Drilling a well in the area is a large-scale task. The services of a professional team are not affordable for any homeowner, but hiring “handicraftsmen” is, in most cases, only throwing money away.
It is easier to do all the work yourself: you work diligently for yourself and costs less. In addition, if a drilling rig is made by hand, the costs will seem literally ridiculous compared to the actual prices of drilling.
We will tell you how to make a machine for manually driving water intake at the site. The information provided by us is based on the practical experience of independent drillers. For completeness of perception of a difficult topic, the proposed information is supplemented with useful schemes, photo clips, and video.
The content of the article:
- What is the best way to drill a well?
- Production of the shock and cable drilling rig
- Construction of auger drilling machine
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What is the best way to drill a well?
Beginner drillers need to be patient and get ready to do not the easiest job.
You will need tools and inexpensive materials for the manufacture of the installation and the drill, as well as common sense and a couple of friends to help.
A photo of
A homemade drilling rig, like its factory counterpart, is necessary to carry out the delivery of the drill to the bottom and to extract the drilled rock
The typical structure of the rig includes a stable structure that can hold the weight of the tool with the ground at a depth. At the top of the structure there is a block with a cable thrown over it.
To the cable through the earrings are connected drill bits. The cable itself is wound on a winch, which is controlled by either an electric motor or a manual winch
The material for the manufacture of the drilling machine or tower often serve as lumber. Owners of welding machines build installations of metal
Most often, the drilling tower is made in the form of a tripod, which is explained by the simplicity and stability of the structure.
Besides the almost traditional tripod, a truncated pyramid or boom configuration with strong supports is used.
The self-propelled drilling rig will facilitate the work during the shock-cable drilling. Shells at the same time throw to the bottom and removed with a cable and a winch
The drilling machine will provide the easiest lifting of the core tube and auger drill with the drilled rock
Purpose of the drilling rig
The main elements of the tower
Devices for coiling cable
Frame making material
The most common form - tripod
Drilling in the form of a retractable boom with supports
Projectiles for percussion wire drilling
Use at auger and core drilling
Drilling wells is a work akin to art, because the result is unpredictable, and each structure is unique. The task is to make a long and narrow shaft in the ground to the aquifer and lower the casing into it to strengthen the walls of the mine.
The process will have to extract a lot of soil, and this soil can be very different: from pieces of granite to sand mixed with water.
Much depends on the depth of the aquifer. Sometimes you need to walk less than 10 meters, and sometimes water bearing well reaches several tens or even hundreds of meters. All this affects the drilling methods and its timing. To arrange a well, there are two main ways: shock-cable and rotational, in modern interpretation of the screw.
Self-made drilling machines for manual drilling are constructed according to a single scheme. The rig is performed as a tripod.
In the first case drilling is in progress using a narrow and heavy projectile, called zhelonkoy. It is suspended on a rope or cable, which is thrown over a block attached to a tripod. To pull the drill out of the mine using a winch with a motor, although if desired it can be done manually.
The shell is dropped several times to the bottom of the mine from a height of several meters. It loosens the soil, part of which falls into the cavity of the zhelonka. After deepening into the ground by about 0.5 m, the auger is removed from the trunk. The shell is cleared and again thrown into the mine. The process is repeated until it reaches the water.
Shock-rope method is very old, it has been used for centuries, if not millennia. It is relatively easy to make the bowl, you will need sheet steel 4-5 mm thick or thick-walled tube Ø 110-120 mm, as well as skills in working with the welding machine. And it is possible even to work as a small bowl alone, although with an assistant it will go much faster.
The benefits of percussion drilling are not only in its availability. The shell is reliable, it passes almost any soil except rocks. If you need to overcome a layer of sandy loam or loam, the shell is replaced with the appropriate size glass - a narrow cylinder without a valve at the bottom.
The shell is used to lift all types of non-cohesive soils: sand, rubble, gravel and pebble deposits. It is used to clean the bottom of the well and during the operation of production to remove sludge deposits
The glass effectively destroys the clay rocks, which, due to their own ability to compact and stick to the walls, are held in its cavity. In manual rock drill drilling, the slug and beaker alternate as needed.
