Own water source at your favorite dacha will significantly increase the level of comfort. Eliminate the need for buckets to carry water to care for the thriving plants, for filling tanks in the bath or shower.
The construction of a water intake facility can be entrusted to a team of workers specializing in this field. But it is better to dig and equip the well in the country with their own hands, investing a minimum of money in it. We will tell you how to choose a place for a water source, how to drill and arrange production.
The content of the article:
Competent preparation - 100% success
- Surveying an independent hydrogeologist
- How to determine a place for digging a well
- Specificity of a typical well construction
Construction of a well from concrete rings
- Technology of the construction of the finished rings
- Homemade device method
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Competent preparation - 100% success
Any enterprise requires a thorough executor from the future performer. All the more so laborious as digging a well.
Errors in planning, the distribution of forces and work steps will necessarily affect the result. In the best case, the construction will stretch out over a long but unknown period, at worst it will end with a device of a useless tunnel “to nowhere”.
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The arrangement of the well at the summer cottage will relieve the owners from the mass of problems associated with living outside the city
Well water in the country is used for watering plants, cleaning the house and the territory
Filtered and boiled well water is used in cooking and preparing food for consumption.
The water extracted from the well fills the tanks in the country bath, inflatable pools, decorative ponds and summer shower tanks
The originally designed well house will serve as a spectacular accent in the countryside landscape painting.
Water from the well can be obtained in the usual manual way by winding a chain or a cable on the gate
For mechanized pumping of water from the well, surface pumps or submersible vibratory units of the Kid type are used.
Summer water intake sources are used periodically, because of which the well draws silt. This does not happen with wells, they do not require regular pumping and flushing, but you still need to care for the source
Well in the country as a means of solving problems
Providing water to care for the site and plants
Well water for drinking and cooking
Water for hygiene
Well as an art object in landscape design
Manual way to lift water
Pumping water from the well pump
The advantages of building a well in the country
Surveying an independent hydrogeologist
In order to eliminate the senseless costs of funds and muscular effort, it is necessary to carry out preliminary hydrogeological studies.
The best option survey - drilling. However, it is at least unwise to execute it on its own before the construction of the well, and it is expensive and unprofitable to hire drillers. It would be better then to immediately drill a water well.
Independent hydrogeological surveys consist in a banal survey of neighbors who have their own well or well.
Find out from them:
- At what depth mark does the water mirror in the flood and in the dry season.
- How many meters were drilled or dug for the device intake structure.
- Does not the property of water "leave" from the water intake, if summer is not happy with rainfall two / three weeks, but exhausting with heat.
- What soil was removed from the wellbore or well during their development: it was clay or sandy.
- Did the drillers have to break a boulder with a chisel or the builders to lift a large heavy stone from a well?
By tradition, suburban land plots and country plots are located in flat terrain without pronounced relief structures. Wells dig in sedimentary, easily workable sediments.
Work is carried out to the first aquifer, trying to bypass and cut off the water pipe, if it is located at a depth of about 3-4 m from the surface.
Most of the holiday villages are located in flat terrain, for which almost horizontal bedding of soil layers is characteristic. Groundwater in flat areas lies almost at the same level
Groundwater contained in the pores of sedimentary rocks usually lies in the form of a kind of basin. According to the gravitational regulations and the law of communicating vessels, the surface of this basin is practically at the same depth at all points.
This means that the geological and hydrogeological situation on your site will be almost the same as that of your neighbor.
Some level deviations are recorded in the course of the groundwater movement. For example, if it is unloaded as a spring in a ravine located 3-5 km from the work site.
Then the level in the point located closer to the spring will be slightly lower than in the far analogue. However, these deviations can be neglected when digging a well, since their value is usually irrelevant.
Weighted differences in the height of the groundwater level (groundwater level) will be if a well is arranged on the side of a hill. Water will always drain towards the easy discharge, which the slope provides for it. Therefore, on such sites try not to build wells, because natural drainage significantly reduces the amount of water produced.
If there is a roofing in the area of work, the level of which in the spring and autumn period will be 3-4 meters on average, it is recommended to block it with the wellbore and reach the underlying aquifer. The level and water abundance of the roofing are unstable, the water is most often polluted by domestic waste water.
