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Most of our compatriots grow white cabbage on their dachas or household plots, some cultivate color and red. But other kinds of cabbage are a real storehouse of useful substances. At the same time they have high taste qualities. Popular cabbage varieties with photos and descriptions are of interest to many gardeners, since this valuable food is an integral part of our diet.
Species of cabbage
Under the term "cabbage" botanists understand the genus of the family of plants of the Cabbage family, which are also called cruciferous. It includes such crops as mustard, rutabaga, turnips, and, in fact, different types of cabbage. To date, there are about 50 types of cabbage plants. Most of them grow in the basin of the Mediterranean Sea, in Central Europe and Asia. In America only those cabbages that were brought from Europe and Asia are cultivated.
To this genus belong various one two- and perennial grasses. They are characterized by lobed or pinnately-separated leaves. People learned to cultivate cabbage thousands of years ago. This vegetable is rich in cellulose, carotene, glucose, vitamins, microelements. Cabbage can be eaten raw, boiled, sauerkraut, fried. Some kinds of cabbage are perfectly preserved until the new harvest.
Almost all cabbages prefer fertile soils, good lighting and humidity. They can be grown through seedlings or sowing in open ground.
The most popular types of cabbage that can be grown in the country:
- the Savoy;
- cabbage Calais.
Depending on the organs of the plant, consumed in food, the following types of cabbage are distinguished:
- leaf (Peking, Chinese, Kale), in which leaves are eaten;
- cabbage (white, red, Savoy), which is an overgrown apical buds;
- colored and broccoli, whose heads are highly branched flowering shoots;
- Brussels, which uses for food kochanchiki, growing in the axils of the leaves;
- kohlrabi, in which the thickened stem is edible.
The best varieties of cabbage yield a very high yield, while observing the rules of agricultural technology of this crop. Different types of cabbage with photos that grow beautifully in the country are presented below.
The most popular in our latitudes is the vegetable cabbage, which is often called white-headed cabbage. It has been cultivated in our country for hundreds of years. It is rich in vitamins (C, B), minerals (calcium, sulfur, potassium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, zinc), protein. It can be used in any form. Grow even white cabbage beginner summer resident. Most often it is grown through seedlings.
The most popular varieties of early cabbage: Transfer F1, Kazachok, Samur F1, June, Stakhanovka 1513, Express F1, Arctic Circle F1, Golden hectare, Dietmar Early. The most productive varieties of late cabbage: Moscow late 9, Amager, Winter Gribovskaya 13, Moscow later 15, Morozka, Arctic F1, Garant F1.
This kind of cabbage is valued for its miniature kochanchiki, 4-5 cm in diameter, having an excellent taste. It is suitable for soups, stewing, preserving. This dietary product is characterized by the presence of a large number of substances useful to humans. The cabbage cabbage has a pleasant nutty taste.
During sowing in April, Brussels sprouts ripen in October.
This type of cabbage is most often used for making fresh salads and marinating, because with long heat treatment it changes its remarkable color. Its leaves are harder than the leaves of cabbage. They have a red-violet color. Its advantage is a greater amount of protein, vitamin C, minerals, pantheic acid, cyanine, iodine.
Isolate early, middle and late varieties of red cabbage. Already in June, you can gently cut large leaves into a salad, without waiting for the ripening of the head.
To this variety of cabbage, many summer residents are biased, as it is most often used for extinguishing, salads, fried in batter and marinating. However, many of its varieties are not designed for long-term storage. In cauliflower, there are more vitamins and proteins than in white cabbage, which it surpasses in nutrition. There are varieties of white, red, yellow and purple. The head of cauliflower has a rich taste and a fleshy texture.
To keep the heads of cabbage white, they are covered with leaves from the sun.
This kind of cabbage remotely resembles a colored cabbage, but it has dark green inflorescences. Recently, varieties with a violet color appeared. The taste of the broccoli heads is like cauliflower, but it is much more tender and piquant. This low-calorie vegetable is a dietary product. In addition to vitamins, protein, minerals, it contains folic acid, methionine and antioxidants. It is boiled, cooked for a couple.
This type of cabbage is unpretentious. Broccoli withstands frosts to -7 ° C. This cabbage does not need shading heads. It normally grows on almost any soil Broccoli during the growth of heads requires abundant watering. Inflorescences must be cut off in time so that they do not blossom.
Unfortunately, this kind of cabbage is undeservedly overlooked by summer residents. This vegetable does not eat leaves or inflorescences, but a thickened stem (stalk). It is eaten raw, stewed, boiled, fried, stuffed and baked. It tastes like a turnip with a sweet taste. Kolrabi is famous for its rich chemical composition. It has more vitamin C than citrus fruits. This vegetable is recommended for diabetics.
This cabbage is notable for its unpretentiousness. It can be sown directly into the open ground. In this case, it ripens after 2, a month. Kohlrabi must be cleaned in time, so that in the stalk did not have coarse vegetable fibers. This vegetable in good conditions can be stored for a long time.
This kind of cabbage is distinguished by curly leaves. It contains more nutrients than white cabbage. Its leaves are more delicate and tastier. They are great for diet food. They are used for the preparation of salads and cabbage rolls.
Savoy cabbage is grown in the same way as white cabbage. It is resistant to high temperatures, lack of moisture and pest damage.
Peking cabbage is at the same time like leaf lettuce and cabbage. Its loose, elongated heads are distinguished by tender and juicy leaves. She very quickly ripens (2, months). Use it for cooking salads and kim chi.
Sow the cabbage seeds directly into the open ground, as it does not tolerate the transplant. They sow it in April-May. This cabbage should be carefully protected from pests such as slugs, as they can completely destroy all the planting of Peking cabbage.
Chinese cabbage began to grow in dachas only recently. This leafy cabbage does not have a head. By its composition, it is very close to white cabbage.
This kind of cabbage is a novice in our cottages. It is cultivated, both as an edible vegetable, and as an ornamental plant. This cabbage contains a lot of useful substances and has a very decorative appearance. She has beautiful carved leaves.
Features of agricultural technology
Cabbage can not be grown in one place for more than two years. After it, the sites are sown with cucumbers, beets, potatoes. Seeds of all cabbage sprout at 2-3 ° C. Young plants normally tolerate frosts up to 5-7 ° C. The best cabbage grows at 13-18 ° C. At high temperatures, these plants can quickly stretch to form a long stump. All vegetables of this kind love well-moistened soils.
The length of the vegetation period of different types of cabbage is different:
- Headed - 100-170 days (depending on the variety);
- colored and broccoli - 80-180 days (depending on the variety);
- Brussels - 150-160 days;
- kohlrabi - 70-80 days.
Cauliflower and broccoli are not so whimsical to the soil as other types of this vegetable. They can be grown on clay and sandy soils. Cabbage varieties are selected depending on the climate. In the northern latitudes, early and medium varieties are most often cultivated, and in the southern latitudes, later varieties are cultivated.
The following pests may spoil the crop of cabbage:
Special pesticide preparations are used for pest control. Among folk remedies, especially popular are the watering of plants with a solution of wood ash or decoction of onion husks. Different types of cabbage allow growing a rich harvest of very tasty and healthy vegetables at the dacha.