The content of the article:
Rust on the apple tree leaves, as well as other defects on various parts of the plant, indicate the presence of the disease. If such symptoms are found, urgent measures should be taken.
Types of diseases of apple trees
To date, there is a very large number of diseases of apple trees. The most common are the following varieties:
- black cancer;
- powdery mildew;
- fruit rot.
Each disease is dangerous in its own way. When the slightest signs of disease appear, one should immediately start treating the plant.
The diseases of apple trees and their treatment (photos can be found on the Internet) are very diverse. The most common is "black cancer". Such a disease can be determined by the following symptoms:
- the appearance on the leaves of black specks - their number and size are growing every day;
- presence of black rot on fruit;
- darkening of the bark of the tree, the appearance of multiple cracks on its surface, its reversal in the opposite direction.
Treatment of black apple carcinoma must be carried out with the help of Bordeaux fluid - it treats affected areas on the trunk. But this operation is necessary only after flowering of trees. To prevent the appearance of a disease of this kind it is worthwhile to conduct preventive work. This will allow to save a maximum of plants. Black spots on the leaves of the apple tree can not be eliminated, but you can simply prevent their appearance:
- to fight against small pests;
- appropriately fertilize and disinfect the soil.
Often, this kind of activities is enough to prevent the infection of the tree with black cancer. If on the site there are any plants that were still affected by this disease, it is necessary to cut off the black areas of the bark and branches, and then burn them outside the site.
One of the most frequent questions of gardeners: scab on the apple-tree - how to deal with it? This disease is quite easy to determine. It manifests itself almost immediately after the plant is infected. The first sign of infection is the rust on the leaves of the apple tree. If possible, it is necessary to start the fight against the disease as quickly as possible.
The disease of this type is the most common fungus. To save a tree it is possible only in case of timely detection of places of infection. If you run the disease too much, then you can say goodbye to the plant. It is best to get acquainted with the signs of apple tree disease from the photo.
The fight against the disease of this type should begin in the early spring and be carried out with the help of the composition "Topaz" as follows:
- the substance is diluted in a ratio of 2 ml per 10 liters;
- even before flowering, the composition of the trunk of the tree is processed;
- after flowering, the plant must also be treated.
Also, instead of the "Topaz" preparation, you can use "Hom". It should be diluted in an amount of 40 g per 10 liters of water and spray the stem of the plant before and after flowering. Excellent results are given also by colloidal sulfur, which is diluted in an amount of 80 g per bucket of water. It is very important not to overdo it with the above mentioned compounds. This can lead to burns of the bark and deciduous cover.
Such a disease, as powdery mildew, is dangerous because it damages young shoots and apple buds.
The disease of the leaves of an apple tree of this type is characterized by an extremely rapid spread. The tree under the influence of the fungus that causes the disease, can die literally in one month. It also often happens that the mycelium experiences a cold winter in the trunk of the plant and after the thaw starts to act with new force, destroying the fruit tree from the inside.
For the treatment of apple trees from the disease of the type in question, the following preparations can be used:
The compositions in question should be diluted in a quantitative ratio of 2 mg for every 10 liters of water. In this case, the treatment is best carried out with a special spray gun in the early spring, before the flowering begins. After this, without fail, it will be necessary to perform the treatment of the tree with copper oxychloride, for which the preparation called "Hom" is perfect. It should be bred in quantities of 40 grams per bucket of water.
Sometimes after performing the above actions, the plant visually looks normal, there are no signs of disease on it. It is mandatory to collect all the fruits. To minimize the likelihood of disease recurrence, you should also perform treatment with Bordeaux fluid - 1% solution. A solution of copper sulfate is also excellent. It should be mixed in an amount of 50 g per one bucket of water, while adding 20 g of liquid soap.
Why do the leaves turn yellow in June? The reason for this can be the most common fruit rot. Despite the name, it affects not only the apples themselves, but also the leaves. However, the main sign of the presence of a disease of this type is the presence of severe damages precisely of the fetuses.
Disease of this type is the most dangerous, since the presence of it can be detected only after the flowering process has ended, when the spoiled fruit is detected. Fighting fruit rot is quite difficult - it damages apples before they mature. The best way out of the situation is to simply prevent the onset of the disease.
It is best to just try not to allow the appearance of such a disease on fruits and trees. To do this it is quite simple: it is necessary to perform preventive treatment with the usual emulsion of nitrafen - this substance is diluted in an amount of 200 g per 10 liters of water. Also, the following drugs are excellent for fighting the disease of the type in question:
- DNOC - 200 g for every 10 liters of water;
- a suspension of colloidal sulfur - 100 g for every 10 liters of water.
Another way to minimize the likelihood of a disease of the type in question is the collection of all affected fruits and their systematic destruction. This operation should be carried out daily. Dispose of apples as far as possible from the site. It is advisable not to bury them in the ground and not to throw out, but simply to burn. So you can completely destroy the pathogenic fungus, leading to the appearance of rot.
To avoid the situation, when the appearance of which on the apple tree leaves are covered with brown spots, it is necessary to perform various preventive works.
First of all, they include inspection of the trunk of a tree. The trunk should be as level as possible, the presence of any cracks and other defects is not allowed. It touches on leaves and fruits. Even if the symptoms of any diseases appeared only on one or two leaves or apples, the whole complex of measures for disinfecting the plant should be performed. Perhaps this will save him from death.
Growing an apple tree is quite difficult, despite the unpretentious nature of most of its varieties. That is why it is necessary to monitor its condition as closely as possible. Since with untimely treatment of the described diseases, you can lose not only the harvest, but the tree itself.