As soon as the passage of the sap sink is reduced, it means that she met the roof of loam or sandy loam, which is why she was changed for a glass. As soon as the soil destroyed in the well ceases to linger in the cavity of the well, it is exchanged for a shelf.
In one “session” you can deepen the mine by a meter, although more often this indicator is more modest, about 20-40 cm. This lack of shock-rope method - a long time. On clay plastic soils it is more efficient to use auger or otherwise serpentine drill.
In manual drilling, it is often necessary to combine shock-cable methods with rotational ones, therefore it is better to stock up on the minimum set of projectiles shown in the diagram.
The working tool of a screw installation is a column of rods with a drill at the lower end. The tool is literally screwed into the ground, which is partially held on its blades.
Periodically, the auger together with the loosened soil is removed to the day surface, and the face with the collapsed heap is cleaned with a scaffold. Then again bored with auger, penetrating deeper into the earth with each turn.
Rods gradually increase with the deepening of the mine. First, the length of the drill string is increased by mounting one rod. When its upper part is almost aligned with the wellhead, attach the second, then the third, etc.
The drill can be rotated manually or with the help of an electric motor rotor. To keep the rod in the correct vertical position, in industrial mobile drilling rigs a vertical frame fixed on the frame is used. By this principle, you can make your own machine.
The diagram shows a variant of a self-made drilling rig, as well as the result: a relatively compact device for drilling wells
Simultaneously with the deepening, the wellbore is cased, i.e. a pipe is installed in the drilled production, the diameter of which is 1-2 cm larger than the similar size of the projectile. The links of the casing are connected in a single structure by screwing or welding.
If a large amount of water is supplied to a cased well under pressure, the bottom can be cleaned without using the zhelonka. This method is successfully used by professional teams. Water blurs loosened soil and washes it to the surface.
The drilling fluid accelerates the work several times, but everything around will be flooded with mud and mud. Yes, and stony soils in this way will not pass. All this must be considered even before proceeding to the manufacture of its own drilling rig. In addition, you need to decide on your goals and objectives.
If you need a unit for the construction of only one or two wells, you can not particularly care about the accuracy of execution. But a solid and durable drilling rig can be a significant reason to start your own drilling business.
You will find detailed information on how to drill water wells in one of popular articles our site.
Production of the shock and cable drilling rig
A tripod with a yellowbone is a simple construction, like all brilliant. Its size can be estimated “by eye”, especially accurate engineering calculations are not needed here. For example, the height of the tripod, on which the shell will be fixed, should be about a meter more than this drill.
If a drilling operations held in the basement of the house, the size of the structure will be limited by the height of the ceiling.
Shot drilling is carried out with the help of a heavy projectile - zhelonka. It is thrown down from a height, the ground collapses and fills the cavity inside the yolk, after which the device is removed and cleaned.
In open space, the bowl can be hung up and higher to increase the impact force. But do not make it too high, it is not effective. The pit itself should be quite heavy. To effectively loosen the soil, on its sole it is better to make notches or grind off the sharp edge.
The optimum for drilling is the length of the projectile in the range of 1.8 - 2.2 meters, so that the driller can freely reach the top of the drill to fasten or detach the cable. However, in manual drilling, the best length of the yolk is considered to be 1.0 - 1.2 m. This size allows you to reach out to the bottom of the projectile with your hand if it is not emptied when sticking loam, for example.
In the shock-cable drilling is used the scab length of about 1.2 - 2.0 meters. The shell must be heavy enough to break the ground and pull it to the surface in large quantities.
They make the shell more often from a section of metal pipe, the desired thickness of the metal is 4-6 mm.
To make such a drilling device, you must perform the following operations:
- Prepare a pipe of suitable size.
- Make a valve at the bottom of the projectile.
- Weld on top of the protective mesh.
- Boil the handle or “ears” to secure the rope.
- Sharpen the lower part of the projectile or weld a few “teeth” from pieces of metal or from pieces of thick wire.
- Make a tripod of metal pipes.
- Install the unit, winch and engine to lift the projectile from the mine.
- Tie a rope to the sink and assemble the structure.
