the penetrating waterproofing.
If the device pool in the house will be penetrating waterproofing protection against the infiltration of water from the pool. In this case, the concrete will begin to harden inside - towards the fluid movement without missing its outside and eliminating the flooding of the surrounding area pool.
In still bottoms (rock, poluskalnyh rocks, sands with low malovlazhnyh aquifers) penetrating treatment composition sufficient. But clay soils susceptible to frost heave and seasonal shifts. At such sites may cause microcracks in that moisture starts to retract. Surface treatment, particularly water glass, in this case not save.
Therefore, prior to the construction of a concrete bowl from the trench are removed unstable during cold soils. It is mandatory held vytorfovka and extraction of loess loam and sandy loam.
Durable water repellent surface waterproofing is provided by applying a liquid or rubber. Formed after polymerization solid film withstands aggressive effect and soil pressure and will not be damaged during shrinkage of the concrete structure
Waterproofing inner surface of the bowl
Work to protect the inner surface from the effects of water should be carried out carefully. Errors in waterproofing give rise to leakage and / or dampness concrete, which can not even notice. As a result, the material is destroyed, mold appears. Repair work in the end are very expensive.
Therefore, internal waterproofing is better not to save. To improve efficiency using several different methods. The protective coating of the bowl must meet the following requirements:
- absolute moisture resistance;
- elasticity simultaneously with strength;
- ability to withstand hydrostatic and dynamic loads;
- good adhesion to the surface;
- resistance to biodegradation by microorganisms, and aggressive water contained therein antimicrobial additives (chlorinated drugs);
The material for waterproofing the inside of the pools must be environmentally safe and stable to UV light and temperature changes.
Such requirements are met the following types of waterproofing:
- Liquid rubber and polymeric compositions, water-based;
- deep penetration of materials;
- Protection of polymeric membranes.
You can use a combination of the three funds immediately, or be limited to two.
Do not lose relevance and facing surfaces of ceramic tiles or mosaics reservoir cup. Such a coating is durable - it is resistant to any exposed, well washed and safely withstand water pressure.
The individual elements are totally waterproof. Hazards include seams. Even the use of water-resistant grout does not guarantee against the ingress of liquid.
Therefore, before the veneer surface is treated necessarily moisture barrier means. The combination composition penetrating daubed with mastic is the most effective waterproofing the pool, applied under the tile.
How to make your own waterproofing
The simplest and most effective method for self-pool waterproofing coating is penetrating, and then lubricative viscous compositions. However, the coating to be a reliable technology must be observed.
Ambient air during processing must not be below + 5 ° C. In hot weather, solar coating mastic shade sections or work in the morning and evening.
Mastic before applying the required mix thoroughly. For this purpose, ribbon mixer to avoid air entrainment in obmazochnuyu mixture.
Stages of waterproofing works:
- The concrete substrate is cleaned. Chipped, cracked conch and expand and obscure. The surfaces of the walls and bottom are aligned.
- The well moistened base coated insulation layer permeation. Seams, cracks, communications entry jobs are handled with special care. Waiting for drying.
- Surface is degreased using a weak acid solution, which is left for an hour. Then it is rinsed with water and neutralized residues 4-5% solution of soda ash.
- Completely dried treated with a base.
- Depositing a first layer of mastic 2-3 mm thick. Vertical surfaces are treated with a roller or brush. Horizontal - self-leveling method with subsequent distribution spiked roller to help remove air bubbles from the mass.
- Utaplivajut in slightly stiffen the waterproofing layer reinforced fiberglass mesh and are complete polymerization (hardening) of the composition.
- Apply second coat of mastic, the thickness of which may range from 1 to 3 mm.
Dry waterproofing layer should be at least 3 days, at the contact surfaces with water - 14-15 days. At this time, you can not step on the treated surface and walk on them.
To eliminate uneven drying to form a strong and flexible membrane applied coating during the polymerization periodically moistened with water and harboring film.
It can be carried out both internal and external waterproofing the pool on this technology. Prepared in this way the surface is ready for finishing. You can oblitsevat tile pool okleit PVC film, or a color liquid rubber cover.
Useful videos on the topic
How to apply penetrating waterproofing. EXAMPLE surface preparation and treatment basin Vandex materials:
Waterproofing polymer membrane pool:
Moisture bowl with liquid rubber. Application by spraying allows to obtain an even layer of uniform thickness:
Whatever method waterproofing basin was held, check the reliability of the cover for leaks. For this container is filled with water and kept it for about 10-15 days. At this time, check around the pool area for leaks. And only in the absence of errors in the start to the finish of waterproofing finish.