Physical concepts and devices

Before carrying out repair or installation work in electrical installations up to 1000 V, it is necessary to make sure that there is no current to the supply network and to conductors. To do this, use low voltage indicators. The principle of their action varies, and the design changes. An error in determining the presence of a charge will cost the user dearly; it is important to test the instrument in a timely manner. Compliance with the rules for using the pointer is the second component of security.

Industrial facilities and shopping centers cannot function without electrical equipment. Because of this, there is a need for the classification of premises with increased danger, which allows for appropriate control. Safety standards, rules for handling electrical equipment and actions in the event of dangerous situations must be studied by specialists working in the factory.

The directional movement of charged particles under the influence of an electric driving force (EMF) is called an electric current, it is variable and constant. In the latter case, the movement of nucleons occurs stably in time, and in the former, it periodically reverses direction and magnitude. One of the main parameters of alternating current is frequency. The characteristic depends on the frequency of electron oscillations; it can be measured in several ways and devices.

When working with electronics and wires, it is often necessary to measure direct and alternating current, voltage, resistance and other network parameters. In order not to buy a bunch of different equipment for this, a multimeter was invented. Any amateur electrician at home can connect and use this small and easy-to-use device.

A diode is a semiconductor device that plays an important role in various electrical and electronic devices. It rectifies alternating currents and detects high-frequency modulated signals. The zener diode stabilizes due to its characteristics. There are several ways to check the zener diode with a multimeter.

The main instrument of the radio amateur is a soldering iron. This is a small device used for soldering and tinning. It easily allows you to create a permanent connection and reliable electrical contact. There are a large number of such products that differ both in design and in principle of operation, so it can be difficult to choose a soldering iron, even if the necessary characteristics are determined.

In electronic devices, one can often find various integrated circuits. One of them is a comparator. Its application is very extensive: from alarm sensors to industrial and automotive electronics. Knowing how the comparator works, you can independently assemble various interesting circuits, for example, a charger, an indicator unit, or even a generator.

To obtain seams on copper products, they usually do not use welding, but soldering. This is because when heated, the metal combines with oxygen and hydrogen, resulting in copper oxide is formed, leading to the appearance of numerous cracks and deterioration of the strength of the seam connections. Soldering copper does not require equipment of high complexity, since this process can be done at home independently.

A system of three sinusoidal currents that change in time and have a phase shift is called a three-phase alternating current. Using this system, convenient and economical electric motors are created, long-distance electric power is transmitted, and the material consumption of transformers and power cables is reduced. The three-phase current is based on the work of all large power plants and consumers of electricity.

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