Valve zhelonki deserves special attention. In shells of small diameter a ball valve is used. A metal ball with a diameter of slightly more than half the diameter of the choke will be suitable for its role.
If there is no suitable ball, it can be made from scrap materials. For example, a mixture of lead shot and epoxy resin is often used for these purposes; some kind of children's plastic or rubber ball plays the role of a mold.
The flap valve of the zhelonka consists of a round piece of metal that closes the lumen at the bottom of the glass, as well as a spring that holds it in the closed state
Bottom weld washer with a hole whose diameter is smaller than the size of the ball, so that it does not fly out. For the same purpose, at the top, at some distance from the protective grid, they put a stopper - a piece of metal that limits the movement of the ball upwards. The wire grille does not allow large pieces of soil to fall out of the gut.
The ball of the valve should not fall below the level of pointed edges or metal teeth, otherwise it will dampen the force of impact. On the other hand, the “teeth” should not be made too long, otherwise they will not allow part of the soil to get inside the shell.
A window is cut out in the upper third of the body. It will be needed when the full sludge need to be cleaned from the ground inside.
For the manufacture of ball valves zhelonka need a metal ball with a diameter of about 60 mm. Such an element can be obtained from a large bearing.
Another valve variant is petal. It is made from a piece of metal. The flap valve looks like a round door mounted on a spring in the lower part of the shelf. When the projectile moves downward, the valve opens under the pressure of the soil, and then the spring closes it and holds the soil inside. Sometimes such a valve is compacted with a piece of rubber, but this is not necessary.
If while drilling home-made squirrel it turns out that it captures too little soil, perhaps you just need to slightly correct the structure. Sometimes you need to squash a little at the bottom of the device. If the projectile was too light, it should be weighed down.
To do this, the upper part of the gland is sometimes poured with concrete. But you can simply attach an additional load on top of the mobile connection.
Tripod for percussion cable drilling can be made of metal pipe, but for short-term use and suitable durable wood, such as timber 150-200 mm
On viscous soils, a variety of yellowfish without a valve can be effective. Dense soil is packed inside the projectile and held there in a natural way. Scrub such a device through a narrow vertical hole on its side.
If there is a possibility and a need, you should make two different yolks to use them on different soils. The shell is also used to clean the finished well from sand and dirt. But in this situation there is no need to make such a large projectile, and a device with a length of about 0.8 -1.0 meters will do.
Construction of auger drilling machine
The frame of such an installation can be made in the form of a tripod, but more often it is made of vertical guides mounted on a stand and connected from above by a horizontal structure. The machine frame must securely hold the working column of drill bit and stackable rods when extracting them from their well.
The diagram clearly shows the device of the drilling rig on a metal frame with a swivel, a drill, an electric winch and a gear motor (+)
The drill is made as follows:
- To a segment of a narrow metal pipe about 1.5 meters long, a couple of turns of metal strip are welded to make a screw thread.
- To the edges of the screw attach knives, cutting edges which must be at an angle to the horizontal.
- Knives are sharpened.
- A tee with a female thread is screwed or welded to the upper edge of the drill.
- Harvest pieces of metal pipe of the same diameter. as a pipe auger to further increase the length of the drill string. This is a barbell.
- On these pieces, pipes are threaded to connect them or drill a hole for fixing with a locking pin.
However, for increasing the length of the drill rod is quite successfully used and the coupling or locking connection. The drilling tower can be made of metal pipes, channels or of wood. The main thing is that it reliably held the drill string.
In the upper part of the frame install the unit, which is connected to the winch for lifting the string of pipes with a drill. It is believed that the tower is necessary only when well drilling more than eight meters deep. A small structure can be drilled without it, but the work will still be difficult.
Increasing the length of the drill rod significantly significantly weights the column, so for its lifting using an electric motor with a winch. If it is intended to perform “wet” drilling, the rotation of the drill is also carried out with the help of an electric motor.
Experts believe that the best option for these purposes is a typical device with a power of 2.2 kW at 60-70 rpm, which can be powered from a standard 220 V socket. Model 3MP 31.5, 3MP 40 or 3MP 50 may be suitable.
