Modest bush from the genus Plum - Turn, does not bring any trouble during cultivation and is of high value to a person.
The chemical composition of all parts of the plant has become the basis for many medicines in traditional medicine and in folk therapy.
Jam, jam and compote of berries- a real decoration and pride of any table..
Table of contents
- Biological description of the bush
- Methods of reproduction of blackthorn
- Care of the bush
- Benefit and harm of fruits
- The use of a thorny thorn in folk medicine
- Flowers: when to collect
- Root: the correct billet
- Application of Thorn Plum in Cooking
Biological description of the bush
The thorn (bramble) is a branching prickly bush, reaching in height from, to 4, 5 m. More rarely the plant can be found in the form of a tree up to 8 m in height.
The natural habitat of the bushslopes of hills, ravines and fringes of forests of Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Mediterranean, Western Siberia and Europe.
It is assumed that the turn came from plum as a result of the modification of the shrub tissues under the influence of gradual changes in the microclimate.
The turn is characterized by high frost resistanceand is capable of withstanding low temperatures up to 40 ° C. Without much stress, the bush also experiences drought.
The turn develops well on the soils of the Moscow region, which are not suitable for growing other crops, so it is often placed on the borders of the infield where the soil is saline.
Young branches of the bush are covered with pubescent bark and form sharp spines at the end. Skin leaves are obovate, dentate and dark green in color. Located on short petioles and reach a length of up to 5 cm.
Before the leaves blossomThe turn flourishes abundantly in April and May. The flowers of the plant are small, white and arranged in pairs or singly on short peduncles.
During this period, the bush looks like a large white ball, and the area around it is filled with the aroma of almonds.
Bushbegins to bear fruit 2-3 years after planting. The fruit is a monoclean, round in shape and small in size, up to 15 mm in diameter.
Under a thin black-blue skin, a green flesh and an inseparable bone are hidden. Fruits are sung at the end of summer and can last on the bush all winter.
The bush fruits have a tart-sour taste: this is due to the high content of tannins, which are neutralized after exposure to a low temperature.
Fruiting is regular, from one bush it is possible to collect 3-4 kg of fruit.
Turn is a self-sterile plantand is not able to tie fruit from its own pollen. To ripen the fruits, the plant requires cross-pollination. Basically it is made by bees..
Methods of reproduction of blackthorn
Breeding shrubseeds, bush division and root cuttings. Seeds are preferably sown in autumn immediately after separation from the pulp.
For spring sowingthe correct long stratification will take an average of 160 days. To do this, the bone is washed from the pulp, placed in moss layers and removed to a cold place with a temperature of 0 ° C to + 5 ° C.
A month before planting, the temperature is lowered to -1 ° C. Bones are kept in a slightly moistened medium.
About the readiness of the stone for transplantation into the substratecan be judged by cracks on the surface. For temporary development, a capacity of at least 20-25 cm in diameter is required.
The optimal substrate for the development of seedlings of seedlings consists of:
- turf soil 40%;
- humus 20%;
- low-peat peat 20%;
- of river sand is 20%.
Further care for the seedling consists of regular watering, fertilizing once a month with minerals.
Permanent seedlings are transplanted at the age of two. The turn, grown from the stone, will bear fruit 4-5 years after planting.
Many gardeners prefer the method of seed propagationto obtain frost-resistant rootstocks for more capricious crops.
Young shoots are separated from the mother plant in autumn, for this, the connecting root is cut. In late April, the separated shrub is transplanted to the intended site.
Plum sort of Turn (Thorn)well multiplies by dividing rhizomes. To do this, it is necessary to excavate the roots in autumn in the distance from 1 to, m from the trunk. A good planting material is a root with an average thickness, cm and a length of 15 cm.
In late April cuttings are transplanted into the ground (sand, peat 1: 3) under the film. They are placed at a distance of 5 cm vertically under a slight slope.
The upper ends should remain at a depth of 2 cm, after which the soil surface is mulched with sawdust. Root cuttings should be provided with regular watering and 3-4 fertilizing during the season, mainly with nitrogen fertilizers.
Next fall, the plant is transplanted into a temporary soil, the same as when planting pits and grow up to 1 m, and then transplanted into the backyard..
Care of the bush
A characteristic feature of the turnabsolute unpretentiousness to growing conditions. Conversely, excessive care and constant feeding of the bush lead to abundant growth and suppression of neighboring plants.
For planting a turn, a well-lit or semi-shaded area is preferable. The soil must be drained with a moisture-absorbing and neutral acidity. The optimal distance between the bushes is at least 2 m.
In March, rejuvenating pruning is carried out, removing damaged and rotten branches. Ideally, if there are 3-4 skeletal branches left on the bush.
This will significantly improve the quality and quantity of the harvest, protect the shrub from the strong thickening of the crown.
Sprinkle the turnOnly in very dry weather. To improve the quality of fruit and the formation of new shoots during flowering, organic matter is introduced into the near-bottom circle: compost or reparted manure. Winter shelter is not required for the thorns..
Benefit and harm of fruits
Useful properties of shrub fruit determinesspecial chemical composition, in which are concentrated:
- glucose, fructose;
- organic substances;
- mineral salts;
- vitamins A, E, C, P;
- nitrogen-containing compounds;
- essential oils;
Fruit of a thornespecially valuable for the gastrointestinal tract. With the constant use of thorn, the balance of microflora is restored, attacks of gastritis and colitis decrease. Due to diuretic properties, toxins are removed from the body.
Fruit of a thornhave antiparasitic effects on protozoa. This helps normalize intestinal motility, which improves the digestion of food and activates metabolism.
Especially valuable are the fruits of the thorn with a high content of vitamin R. It is a flavonoid, which includes more than 120 substances useful for the body.
