Plant transplant is a traumatic operation, which is best done in the period of natural rest, then it occurs almost "under anesthesia." This especially applies to seedlings with bare roots.
Most fruit trees are best planted on a permanent place after the completion of vegetative processes - in autumn. Tentatively, this is the month before the top layer of the soil freezes. Some trees are best planted in the spring. Let's talk in more detail about the timing of the planting of fruit tree seedlings, how to fertilize and properly take care of them..
Table of contents
- When is it better to plant fruit trees - in spring or in autumn?
- How to choose a seedling for planting in the Moscow region and other regions
- Choose a seedling with an open root system
- Choose a seedling in a container
- How not to be mistaken
- Rules of planting a seedling in the garden at different times of the year?
- Preparatory activities
- Preparing a landing pit
- The root neck is where?
- The scheme of planting of fruit trees and shrubs
- Care for freshly planted trees in the spring-autumn period
- Fertilizers and top dressing for fruit tree
When is it better to plant fruit trees - in spring or in autumn?
To determine that the tree is ready for transplantation is very simple.The main criterion - the tree dropped half the leaves. They are guided when planting winter-resistant varieties of pears and apple trees, as well as all berry bushes.
Varieties of apple and pear trees with insufficient frost resistance, as well as all stone(cherry, cherry, plum, apricot and peach), it is better to plant in the spring. And, it is necessary to do this as early as possible - the moisture has not yet left and the buds have not blossomed.
In any case, planting holes are prepared in advance - for spring planting, for example, from autumn (August-September).The deadline for the preparation of pits -2 weeks..
How to choose a seedling for planting in the Moscow region and other regions
In order not to throw money away and grow a really fruitful fruit tree, the selection of a seedling should be approached with understanding and responsibly.
Choose a seedling with an open root system
- First of all,the variety must be regionalized.
- To increase the likelihood of buying the desired variety,purchase them in a specialized nursery, and not "by the hand" at the road.
- Roots should not be shorter25 centimeters, fresh and undamaged. The more branched thin rootlets, the higher the probability of success.
- On the rootsthere should be no growthsIs a symptom of a root cancer. The root cut must be white.
- Attentivelyinspect the trunkfor damage to the bark.
Roots wrap the wet sackcloth or newspapers in several layers. If the seedling has dried up, immerse it in water for a day or two until the bark returns to its fresh appearance.
You can treat the roots before the planting with stimulants(Kornevin or Heteroauxin) according to the instructions.
Especially make sure that the roots are not soaked. These sites are likely to rot - they must be carefully removed to a healthy part.
Choose a seedling in a container
Such a planting material is more expensive. If you choose it correctly, you can land at any time convenient for you. The survival rate is guaranteed ...
How not to be mistaken
The easiest way to check how long the tree grows in the vessel is to carefully plant the plant behind the root part. If an earth clod is taken out with the roots, you need to buy - the seedling "lives" in the container for a long time.
In addition, you can make sure thatspine sprouted through the hole in the bottom of the container.
The tree is installed in the prepared pit, not breaking the integrity of the earth's coma. Watered and covered with prepared soil without the burial of the seedling..
Rules of planting a seedling in the garden at different times of the year?
The choice of a place for planting a fruit tree - it is produced once and for all, success or disappointment depends on this choice. If the place turns out to be unfit for a fruit tree, it will be impossible to correct the mistake in a few years.
Choose a sunny place protected from the wind for planting. The close location of groundwater is unacceptable - the tree can successfully develop for 5-7 years, and when its roots reach the aquifer it will die from decay. At this age, transplanting the tree is incredibly difficult.
Even soil selection is not a critical condition for planting a fruit tree. By improving the structure of the soil and proper feeding, almost any area is suitable for horticulture.
Preparing a landing pit
Even in the case of fertile black soil,it is necessary to plant a tree with the preparation of a landing pit. It should be dig out at least a month before planting the seedling. During this time the dug up land will have time to creep up. This is a factor of extraordinary importance - there will be no problems with the correct penetration of the root collar of the seedling.
The root neck is where?
It is not superfluous to specify what this "root neck" is. Often, inexperienced gardeners take the place of grafting for the root cervix, and as a result, the sapling grows into an extra 10 centimeters. Actually,This is the site where the trunk goes to the root. At this point, the dark color of the root passes into the lighter bark of the stem.
After planting, the seedling should not lack nutrients, though, until it has survived. At this stage, very often, for the best of reasons, gardeners "overfeed" seedlings with fertilizers.
It is especially dangerous for young plants to add fresh organic matter to the pit and too much mineral fertilizers. These two extremes act equally depressingly on soil microorganisms, namely they help the roots of the seedling to absorb nutrients from the soil and air..