A swivel is an element by means of which the driving moment is transmitted from an electric motor to a drill rod. Through it also perform the supply of drilling fluid in the mine. Drill rods are fixed on the movable part of this device. For drilling mud is a special sealed pipe.
The diagram shows the design of the swivel for a small-sized drilling rig. A flushing fluid (+) is fed through the side nozzle into the shaft.
Since the swivel is constantly moving while drilling, it can break very quickly if it is of poor quality. To avoid this, two rules should be observed: use only high strength steel and ensure minimum clearance between static and moving parts devices.
As already mentioned, there are no ultra-strict rules for self-drilling rigs for wells. Most often, a hybrid structure is constructed, which allows simultaneous use of both the impact cable method and rotational drilling.
In this design, the same frame is arranged, allowing you to switch from one method to another without making any design changes.
This is a variant of the drilling rig of the combined type, it can be used for both drum and auger drilling.
If you want to do professionally well drillingthen it is better to purchase all the parts on the side, rather than do it yourself, or rent it. You can order all these items from an experienced turner. It will be necessary to buy a reliable electric motor with a gearbox, and a motor-pump, a sleeve and a hose, if it is supposed to perform works with the use of a hydraulic valve.
It is better to manufacture ram and auger after a swivel, electric motor and a winch have been acquired. This will allow all parts of the installation to fit correctly and quickly to each other. In order to be able to increase the longer bars on the drill, it is recommended to make a frame with a margin of about 3.3 m.
For the manufacture of the swivel and locks should use high-quality steel, since these parts of the structure carry the highest loads in the drilling process.
A swivel for a self-made drilling rig can also be made independently, but it will be easier and more reliable to use an industrial model of such a device.
Hardened steel is not very well suited for the manufacture of improvised drilling rigs, because after processing it needs additional grinding, it is better to take ordinary steel. It is best to use trapezoidal, rather than tapered threads on the rods.
It has sufficient strength characteristics, and any turner can cope with such a thread. But for the manufacture of rods with tapered threads have to look for a specialist.
For drilling to a depth of more than 30 meters, it is recommended to make rods of pipes with a wall of 5-6 mm thick. Conventional pipes with a wall of 3.5 mm can not withstand such loads. For the manufacture of the drill is better to take not alloyed steel, and the usual, so as not to have problems during the welding process.
For drilling hard soils it makes sense to use high-strength industrial drill bit. Good effect gives the use of a projectile with three blades. During its operation, cyclic rotation is used, which makes it possible to loosen the soil as efficiently as possible.
Drilling tools for manual work are different in design. There are spoon and coil models, as well as the drill bit. Spoon drills are effective on plastic soils: sandy loam, loam, clay. The cutter of such a drill is usually made in the form of a bucket. Such a drill can be made independently from a pipe of a suitable diameter.
On dense loams can also be used serpentine drill. This device resembles a corkscrew in its design, and the cutting element is a forked, so-called swallow tail. As an alternative to the kite, you can use an analogue of the ice drill, but it may not be as effective.
On hard rocks, a drill bit with a sharpening angle of 110-130 degrees shows itself best. The bit can have a very different shape, since it is calculated on the destruction of rock formations of various degrees of hardness.
The drill bit is suitable for working on hard and soft soils. Such a drill can be made from scrap materials
For drilling complex geological sections, it is sometimes better to use drilling in two stages with two different drills. First, drilling is carried out with a narrow drill, with a diameter of about 80 mm. After such exploratory drilling, work is performed by a larger diameter drill bit to obtain a well of the desired size.
Winch lifting capacity must be at least one ton. In addition to the electric winch, some masters immediately put another, mechanical. It copes more effectively in some cases, for example, if the casing is jammed. For electric motor and winch, it is recommended to use two different control panels.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. Visual overview of the self-made drilling rig:
Video # 2. A variant of the combined type drilling rig for percussion and auger drilling:
Video # 3. The use of zhelonki for shock wire drilling:
Self-made installation for drilling wells - not too complicated unit, leaving room for the work of engineering thought. But it should be remembered that the nodes and mechanisms of such a device in the drilling process are experiencing significant loads. Therefore, the materials must be durable, and the work must be done as best as possible.
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