The constant supply of these substances in the bodynormalizes blood pressure, reduces vascular permeability, balances the heart rhythm.
Under their influencestimulates the work of the adrenal cortexIs an important factor for the balance of the hormonal background..
In addition, the composition of the fruit will absorb all unpleasant odors from the mouth.The only drawback, coloring properties of fruits, a persistent bluish hue will last for several days.
The fruit of thorn is not recommended foracute forms of gastrointestinal diseases, especially with bleeding. It is undesirable to use people with increased gastric acidity and hypotension.
Bones of fruits have the property of accumulating amygdalin substance. It at high concentrations has a toxic effect on the body. Therefore it is recommendedjams and stews with bones to store no more than a year..
The use of a thorny thorn in folk medicine
It is proved that medicinal products from different parts of the bush have a therapeutic effect on the body:
These properties of the fruit of a thornactively used in traditional and folk medicine, for the general and symptomatic treatment of serious pathologies.
Flowers: when to collect
The medicinal ingredient is harvested prior to opening the buds. Infusions and decoctions of flowers treat hypertension, constipation, liver disease, prostate adenoma, rheumatism and atherosclerosis.
Drugs based on flowers have a diuretic, diaphoretic and sedative effect.
Preparation of medicines:
- Infusion. Crushed flowers (2 h. l.) pour cold water (250 ml) and insist 8 hours. Take the drug for 2 tbsp. l. 4 times a day as a diuretic and diaphoretic remedy for kidney and liver diseases.
- Broth. Healing raw materials (2 h. l) pour water (250 ml) and slowly bring to a boil. Take 100 ml 2 times a day. Decoction is used as an adjuvant in the treatment of vascular diseases.
Medicines based on the turn flowers have a strong antimicrobial effect and willuseful for the treatment of skin diseases. For this, the problem areas are wiped with a cotton disc moistened in a decoction or infusion in the morning and evening.
Root: the correct billet
The roots of the turn are harvested in autumn. In order not to damage the bush, the medicinal ingredient is excavated at a distance of 1 m from the stem. After that, they are thoroughly washed and dried at a temperature of + 60 ° C.
Decoction from the roots of the turnhas antipyretic, diaphoretic and anti-inflammatory effect. It is used for colds and for cleaning the body of toxins.
To treat leucorrhoea, douching is performed, and for skin inflammations a lotion with a drug.
To prepare a decoctionthe ground raw material (10 g) is poured in cold water (500 ml) and boiled on low heat for 15 minutes. Take 100 ml 3 times a day. For syringing, the drug is diluted 1: 1 with water.
The bark is harvested from shrubs to be cut down and before the flowering of the plant. After that, they wash and dry as well as the roots.
They are used as a means for purifying blood, treating female inflammatory diseases, furuncles and erysipelas on the skin.
To prepare the broth you needcrushed bark (1 h. l.) pour water (250 ml) and boil for 15 minutes. Take 100 ml 3 times a day. For syringing dilute with water 1: 1.
The fruit of the turn is collected in the second decade of October. After this, they must be dried within a week, if possible in the open air or in the oven at a low temperature.
Preparation of medicines:
- Infusion. The crushed ingredient (1 tbsp. l.) is poured with boiling water (250 ml), it is infused for 1 hour. For the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders take 100 ml before breakfast for 4 days.
- Juice. The fruits are cleared of seeds and heated to 70 ° C. After that they knead and squeeze the juice. Applied with giardiasis, food disorders and colds.
The juice of the fruit of thorn has a fixing action and will be useful for diarrhea..
Application of Thorn Plum in Cooking
The fruit of the bush is rarely used fresh. Butvarious jams and jamsof them have a piquant taste and are popular with children and adults.
- fruit of a thorn, kg;
- sugar 3 kg;
- water 1 liter.
Sorted and washed fruitscook on low heat for 15 minutes. Throw in a colander and remove the stone. Purified fruits are spread in the former broth and add sugar.
After the sugar is completely dissolved, the preserves should be cooked for 15 minutes. For storage, the product is poured into sterilized cans.
Jam from the turn:
- fruit of a thorn 1 kg;
- sugar 1 kg;
- water 100 ml.
Washed and seed-separated fruitpour water and cook for 30 minutes over low heat. After this, it is necessary to wipe the berries through a sieve. Place the mass in a container, add water, sugar and cook for 30 minutes.
The readiness of jam can be judged by the density of the product. Prepared jam is poured into sterilized jars.
- fruit of a thorn 1 kg;
- sugar syrup 50%.
Washed fruit is laid out in boiling syrupand cook for 5 minutes. After that, the fruits are put in cans and filled with syrup.
Covered cans are placed in a container of water and boiled at a temperature of 75 ° C for 15 minutes and tightly closed with lids. At the time of cooling, the cans with compote are turned upside down.
- fruit of a thorn 10 kg;
- sugar 3 kg;
- water 10 liters.
Slightly frozen fruits wither for 2 days. After that, the berries are kneaded, placed in a container with seeds, poured with water.
For each liter of raw material obtained, 300 g of sugar, mixed and bottled. After 30-45 days, separate the sludge of wine and pour into new containers.
Wine from the turn:
To add to tea or self-steamingharvested leaves and flowers of thorns. To do this, they need to be dried and packaged in paper bags.
Many mistressesadd to the tea dried and chopped blackthorn fruit, which make the drink not only useful, but also fragrant.
In the recent past, the cultivation of the turn was practiced everywhere. Despite the absolute practicality and economic benefit, the cultivation of the shrub is unfairly pushed aside.
Nevertheless, the massive use of shrubs as a raw material for medicines is only growing and every year leads to a greater shortage of a source of useful ingredients.
Thus, it can be concluded thatgrowing of a turn is beneficial and useful not only within the garden plot, but also an excellent option for business..