From neighboring sources, you can determine the depth of the mirror with a fairly high accuracy using a barometer. Its scale is marked by divisions with a price of 0.1 mm, which in terms of elevation is 1 m.
So, if the device shows 831.7 mm above the neighbor’s hole and 831.5 mm above the point of the planned well, then the depth of your water intake facility will be 2 m more.
Information on the composition of the soil will help assess your own strength for self-digging. If the neighbors are assured of the complexity of the development and the presence of a large number of boulders, it is better to reassign the work to the team of brigade shabashniki. Their actions will still have to be watched, so with Well construction technologies need to read.
The approximate water level in the well planned for construction can be determined from the mirror of a nearby reservoir. The water in the well will be at about the same elevations.
In addition to the “testimony” of the owners of existing water intake facilities, provide information on the hydrogeological conditions of the area may be organizations that have drilled or constructed near your site. The information can be provided by the local meteorological service, which has a complete set of data on climatic conditions, natural phenomena and geological conditions in the region.
How to determine a place for digging a well
For water intake facilities need in advance find the right place. It is undesirable to arrange it where garden plants have been planted and fertilized with chemical compounds for several decades.
Note that well water is rarely drinking. If the plans do not include the extraction of the drinking category, then the previous fertilization cycles can be ignored.
Due to the small size of the dacha plots, it is difficult to find a place to install a well with drinking water. Due to insufficient distance from possible pollutants of groundwater to the source, it can only be used for cleaning and watering (+)
We list the main factors influencing the selection of a site for the construction of a well:
- Elimination of pollution. Remoteness from the places of probable input of negative components: from household and household buildings, livestock pens, cesspools pits, compost heaps of not less than 20 m. In the case of the installation of a well with drinking water in the summer cottage there should be no such objects.
- Cost reduction. The shortest possible maximum route of the pipeline, if the device is supposed to water supply system. The shorter the length of the highway, the less money will be spent.
- The optimal location. Between the foundation of the dacha and the well should be at a minimum of 5 m. The water intake structure will “tighten” groundwater in itself according to the whirlpool principle. He will constantly strive to replenish the exhausted reserves, attracting not only water, but also particles of soil, which in the end will clean up the soil under the foundation at the close location of the well.
Extensive country grounds for our realities are rare, therefore, to choose a place in the direction of the movement of groundwater in the area is strange, at least. However, if the earth’s surface has a certain slope, then it is best to choose a place under the well at the lowest point. There and the thickness of soil to be extracted will be smaller, and the inflow of water is greater.
According to the requirements of SanPiN number 126.96.36.1994-96 between the source of drinking water and the objects of probable contamination of groundwater (cesspools, compost heaps, livestock pens, etc.) must be at least 50 m
Specificity of a typical well construction
The maximum depth of a traditional well with a shaft is 30 m. It is dangerous to dig below, it is too heavy, it is inexpedient in terms of costs and labor costs. At the cottage you can make a very shallow well, the height of the mine which will be 6 - 8 m.
Digging a shallow mine is easy; a standard bucket or an inexpensive surface pump can be used to extract water. However, the shallow water extracted water is applicable only in irrigation and other economic purposes.
Water intake can be made with a mine of 15 - 20 m. From this depth, it is more likely to get water for drinking. Chances are especially increased if the aquifer overlaps with loam or sandy loam - clay rocks that do not allow water to pass through. They prevent the penetration of atmospheric and flood water along with domestic sewage, technical oils, chemicals.
The task of the well builder is not only to extract the soil from the mine, but also to form the walls of the well shaft. They are made of stone, brick, logs, plates of wood, timber, monolithic reinforced concrete, poured into a formwork arranged in a pit.
The currently most common version of the material for the construction of walls is factory concrete rings or home-made counterparts, which are poured into the form right at the work site.
Regardless of the material used for the construction of the walls of the shaft well, its design includes three main elements: 1 - water receiving part, 2 - barrel, tip (+)
Regardless of the material used for the construction of the walls of the well, they are constructed in accordance with a single structural scheme. Its main parts are:
- The cap. Part of the mine, rising above the earth's surface. Standard height 0.7 - 0.8 m, but with variations. Equipped with a well house to protect against atmospheric negative. For manual raising of water it is equipped with a collar or crane.
