Autumn activities for the care of the plumare important for the fruit tree to safely survive the most difficult period - winter. This is a kind of summing up and beginning preparations for a new growing season.
From autumn work depends largely on, how the buds will be laid, fruits and the level of susceptibility of trees to viral and fungal diseases will be tied..
Table of contents
- How and for what you need to care for the plum in late August and in autumn
- Autumn care events
- Proper watering
- Good preparation for winter
- Time for fertilizing and fertilizing
- How to fight pests in the country
- Autumn events for the future harvest
- Spring processing
- How and when to plant a plum
- Choosing a rootstock
- Harvesting cuttings
- Methods of vaccination
- Behind the bark
How and for what you need to care for the plum in late August and in autumn
The main goal of a horticulturist in autumn- help the fruit tree painlessly survive the phase of relative peace. Despite the fact that in the fall period the growth of the above-ground part of the plum stops, the active development of the root system continues.
In the structures of the tree complex physiological processes take place to prepare for the winter period. The main accumulation of active substances occurs in the period after the shoots growth to leaf fall.
From the volume of these stocks depends on the lignification of shoots, and hence the resistance to low temperatures. thereforevery important water recharge irrigation, it is necessary to feed the plum in the fall.
To prevent the growth of pest colonies at your dachatreatment of the tree with insecticide means. Equally important for the health of plums is the treatment with fungicides, this will prevent the development of fungal diseases in the spring.
Under the influence of cold, the flexibility of the branches of the plum is lost. This leads to their failure under the load of winter precipitation or the impact of squally wind.Preventive pruning will helpminimize the trauma of the fruit tree.
Surviving winter cold and temperature changes will helpproper warming of the tree to winter. In addition, the plum needs protection from rodents, which are always activated in winter in search of affordable food.
How to take care of trees and bushes in autumn:
Autumn care events
Prune pruning makeafter harvest until mid-September. At such times the fruit tree will have time to recover before the first frost, to tighten all wounds and spills.
- First of all they pay attention to excessively grown young shoots, they are shortened, leaving 1/3 part;
- all dry and painful branches are cut completely;
- Last year and old branches are cut to 1/3.
Pruning is carried out with a well sharpened pruner. Sections with a diameter greater than, cmtreated with a thin layer of garden gum.
This measure will protect the plum from breaking the trunks under the influence of the load of snow and squally winds.
Autumn watering is importantfor the plum to go through the hardening period. Irrigate the plum in the third decade of September. The rate of irrigation at the same time increases by three times, for each tree there are from 18 to 24 buckets of water.
We need to closely monitor the weather forecast,if they promise heavy rainfall, then water should be abstained.
With strong humidity and the establishment of warm weather, sprouts can grow and increase in green mass. thereforeIn the rainy season, it is necessary to make diverting groovesor cover the whiplash circle with a thick film.
Good preparation for winter
Microcracks, exfoliated areas of the bark and moss- a real haven for spores of fungi and mold. Often there are hatching larvae of pests, and adult individuals lay eggs capable of hibernating.
Therefore, before the frost, it is important to carry out preventive cleaning of the stem.Purify the bark with a metal brush, scraping off the trunk and branches of exfoliated areas, moss and lichens.
This event is better combined with treatment against pests, on the trunk of a tree, often found are the gnawed holes in which they can hide. They need to be processed immediately.
Next proceed to whitewash the trunk. For this, a solution is prepared:
- lime 1 kg;
- clay 1 kg;
- mullein, kg;
- copper vitriol 300 g.
Such a solution will solve many problems. The smell of mullein will scare off rodents, clay and lime will reduce the effect of temperature changes. Copper vitriol - prevention from the clapeyeroporiasis, which is well developed in the autumn and during winter thaws.
In the middle band, you can wrap a barair-permeable material and additionally cover with lapnik. The stump of the plum is mulched with a high layer of peat, sawdust or straw.
Time for fertilizing and fertilizing
The active vegetative period greatly exhausts the internal resources of the tree. thereforeIn the fall, the plum is experiencing a special shortage of minerals, which will affect the winter hardiness of the tree. Fertilize and feed fruit tree immediately after harvest.
In autumn plum requires all minerals except nitrogen- root growth stimulator. This mineral is also found in large amounts in organic fertilizers: pig manure and chicken litter.
When introducing organic materialsuse rotted manure of cattle. It contains a large concentration of potassium, which contributes to the rapid accumulation of carbohydrates.
The manure is brought into the trunks at a rate of 5 kg per 1 m2. Provide potassium tree can and with a solution of potassium chloride and water (150 g / 10 liters).
Quality and high fructification of the plum depends onphosphorus reserve in the internal resources of a tree. There are no natural sources of replenishment of this mineral, and therefore the level of its content in the tree depends entirely on the gardener.
For top dressing, a solution of superphosphate and water (300 g / 10 L) is introduced into the circumferential circle.
It is also important not to forget about calcium. This mineral regulates the acidity of the soil and promotes the assimilation by the tree of spare nutrients, which is very important in the formation of young shoots.
To do this, make a solution of sulphate, nitrate, calcium chloride to 25 g and 10 liters of water. The use of calcium nitrate is not recommended, it contains 15% nitrogen.
Top dressing and pest control:
How to fight pests in the country
A prosperous and healthy site can be considered only those fruit gardens, where the number of pests is constantly monitored.
It is important to understand,completely isolate the site from insects impossible, and in a minimum amount they can not bring significant harm.
Articles that may be of interest to you:
- Effective control of aphids on plums and other fruit trees.
- The most common plum diseases and their treatment.
- Why does not the blossom bloom and does not bear fruit and what to do about it?
