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Successful viticulture is primarily associated with creating conditions in which the vine receives enough nutrition, light and watering. If one of the factors is broken, diseases and pests come. It is important to anticipate the emergence of damaging factors, focusing on weather conditions. Preventing the disease is easier than eradicating. Therefore, there is a system for protecting the vineyard and its preventive treatment. It establishes, than to spray grapes from illnesses, and in what terms.
Agrotechnics of grapes
The ancient culture of grapes has accumulated many diseases. All of them can be divided into infectious and depending on the conditions of detention, natural factors. Infectious diseases represent that part of the living world that develops in the vine bush - fungi, viruses, bacteria. Prevention is aimed at combating these factors. Science suggests how to treat grapes from diseases and how to avoid lesions.
First of all, the seat of the bush is of great importance. The preparation of a landing pit with refueling with the necessary nutrients is the key to the proper development of the plant in the early years. When planting the cuttings on a permanent place, they are soaked with the addition of potassium permanganate from infection with the odum. The bush needs protection during the entire summer period, until it leaves for the winter.
In order for diseases to not adapt to the fungicides used, they are used alternately. There are fungicides of systemic action and drugs aimed at specific diseases.
Fungicidal treatments are also carried out on the fallen sheet, the soil when laying the vines for winter storage. Preventive spraying is carried out at certain periods of plant development.
- In the stage of bud swelling against the odum and red grape tick.
- On the fifth sheet against mildew and gray rot, if it was in past years.
- In the stage of development of inflorescences against ticks and oduma.
- Before flowering against ticks, major diseases, foliar top dressing on the leaf, together.
- After flowering, systemic treatment with insecticides, fungicides with the addition of trace elements is used.
- In the stage of the beginning of the filling, a systemic fungicide is used, which stimulates top dressing. In inclement weather, weekly.
- When clusters are closed with systemic fungicides and against gray rot.
In the future, treatments are carried out as necessary by gentle means before harvesting. However, later, when preparing for wintering, again use the drugs of systemic action.
Preparations for processing of grapes
All drugs for the suppression of diseases are called fungicides. Among them are:
- systemic fungicides;
- contact fungicides.
The difference in the active substance used makes it possible to act on the pathogens from the outside, and to destroy the mycelium from the inside.
As a preventive treatment at all stages of development, it is possible to make the processing of grapes soda. As a result, a film with an alkaline reaction is created on which the spores of the fungus can not germinate. Spray the bush with a solution of 50 grams of laundry soap and 50 g of soda for 10 liters of water before and after flowering every week. Such processing is also appropriate during the August appearance of the Odyum signs. It also acts on the odium and potassium permanganate solution.
Another drug that should be in the set of chemicals is iron vitriol. For the grapesYesthe drug is irreplaceable. The need for vitriol in the cultivation of agricultural technology is due to:
- trace element in a soluble form, well digestible;
- forms a film on the object after drying;
- detains spring budding;
- fights mosses and lichens, fungicide.
This is the only composition of iron salt, which is absorbed without changing into another form. As foliar top dressing, it quickly enters the plant system. However, iron vitriol is used for grape in spring in low concentration. Even before the blossoming of the foliage over the bark, it is used at a concentration of -1%. In autumn, for processing, you can use in whitewashing up to 3%, and to destroy lichens in 5% concentration. But apply the concentrated solution only in the deep autumn, when the sap flow will stop.
Spring application of ferrous sulphate delays the opening of the kidneys, and the plant goes away from spring frosts. Also, urea is active in high concentrations, if spraying occurs immediately after the snow has melted.
Colloidal sulfur for grapes - a preparation of contact action
It serves to destroy the spores of the odium and is used at the first appearance of the signs of the disease. It is also used at the first signs of anthracosis, it has a harmful effect on ticks. Colloidal sulfur can be used simultaneously with copper fungicides. The solution is prepared on warm water with gradual dissolution of the preparation. The working solution is used fresh. In addition, for prevention purposes, sulfur can be used, applying it to the surface of the leaf blade by the thin spray method. Colloidal sulfur for grapes creates a protective barrier for 10-14 days.
While treating the vineyard with chemicals, one should not forget about individual protection measures. The inhalation of vapors, getting them to open areas of the body can cause allergic reactions and poisoning. If this happens, you need to thoroughly wash the body or eyes. If swallowed, drink plenty of water with activated charcoal. After all, consult a doctor.
Thanos fungicide for systemic grapes
It is a drug that is resistant to rinsing and can be used in wet weather. The active substance famoxadone forms an indelible film and is distributed evenly over the surface, protecting it from sprouting spores.
Cimoxanil penetrates the leaf plate and produces its therapeutic effect, moving inside. He moves from leaf to stem and in a day reaches a uniform concentration. In doing so, it binds pathogens within the plant. This is achieved by creating a capsule around the affected cells.
Fungicide for vineyard tanos is a preparation from a complex of diseases. Apply it to the grape leaf should be no less than three hours before the rain. It is used in joint treatments with other drugs that have acid reaction.
The protective effect of the preparation of quadris in the application for grapes consists in its systemic action against most spores and bacteria. The class of the new pesticide is strobilurins. The action of the active part is systemic. It can be used for preventive purposes and at the height of the disease. For a day Quadrice 250 SC suppresses the disease. At the same time - it is a low-toxic drug, does not affect bees. In order not to be addictive, the application of Quadras for grapes alternates with Topaz or Rhodomil Gold.
The preparation Falcon
Known for its innovations, Bayer has released a new systemic drug Falcon for grapes. Active substances complex destroy all fungal diseases. In this spiroxamine affects the false and American dew, tebuconazole and triadimenol suppress the growth of the mycelium.
The preparation forms a film, is not washed off and is applied at any stage of the disease development. A very effective remedy Falcon for grapes is sold in a package of 5 liters. Since the fungicide is not cheap, only large farms can afford it in such a container.
Another preparation of systemic action directed mainly to combat scab on fruit stone trees was issued by Syngenta. Fungicide Horus for grapes is used to prevent rot. The active substance cyprodinil provides the creation of a film on the berry. It can be used in the prevention and treatment of vines. The drug is not washed off with water two hours after treatment. It is used at the beginning of the development of the brush and at the end, in order to prevent infection with white rot. The period of protective action is 7-10 days. The drug begins within the first 36 hours.
From the series "Rescuer" in agrotechnics use the Rescuer of grapes. The drug is a systemic action against insects and fungal diseases. The package contains three ampoules:
- destroys insect pests;
- protects against fungal diseases;
- regulator and growth promoter.
The grapes rescuer easily destroys the aphid friloxera, spider mite and other system pests of the garden. The rate of application is three ampoules per 10 liters of water. Use the product using personal protective equipment.
After treatment, the effect of the drug continues for 3-4 weeks, depending on the weather conditions.
Using systemic action drugs in accordance with recommended doses and at the right time, you can get a healthy vineyard.