- Trunk. Part of the mine, measured from the ground level to the water mirror. It is used to strengthen the walls of the mine and to protect against the collapse of the soil.
- Water receiving part. Plot mine, immersed in the aquifer. The main working element of the well, ensuring the supply of water to the structure, if necessary, creating its stock.
In addition to the geometric parameters, there are no significant differences in the design of the tip and the barrel. Different is the width with height, and the shape of the mine in the plan: square or round. The main structural difference, which determines the division of wells into species, is determined by the principle of the design of the water receiving part.
The differences in the device of the receiving part of the wells are divided into:
- Imperfect. The intake part of this type is immersed in a water-saturated formation of approximately 70% of the power of the aquifer. The mine is not installed on the water stop, because the flow of water into it occurs both through the bottom and through the walls of the water receiving part.
- Committed. The intake part is completely recessed into the aquifer. The base of the mine rests on a waterproof layer, because of which the water flow is carried out exclusively through the side walls.
- Committed with a sump. The water intake part rests on the impermeable layer, the water enters the shaft from the side through the walls. The water intake is supplemented with a kind of reservoir formed in the underlying aquifer with a waterproof layer.
Sump arrange for the formation of a water reserve. Therefore, its volume is calculated based on the actual daily consumption. If necessary, to increase the volume of water that can be pumped out at a time, sump is arranged in the form of a bell with an extension to the base.
The construction of the well is chosen in accordance with the geological situation in the area of work, the experience of neighbors in the construction of such sources and the real need for water of future owners.
Interrogation of neighbors will also be able to help in a reasonable choice of the optimal well construction. You may come up with a similar perfect or complemented sump perfect scheme. It all depends on the actual water needs.
It should be remembered that the well water can not "stagnate" in the mine. In the case of a long stay there, it will bloom or will rot.
If you do not plan a permanent residence in the country with a rich reception of water procedures, then an adequate amount of water will give an imperfect construction. At the bottom of her suit bottom filter gravel or rubble backfill to hold sand grains.
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If the water intake well is buried in fine sand, a bottom shield made of aspen, larch or oak is placed at the bottom of the trunk.
The bottom shield is constructed by analogy with the lid that covers the mouth of the well, but between the plank elements leave a gap for water flow
On the back side of the shield elements are connected by two transverse boards
In order for a wooden shield to not pop up, it is loaded with a layer of rubble or large pebbles.
Making a bottom shield
Aspen Bottom Shield
Option of mounting shield elements
Loading a wooden shield in the well
Construction of a well from concrete rings
The construction of a water source at the dacha is the easiest option available for independent execution. The use of ready-made concrete rings will allow you to dig a great well at the dacha with the least loss of effort and expense, and to decorate the tip with a stone or a log if you wish.
However, the most economical would still be the method that involves self-pouring iron concrete well elements.
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For the construction of the well concrete rings are delivered to the site with the help of lifting equipment
The construction of a well from prefabricated rings is most often carried out in two ways: manually and by means of mechanization. In the first case, under the lower edge of the ring, they dig up the ground, remove it and gradually increase the concrete shaft.
To facilitate the process, install a tripod with a block at the top. With its help, they pull out buckets filled with soil from the mine and install rings
If boulders are encountered during the development of a mine, they can be removed from the bottom using a tripod without special complications.
The second method involves the use of excavation equipment for the development of the excavation. In the case of the construction of water supply trenches are also formed
Narrow concrete rings before immersion in the pit is easier to pre-fasten the mounting brackets in pairs. During the manual construction, the fastening takes place during the construction of the well from the inside.
The assembly of the shaft from concrete rings is likewise produced using lifting equipment. An excavator boom can even be useful.
After the construction of the mine, the space around it is filled with sand or soil extracted during the development of the pit. The upper 0.5 - 1.0 m are equipped with a clay castle
Delivery of concrete rings to the site
Manually digging a mine
Tripod for installing concrete rings
Removing a boulder from the mine
Connecting the rings with metal clips
Installing concrete rings in the pit
Filling around the ground
Technology of the construction of the finished rings
AT construction of wells from concrete rings used mainly lowering method. Although you can go a different way: install concrete elements in a pre-dug mine, but the descent method is more practical and safer. When it walls of the mine strengthened simultaneously with the extraction of soil, which eliminates the collapse of loose rocks in the trunk in the process.
