The content of the article:
Fruit garden requires all-season care, and it is better if it is prevention, than treatment of diseases and destruction of pests. Especially annoy the gardener of pear and apple disease. Summer 6 hectare are breeding grounds for many diseases. It is necessary to bind the leaves to the trees of neighbors, in a week all gardening discusses the attack. Only the general struggle against diseases and pests will save the harvest of sweet, expiring juice, pears.
Problems arising in the cultivation of pears
What illnesses lie in wait for a pear garden and how to fight them:
- weather cataclysms that weaken the tree;
- fungal diseases of the crown and fetuses;
- bacterial and fungal diseases of trunks and root system;
- viral diseases;
- insect pests.
Rarely, when the disease to the pear comes alone. On the weakened tree, the plague is poured into the complex. Agrotechnical measures for caring for the garden can eliminate many causes that cause disease.
Why do you need to harvest plant remains in the fall and spring? To winter in the leaves of disease and pests were destroyed. Why do they bleach tree trunks? To protect the bark from sunburn. The cracks are cleaned and covered with garden so that no fungal spores penetrate into the wood, insects do not multiply there. Timely top dressing, spraying with fungicides - and pear diseases do not threaten. The garden will be blooming with flowers, beautiful foliage, gifted with honey fruits.
Signs and treatment of the most common pear diseases
An unpleasant surprise is the appearance of a scab in the garden. It affects many fruit trees, but each plant has its own fungus - Fusicladium pirinum develops on the pear, hitting the entire green growth. If on the pear the leaf diseases are seen, as in the photo, the treatment is started immediately. After the leaves the unpleasant scabs will cover the fruit, crack and rot.
Treatment consists in the immediate removal of affected shoots. The whole tree is treated three times with 1% solution of copper fungicide. During budding, after flowering, and again after 2 weeks. If the garden is heavily infected with the pear scab, the control measures include processing the stump circle. In autumn, after harvesting, and harvesting of plant residues, the earth around the fruit tree should be moistened with 10% strength ammonium nitrate. Do not spray on the barrel!
Another formidable disease of gardens is brought from infected trees by insects, wind. The fungus Erwinia amylovora is only waiting for the spores to fall on the feet of insects. An indication is the appearance of black or brown leaves in the crown. This is a bacterial burn of a pear, the treatment of which should be started immediately. The fungus penetrates into the interior, passes the cambium and can destroy the tree. Therefore, first you need to cut out all the lesions to a healthy tissue. In doing so, do not forget to disinfect the knife after each cut. If the most part of branches is hit, the tree is better for uprooting to save from neighbors' infection.
Spraying is carried out with fungicides at a concentration of 1% copper% iron sulfate or antibiotics rifampicin, gentamicin and the like.
What should I do if the leaves of a pear turn black under the touch of a black mushroom? Initially, the fungus settles on the sheets affected by aphids, on its sweet secretions. But the pear itself is attractive to the mushroom. It is not implemented only in the grade Cathedral. Very soon the area of defeat captures the entire crown, depriving the tree of photosynthesis. It is necessary to dilute the soap solution,% copper sulphate or chloroxys. On a bucket of a solution, you need to adjust and bring to a homogeneous state 150 g of soap.
Every time, because of the pear's disease, the leaves and fruits turn black, you need to find the cause of the ailment and fight it.
Rust is not less damage to the garden, which can not be confused with other lesions. Orange spots are affected not only by the leaves, but also by the fruits. The fungus infects the plant at the beginning of the summer, and by autumn on the back side of the leaves ripen spores in the papillae. The tree loses vitality. Fighting the scourge is to remove the affected parts, treatment with fungicides, ash infusions, urea. A mushroom grows on coniferous trees, and then goes to the orchard.
No less harm can cause trees disease cytospores pears. Cytosporosis is caused by the causative agent of Cytospora leucostoma disease, a fungal disease. But the pathogen is introduced into the damaged bark of the tree. The root cause may be sunburn or frostbite. At the same time the bark dries up, exfoliates, gets red-brown color.
Powdery mildew first forms a coating, the leaves are as if sprinkled with flour. Then the leaves reddish, fold along the middle strip and wither. Follow the need for young plants, while they have a delicate leaf blade. Eradicate the fungus by treatment with penicillin and tetracycline antibiotics. Well helps spraying fresh, "from under the tail" mullein, and a solution of soda ash with liquid soap.
The pear diseases described with the photo, and their treatment are diverse, but they all lead to death or a significant decrease in yield, to unsavory fruits.
There are certain patterns for the emergence of fungal diseases. They are introduced into the damp warm weather, or at times of sudden temperature changes.
The appearance of abundant dew is the time when one should be especially vigilant. In the thickened tree crown, where moisture is retained for a long time, the mycelium of the fungus feels comfortable. In order not to understand why the leaves are black at the pear, how to heal, what to treat, it is necessary to lead the garden correctly.
But pear wood, its bark, roots are the abode of the diseases of another group.
Root cancer, a bacterial disease spread by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. On the site appears with infected planting material. In the earth there are several years. Detect the rudiments of the disease can be by careful examination of the root system of planting material. It is necessary to remove questionable places before planting, disinfect the roots in copper sulfate.
Pear can become infected with black cancers when the trunk begins to crack and develop bright-brown discharge. The causes of cracking of the bark are many, even too deep landing. But every crack is the gate for infectious and fungal diseases. And the struggle for the life of the tree does not know rest.
Many hunters eat the leaves and fruits of the pear in the world of insects and arthropods. The gardener is obliged to carry out preventive treatment of the pear during the mass invasion of pests. But quietly, gradually, imperceptibly into the green cover are introduced arthropods - mites. For pears, the most terrible pest is a pear or gall mite.
A tiny creature up to 1 mm in size, having 4 legs, falls into a garden with wind, or on clothes and shoes, create colonies. The horticulturist can occupy the pest, making plantings with plants populated with mites.
If there are swellings on the sheet, then this colony of mites began to multiply. Vesicles are called galls, they are obtained by changing the leaf cells under the action of poison. The pest sucks the juice from the leaf cells, the tissue dies off, the leaf turns black and discarded.
Measures to control the gall mite on the pear consist of:
- in the systematic harvesting of fallen leaves with colonies of arachnid insects;
- planting varieties that are resistant to pest infestation;
- digging in the fall trunks in the fall.
Chemical treatment against the gall mite is the use of sulfuric and phosphate preparations. Of ready-made insecticides, Vertimek is suitable. All of these drugs are hazardous to health, and they need to be used in protective equipment.
You can not leave mummified leaves in the trees in winter - it hibernates the offspring of hawthorn. The butterfly, resembling cabbage, with a favorable winter leaves bare not only the pear trees, but also hawthorn, bird cherry, apple tree.
Pear sawmill, an insect up to 6 mm in size, is waiting for the opening of flower buds, in order to lay one egg in each flower. The caterpillar damages 4 fetuses during development. Control measures - digging, destruction of spider cocoons, which housed the future offspring.
It is impossible to list all pest pears in one article. But the implementation of preventive measures will help get rid of many problems.