Plum is often amazed:.
- running moth;
- plum moth;
- ringed silkworm.
All these pests lay eggs capable of hibernating, and in some species adult individuals hibernate in cracks in the bark, in layers of mulch or in soil.
For complete control over pests, it is necessary for the life of the treeconduct destructive and preventive treatments.
Spraying insecticides in different seasons are done for a specific purpose and complement each other.
Autumn events for the future harvest
Completely digs the trunks, the fallen leaves are collected and burned. If you carefully look at the cracks or in the layers of foliage, you can find eggs. They are destroyed by hand.
If the plum does not observe a large number of insects,processing is carried out folk remedies:
- infusion of garlic, aged 1 day (200 g / 10 l);
- solution of water and peeled onions (300 g / 10 l), aged 5 days;
- ash-soap solution (400 g / 50 g / 10 l).
In addition,fumigation. For this, near the fruit tree, a small pile of straw is placed, the tobacco is scattered over the surface and ignited. The procedure lasts 2 hours.
If the lesion is massive, without the use of chemical drugs can not do. For this, preparations are used: Carbofos, Actellik, Fufanon.
The selected preparation should be used in the norms strictly specified in the instruction.
Another important event in the fall -Fungicide treatment of plum. Spores of fungi begin active development with the first warming and quickly spread throughout the site. To warn the epidemic is possible only with the constant suppression of microorganisms and bacteria.
To do this, the sink and the circumferential circlesprayed with a Bordeaux liquid. Consumption for one tree up to 6 years - up to 2 liters, for older trees up to 10 liters.
After warming up the soil to + 15 ° C new eggs begin to appear from eggs laid by pests in autumn, which feed on young sprouts. This leads to a strong slowdown in the development of plums and the rapid spread of pests throughout the site.
thereforeThe first treatment should be done before the bud opening, approximately in the middle of March.
Subsequent treatments are carried out if active pest activity is observed on the plum. Focusing on the amount of reproduction,use folk remedies or chemicals.
Treatment by any means is stopped 30 days before fruiting and do not spend the same period of time after..
How and when to plant a plum
Quality inoculation is the full compatibility of wood speciesand a procedure performed in accordance with the processes occurring in the tree structure.
Normal intergrowth of rootstock and graft does not guarantee the qualitative development and high productivity of the fruit tree. thereforeIt is important to accurately determine the compatibility of grafted cropsand possible deviations during development.
Choosing a rootstock
A rootstock is the basis of a fruit tree. Through its structure, the tree will receive the basic nutrients.
The rootstock affects absolutely all life processes, resistance to frost and drought, the structure of the tree itself and the quality of the fruit. Therefore, his choice is treated with special attention.
- Alycha. One of the main stocks for the southern regions. It is characterized by rapid adaptation to all types of soil and a good development of the fruit tree.
- Ternosliva. A good rootstock for use in the central part of Russia. The main advantages of winter hardiness and drought resistance.
- The Turn. Frost resistant and hardy. Used as an additional stock in the middle horticultural zone and in the northern regions.
- Ussuri plum. It is characterized by high frost resistance. The most commonly used in the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. In a temperate climate, it is possible to block the cortex, so it is practically not used in the middle zone.
- Canadian plum. From this stock grows winter-hardy, yielding and quick-growing trees. Massively applied in the Altai Territory, the Urals and Siberia.
- Seedlings of cultivars. Seed rootstocks are mainly used in the middle zone of horticulture. To do this, select zoned varieties.
Cuttings for inoculation prepareonly after a complete cessation of sap flow. This happens when trees drop leaves and enter a period of rest.
This is due to the movement of plastic substances from annual growths under the influence of daytime temperature heating. Such cuttings can not build the callus needed to grow with the stock.
For the scion, the strong annual shoots are cutnot less than 5 mm in diameter and 40 cm in length with healthy apical growth and lateral foliar buds.
It is not difficult to determine them - this is the final branch up to the first branch. Growing from the tops of the shoots, directed up steeply, are not suitable for grafting.
Store cuttings in a moist substratefrom sawdust or sand at temperature + 1 ° С - + 5 ° С. The substrate must be periodically moistened..
Methods of vaccination
There are many methods of vaccinationfruit tree. Each of them has its own peculiarities and is used depending on the characteristics of the vaccinated material and the season of the procedure.
If there is no experience of vaccination,it is better to start with the most simple and understandable ways, which almost always give good results.
Inoculation of plum, master class:
This is a very simple method of vaccinationand is used for the same diameter (no more than, cm) of the stock and graft. On the cuttings and on the logs, the same oblique and smooth sections are made, 3-4 cm long.
The graft and the stock are connected to each other so that the cambial layers coincide. The joint of the sections is tightly bound with a film. The upper cut of the cuttings is treated with a garden crock.
Behind the bark
This method of vaccination is applied,When an adult or old plum should be planted with new varieties. The procedure is carried out after the beginning of the sap flow. At this time, the bark becomes plastic and easily lags behind the wood.
Stages of the procedure:
- the stock is cut with a saw on the stump and treated with a garden crock;
- the bark is cut down into length, cm;
- the cut bark is slightly turned away from both sides;
- At the lower end of the cut is made an oblique cut by 3 cm at an angle of 30 °;
- 2-3 cuticles are left on the cuttings, the rest is cut (above the kidney);
- stab is inserted behind the bark;
- The place of inoculation is fixed with a film and coated with a garden crock.
The fruit garden will develop harmoniously only with a full understanding of the characteristics of all plants and the observance of the rules for caring for them.
It is important not to violate the natural processes of the fruit tree- this often leads to global problems. Only in this way can you achieve longevity and stable fruit plumage..