For the construction of the well fit both concrete and reinforced concrete rings with locking chamfer on the end edge. Note that with equal sizes, the first and second variants differ in mass. For example, with a concrete ring of Ø 1 m and a height of 0.7 m, the weight will average 800 kg. A similar w / w element will weigh only about 500 kg.
The use of reinforced concrete rings - the easiest way and convenient material for the construction of a shaft well
In addition, the wall thickness of the concrete ring for the construction of the well must be at least 10 cm, better than 12 cm. When using reinforced concrete rings, a minimum of 6 cm is allowed, but the average statistical thickness is 7–8 cm.
The construction of a well shaft of concrete rings does not require the use of lifting equipment.
The size of the walls to a large extent is reflected in the size of the inner diameter, and in turn it affects the convenience during the development of the mine and the subsequent use of the well.
It is better to build a well shaft in a bottom-up way, but you can install them into a previously dug pit using the technology shown in the diagram.
The suitable diameter of the rings is chosen with reference to the comfortable position of the worker during the digging in the mine. On average, it is from 1.0 m to a maximum of 1.5 m. Do not hope that there will be more water in a wide well. If it is imperfect, then the inflow will be equivalent in both wide and narrow trunk.
In addition to the factory concrete rings, you also need to purchase a shoe - a shortened concrete ring, equipped with a chisel along the bottom edge. It will accelerate the penetration and ensure a smooth immersion of the column of concrete elements in the ground. When constructing a shaft of homemade rings, the lower edge of the starting ring is made in the form of a cone.
A tripod with a hook block fixed at its top will help to significantly ease the process of lifting the soil from the well shaft. Descent and ascent can be done using a manual winch or electric winch.
If, when digging a neighbor's well, loose sands were removed, then there is a chance of clamping the upper part of the trunk with the collapsed rock. At the same time, the lower part continues to fall, the upper part remains clamped in place, and a gap appears between them, which is extremely difficult to eliminate.
The stepped version of the device of the well shaft is made of cone-shaped rings, which form stiffening ribs from the outside, from the inside there are steps for ascent / descent
The most common method of building a well from rings is the lowering method, according to which the trunk is built up from above and plunges into the ground due to undermining
To avoid such a serious accident, it is better to stock up with a bar of 16 mm for the manufacture of brackets fastening the rings or strip 5-10 mm thick.
To facilitate the procedure of lifting the soil from the mine under development, it is advisable to make a tripod and attach a block to its top. So it is more convenient and faster to move the case to free the trunk from the rolled-off rock.
Concrete or reinforced concrete elements for the construction of a well shaft are procured in advance, taking into account the height of the neighbor’s mine or are poured on the construction site.
Steps of the lowering method for the construction of an imperfect shaft well:
- Mark the outline of the mine on the actual size of the rings. The easiest method of marking is to center the peg with a string tied to it, equal to half the diameter of the ring. This simplified compasses need to delineate the boundaries.
- We dug out a round ditch according to a marking. It may be slightly wider than the outline, so that it would be easier to immerse the starting ring. Digging about ¾ of the height of the concrete element.
- We install a shoe with a cutter in the pit, check its position by level. If necessary, align the position so that there are no further distortions of the trunk.
- We dive into the mine starting ring. We fasten it with a shoe in four places with staples or metal plates cut from a strip, if it is not certain that when the shoe is submerged, it will not be separated from the concrete column.
- We select the soil inside the mine, without undermining it under the shoe.
- We dig under the shoe four or more cavities so that equal height logs, bricks or similar temporary supports could fit there.
- We install the supports in such a way that the assembled part of the well rests evenly on them. We control the landing of the trunk with a level and a plumb in order not to correct the flaws that increase with depth in the future.
- Undermining the remaining areas under the shoe and knock out temporary props.
- We plant a ring in the ground, seeking to maintain the uniformity of immersion.
- We act in accordance with the above algorithm, until the upper edge of the ring is aligned with the surface.
- We put the sealant along the chamfer of the installed ring - tarred hemp cord Ø 20 mm. We use sealant for at least three to five lower rings. It is needed in the intake part and a little higher in case of a level increase during the flood period.
