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To obtain a good harvest, planting cucumbers in the open ground is carried out on a sunny area protected from the northern winds. On the perimeter of the selected allotment, fast-growing tall plants (beans, sunflowers or potatoes) should be planted to help create a microclimate favorable for cucumbers.
Depending on the region, a cucumber culture is planted in the spring, when the soil warms up sufficiently. Cucumbers can be planted with seedlings or sowing seeds.
Competent soil cultivation
For cultivation of cucumbers in the open ground a site is prepared in the autumn. To do this, the soil needs to be digested and fertilized. To decontaminate the soil and destroy pathogens, it is necessary to treat the soil with a solution of copper sulfate and add a portion of superphosphate and ash.
For the successful cultivation of cucumbers, "warm" ridges with an internal organic "pillow 20-25 cm high, are suitable. Organic will help provide vegetables with essential trace elements and protect the root system from freezing.
Planting cucumber seedlings in the open ground will give a good harvest in the middle and northern latitudes, and in the southern regions with early spring vegetables can be sown in the soil.
Features of sowing seeds in the open ground
Experienced farmers recommend sowing seeds in 2-3 sessions in order to insure seedlings from unexpected recurrent frosts and prolong fruiting. Planting cucumbers into the open ground with seeds is carried out from the middle of spring to the beginning of summer. It is important not to miss the moment, because as the summer heat adversely affects the development of the plant.
Selection of seed material
Seeds can be purchased in specialized places or collected independently. The period of their storage must be at least two years, so that the shoots are strong and friendly.
Seeds of cucumbers for sowing should be of high quality. To identify the unfit material, it should be placed in a container with warm water. Substandard seeds will float to the surface. Seeded on the bottom of the seeds of cucumbers, after pre-treatment can be used for sowing. To obtain earlier shoots, the inoculum is germinated by placing it in moist sawdust, peat or cloth. In germination, weak seeds are additionally discarded.
Preparation of seeds for sowing
The preparation of the seed material involves several steps:
- The selected seeds are placed for several minutes in a manganese solution.
- Dry and heat for about two hours at a temperature of 60 degrees. This accelerates the onset of fruiting.
- Place on a half an hour in an aqueous solution with manganese sulfate, potassium nitrate and superphosphate.
- Dry again and sow.
If the package does not contain data on the purpose of the vegetables, you should look at the photo: cucumbers suitable for canning are covered with dark pimples, and those that are consumed in fresh form are white.
Planting seeds of cucumbers in the open ground is necessary when the warm weather is established and the soil warms up sufficiently. If there is still a threat of frost, it is recommended to cover the crops with a film.
Rules for sowing seeds in unprotected soils
On the prepared ridges, the planting holes are formed and spilled with water. In them, lay out the seed material, deepening by 2 cm, with an interval of 8-10 cm, sprinkled on top with a humus mixture or earth with the addition of sawdust. At 10 square meters on average, 50 grams of seeds are needed. If the quality of the seed is not credible, 2-4 seeds can be placed in one well.
Peculiarities of seedling method
You can grow cucumber seedlings in a warm, well-lit room. Planting tanks are filled with a substrate from a mixture of peat and sawdust with the addition of ammonium nitrate and watered.
Seeds are deepened into the substrate by 1 cm and are buried. Capacities are closed with polyethylene before the first shoots. As the seedlings grow, care should be taken to ensure that the soil is constantly moistened. Before planting cucumbers in the open ground, seedlings need to be hardened for a week, gradually accustoming to fresh air.
Rules of landing
The day before the landing, the seedlings should be well shed. The procedure is carried out in clear warm weather. Planting seedlings of cucumbers in the open ground is carried out with an interval of 10-15 cm, so that the plants do not interfere with each other. The roots deepen only the roots, otherwise there is a risk of root rot disease.
Cultivation of a cucumber culture involves the observance of a number of rules, which consist of irrigation, fertilization, loosening and hilling, protection from diseases and pests.
After planting cucumbers in the open ground, they need careful care, because the plants are not yet accustomed to the new conditions and are vulnerable:
- As the seedlings grow, the soil must be regularly released from weed grass. To facilitate the task of beds, you can mulch, using sawdust or straw.
- Irrigation. Cucumbers are very hygrophilous, so require regular watering. With a lack of moisture, the taste quality of vegetables is lost, and bitterness appears. The leaves begin to darken and fall off. Water cucumbers need in the morning or evening hours, when there is no active sun. The regularity of irrigation depends on weather conditions, but it should be conducted at least once a week, and during the fruiting period, watering increases.
- Formation of bushes. After the formation of the seventh leaf, it is recommended to prick the main shoot. This promotes the growth of the lateral stems and strengthen the roots.
- Loosening. The procedure should be carried out after each watering, but it must be done very carefully, raising the whip. Young seedlings are loosened to a depth of 2-3 cm every other day, and more mature plants - once a week.
- Hilling is carried out several times during the season. The procedure promotes the growth of new roots and serves as the prevention of fungi.
- Application of fertilizers. Optimal 3-4 fertilizing in the season with complex fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The first fertilizing is carried out with the appearance of a pair of leaves, the second - during the setting of fruits, and the third and subsequent - during fruiting.
Apply fertilizer carefully, so as not to scorch the leaves. The procedure is carried out in warm clear weather, otherwise nutrients are not fully absorbed by the root system.
Protection against diseases
Cucumber culture has many enemies. But the most common and dangerous disease is kladosporiosis. The causative agent of the disease are fungi, which activate their activity in the case of sudden changes in temperature and high humidity. On the bushes and young cucumbers, black spots with sulfur are formed. Fruits curl and stop growing.
For treatment, use drugs with benzimidazole, in the form of a solution for spraying.
Cucumbers can also infect powdery mildew. This fungal disease, which manifests itself in the appearance of white plaque on the foliage. The disease is rapidly spreading and the plant is dying.
For treatment, use sulfur-containing and fugnitsidnye drugs, remove weeds and damaged parts of the plant.
A good harvest of cucumbers directly depends on quality care and proper planting. Detailed tips for planting cucumbers in the open ground can be viewed on video.
Harvest is needed in the morning or in the evening, and to keep the vegetables elastic, they should be covered with a tarpaulin or placed in a cool shaded place. If you comply with all the rules of agricultural technology and choose the right crop, the crops will be stable and rich.