- For a conditioned seedlings of 1-2 years of age,dig a hole about the size of80х80 centimetersand of the same depth. In the process of excavating the pit, the upper, more fertile layer is folded apart from the lower one. All the stones and roots of perennial weeds are removed. The bottom of the pit must be dug into the bayonet bayonet.
- At the bottom of the pit to improve the water balance is desirablepour last year's leaves, house debris, wood ash. It will not only be good drainage, but also an excellent additional feeding to the tree.
- In the pitadd 2 buckets of compost or humus, and proceed as follows.
- One bucket is mixed with the more fertile ground of the upper layer and poured onto the bottom of the pit. On this mound you establish a seedling,straighten out its rootsand fall asleep the second part of the compost directly to the roots. At the same time, shake the seedling so that there are no air voids, not filled with soil.
- Good wateringt (minimum, 2 buckets of water).
- The pit falls asleep to the top. For this, only the upper fertile layer is used.
- From the bottom layer of the earthform a root wellaround the near-barrel circle.
- Watered once again in the formed well andfill it with mulch(torus, sawdust, foliage, chips), this not only preserves water, but also does not give rise to a dense crust.
The scheme of planting of fruit trees and shrubs
The density of planting trees depends not only on the species, but also on the:
- type root rootstock seedling,
- way of further formation,
- features of the layout of the site.
The most common mistake of beginning gardeners, too tight landing. It is very difficult in prutikah seedlings, one-year-olds to see the trees at a minimum, a meter height in 10 years. The recommended scheme for planting shrubs and trees is given below.
Saplings of apples and pears on strong root stocks are located at a distance5 meters, sredneroslyh -3.5-4 meters, dwarf -, -3 meters. Coloniform forms can be planted even through, a meter in a row.
No less distance should be laid when planting seedlings near the house, especially this refers to tall forms of fruit, and especiallycarefully refer to the location of the walnut- over time it will be a 10-meter spreading tree.
Care for freshly planted trees in the spring-autumn period
After planting a young tree, in addition to having to feed the seedling, there must be an appropriate follow-up care. The first time after planting the most seedlings need watering. Among the experienced gardeners of the old school, there is an opinion that seedlings need watering for 2 years, even if they have taken root successfully.Water should be planted in autumn trees until the cold. Only then will the tree grow strong and healthy.
No matter how great a desire to try the harvest from a young tree, the first flowers must be removed. This especially applies to the first year after planting, otherwise the tree will give all the forces for the first few fruits, and the root system and the developed crown will not grow.
In addition to watering, a young tree requires preventive measures to protect against pests and fungal diseases. Do not ignore them during each treatment of the garden. The loss of branches and leaves from the invasion of pests or any disease can be critical for the young tree.
Preparation of young trees for the winter includes:
- mulchingbarrel circle,
- whitewashfor the prevention of sunny and frosty winter burns,
- protection against rodentsand hares.
Mulching layer must necessarily cover the near-trunk circle not only during the summer period to preserve moisture in the root zone. Mulch is especially necessary in the autumn-winter period.Even in the conditions of the middle belt and the Moscow region, the roots of a tree seedlings or shrubs can suffer from freezing, especially if the snow cover is insignificant..
Fertilizers and top dressing for fruit tree
A well-filled landing pit provides power to the planted tree for 2 years. In practice, it only needs watering.
The feeding of the garden is carried out according to the established rule:
- in spring- nitrogen and organic fertilizers,
- in autumn- potash and phosphoric.
The introduction of fertilizers usually produce in the near-barrel circles early in the spring (1) or in the autumn (2).
In the basal zone, fertilizer is applied at a rate of 1 sotka garden:
- organic300-500 kg (every 2-3 years),
- inorganic K in proportions, 6 (in terms of kg of chemically pure substance).
In addition to root dressings, gardeners often practice leafy. Used in this case, the so-called "tank mixtures" - joint solutions of chemical preparations, for example, against pests and a complex of sheet dressings.
Another "plus" of such processing- consumption of fertilizers is minimal. For example, for nitrogenous dressings prepare a solution of 1 tablespoon of saltpeter per 1 bucket of water.
The only inconvenience, you can not handle directly before the rain.
The optimal planting time for fruit trees depends on many factors:
- From the climatic conditions of your region.
- From the winter hardiness of the seedling.
- From the type of seedlings - container or "bare root".
In order not to get confused, the gardeners of Ukraine have an ancient rule, which is all the more obligatoryfor colder regions- All the stone fruits are planted in the spring, the pome fruits in the autumn..