- Install the next ring, if necessary, connect it with the previous one in 3 - 4 locations around the circumference.
With this method, we deepen and increase the rings until water-saturated sand appears. We dig into it as many meters of the mine as our neighbors had. At this time, it will be necessary to constantly pump out water from the mine so that it does not interfere with the worker.
The diagram shows the process of digging up the soil under the cutting shoe of the wellbore in steps
If there is no information on burial in a water carrier, then after installing at least one concrete element, it is necessary to make another simplified exploration.
Before undermining the ground under the barrel, you need to dig in the center of something like a pit. If there are only sand and small stones in the pit, then the development of the mine can be continued until the next ring is submerged.
Then reconnaissance is carried out until at the bottom of the hole there appears a roof of an impermeable layer - clayey, similar to clay clay. This is a signal to stop digging.
Now the work in the mine is only in the device of the bottom filter of a three-layer gravel backfill. Gravel fall asleep in three tiers with a thickness of 15 - 20 cm. The fraction of each top layer must be larger than the bottom.
To eliminate the shift and displacement of concrete rings, they are connected with curved brackets of reinforcing bars, welded brackets or metal plates with bolted fasteners (+)
When installing a perfect type of well in the country, the shaft should be installed on the roof of the impermeable formation. Intelligence, of course, is not necessary during the period of digging. The mine is just gradually submerged until it comes to rest in the water-pressure.
It should be noted that one or more starting links of a perfect well must pass water through the walls. To do this, in the rings in a checkerboard pattern, similarities are formed of windows filled with fine mesh, cinderbread crackers or similar porous materials with filtering capabilities.
The number of rings should be such as to completely cover and somewhat exceed the power of the aquifer.
Rings with side filters are used not only in the construction of perfect wells, but also in the construction of imperfect structures in layers with a weak inflow of water.
In order to increase the flow of water into imperfect wells with a small flow rate and for the device of the filtering water receiving part of a perfect well, the starting ring is arranged with perforations. Its function can be performed by original “windows” of large-pore concrete or holes filled with fine stainless steel mesh.
Before you decide to dig the well itself or invite guest workers, it is worth calculating the amount to be paid for digging the well. Details of the definition own source prices learn from the article recommended by us.
Homemade device method
The technology of construction is similar to the previous method, but is complicated by the procedure for manufacturing concrete rings. For this, it is necessary to stock up in advance folding formwork from boards or sheet metal interconnected into one web.
It is clear that the formwork must be a pair: one part must repeat the outer surface of the ring, the second inner. The size and shape of the formwork is better to choose the size of the factory rings.
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For self-made manufacturing of concrete rings will require a formwork, which can be rented or made from roofing iron
The diameter of the rings is selected, focusing on the method of installation. If the digging of the well will be done manually, the internal size must be from 1.2 m for ease of operation.
In order that during the hardening the concrete mass does not deform the formwork, spacers are installed inside - metal rods that provide rigidity
For the manufacture of reinforced concrete rings inside the formwork, reinforcing mesh is installed before pouring
It takes at least 28 days for the concrete to cure. At this time, pouring formwork should be protected from direct sunlight, excessive moisture and freezing.
Within 28 days, the concrete does not harden, but hardens and gains strength. The curing process takes place from the periphery to the center of the body of the concrete product. After the specified period, the concrete will not harden completely, but it will be ready to assemble the well.
Formwork for pouring concrete rings can be made from the board by connecting the elements with a metal strip or rubber bands. This formwork can be used repeatedly
The formwork device of the slats will relieve from the characteristic edges that form at the board joints in the board version. In order to remove the formwork easier, inside it is desirable to lay polyethylene
Use of formwork for making rings
Choosing the optimum diameter for concrete rings
Spacer inside the metal formwork
Reinforced mesh waiting for reinforced concrete products
The curing period of the concrete element
Dismantling the formwork after curing
Homemade formwork from the board
Formwork device for pouring from the batten
For the preparation of the mortar, you need Portland cement of grade not lower than 400, river or quarry sand and gravel of fraction 30 - 70. In order for the rings to be freely submerged in the ground, the walls of the hand-made article are needed as smooth as possible. Therefore, preference is given to gravel of small fractions.
For self-made production of rings it is necessary to develop a project of formwork. The optimal proportions of the concrete mix are 1: 2.5: 4 and / or 1: 2: 3; VC from 0.5 to 0.7
Water is needed with neutral acidity. Its volume is determined by the EC graphs, taking into account that the water-cement ratio for pouring elements of a well cannot be less than 0.7. Considering the consumption of cement with water, it is possible to calculate the volume of the initial components for the production of rings.
It is necessary to think in advance about the type of folding edges of the rings: the butt will be a straight quarter or with a beveled wall.
The joining of the elements of the concrete shaft will be carried out faster and with greater accuracy if you provide for the face chamfer when pouring
To form a fold during the casting period, two more ring-shaped parts will be required, one of which must be laid on the bottom of the formwork, the second over the fill. These parts must fit together so that the elements of the well can be tightly joined.
At the stage of preparing the formwork, the decision on the use of reinforcement is made. If the reinforcement cage is applied, then the consumption of the solution for pouring will be reduced. It is possible that the cost of the ring will slightly increase, but at the same time the rigidity and strength of the structure will increase.
If you plan to install concrete rings in the pit with the use of construction equipment, in the reinforcement cage should lay the mounting loop
The reinforcement is constructed from vertically mounted rods and horizontally laid rings from a bar of 10 - 12 mm. The diameter of the rings should be less than the size of the outer part of the formwork assembly, but larger than the inside, so that the structure can fit freely in the gap formed by them.
Between the vertical elements of the reinforcement cage should be about 25 cm, between the horizontal rings 10 -20 cm. To create a single system, reinforcing rods and rings are fastened with knitting wire.
Formwork is filled with layers of 100-150 mm each. As the solution is filled, the ram is pressed until cement jelly comes to the surface. The tamper should be carried out necessarily, the more densely the solution is laid, the higher the strength characteristics of the product.
After laying the mixture in the formwork should take care of its proper hardening. The first 10 days of the ring should be protected from possible freezing and drying. The surface should be moistened periodically or covered with wet sawdust.
Having completed work on the construction of the mine, it is necessary to equip the well head and arrange a clay castle - a ring of crumpled compacted clay. Lock width 0.5 m, depth from 1.0 to 1.5 m (+)
The starting ring is made with the lower cutting edge. If you do not want to mess around with the edge device, you can buy a shoe or pour it separately. The formation of filtering windows in the walls of concrete rings, as in the previous case, depends on the structural type of the well. The technology of building a mine from homemade rings is generally no different.
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In the decoration of the concrete ring, which serves as a wellhead, various techniques are used. For example, lathing with a batten or board
Finishing the tip is easy to do with your own hands. It is important for this to choose a binder that is compatible with the concrete base and the material to be mounted.
All possible materials that imitate natural stone or brick masonry are used in facing.
It looks great stylized log or log log house, made only for the surface part of the mine shaft
Boarding well headboard
Decorating the headboard do it yourself
Installation of decorative log
Having completed work on the installation of the well shaft, you can safely proceed to the arrangement of its own source. At the bottom of the imperfect structure, the trunk of which is buried in the water carrier, but does not rest on the waterproof rock, a bottom filter should be built.
The bottom of an imperfect type well should be equipped with a bottom filter. It is filled from three layers of rocks with good filtration properties. The first layer is about 10 cm of sand, then 15 cm of fine and on top of larger gravel (+)
A clay lock should be organized around the barrel to protect household wastewater from entering the mine. The cap must be equipped with at least a cover or a canopy and a device for lifting well water.
Do not forget that in addition to digging your own water source, its owner will also have to carry out regular maintenance. Methods, rules and frequency of cleaning the well is devoted this article.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. How to choose the best place for the device of a well on a country site:
Video # 2. An example of a hand-digging mine shaft:
Video # 3. Video with step-by-step demonstration of the process of equipping the shaft well:
Building your own well is not an easy, but quite a doable task that a housemaster can easily solve without hiring workers. True, he will need at least two assistants to extract the soil to the surface and to monitor the state of the worker at the bottom of the mine.
In the case of dizziness, it should immediately be lifted to the surface, and before work regularly check the gas content with a burning candle or gas analyzer.
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