The warm floor system today is widely used in the arrangement of residential premises. Such heating contributes to the uniform distribution of temperature and maintaining a comfortable microclimate in the room. The choice of system and its installation technology depend on the type of flooring.
We will understand how to make an electric floor heating under the tile and denote the permissible methods of installation. In addition, we give a step-by-step briefing on the arrangement of underfloor heating and describe the important points of connecting the system to the power supply.
The content of the article:
Electric floor heating options for tiles
- Cable system
- Infrared film floor
Ways to install film floor
- Dry laying
- Wet screed filling
Technology installation of cable floor tile
- Layout plan
- Preparatory and energy saving work
- Variant of floor heating device
- Cabling installation
- System connection and screed filling
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Electric floor heating options for tiles
With all the "advantages" of floors, trimmed with tiles and its competitor - ceramic granite, they are difficult to attribute to the category of warm coatings.
It is easiest to eliminate this drawback by installing a floor system that can operate all year round, which is especially important for apartments that depend on centralized heating.
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Ceramic flooring is ideal for laying over an electric heating system.
The floor ceramic coating has a high thermal conductivity, it heats up quickly and conducts heat well.
All known types of ceramic floor tiles and porcelain
Mosaic can be used if it is placed on a screed that is powerful enough to prevent damage to the heating system, and glue that provides a linear expansion of the system when heated
On the same foundations, small figured tiles are used, used in the formation of ornaments or in the arrangement of the entire area.
In tandem with a ceramic flooring, the cable floor works perfectly, laid in loops in 10-15 cm steps.
It is much easier and more efficient to work when using electrical mats with a mesh basis instead of a cable system
Under the floor tile, the infrared film type of the heating system is practically not used, since To fix the tile, you need glue or a screed, which is not customary to pour on IR floors
Compatible tiles and underfloor heating
Thermal conductivity of floor ceramics
Tile options for underfloor heating
Laying small curly tiles
Construction of cable heating system
Electric mats paired with tiles
Infrared film system
When choosing the type of electric floor system, they are guided not only by the area of the heated room.
Three basic parameters are taken into account:
- compatibility with the selected flooring;
- the ability to build a concrete screed;
- price range.
The power consumption of the selected system and the cable length specified by the manufacturer per a given area is on average 140-160 W / sq.m. But, planning to use ceramic granite similar in structure to stone as a finishing lining, it is better to choose a system with a nominal power of 220 W / sq. m
In apartment buildings, electric floors are considered to be almost the only available way to organize additional heating of housing.
The basis of this heating system consists of single- and twin-core electrical heating cables embedded in a monolithic cement screed.
Regardless of the type of wire used. they are able to rationally release heat at the time of passage of electric current through them, providing simultaneous and at the same time equal heating throughout the length (+)
The difference between them is significant:
- Single core - based on the heating of their conductor is the resist principle that acts when the heating element or the iron spiral is functioning. Single-core, although they are famous for their democratic price, are very inconvenient to install, since they require that the ends meet at one point, and the wires themselves do not cross when distributed over the floor.
- Two-core - the function of the heating "helix" in them is able to perform both one cable and both at once. They are equipped with a terminal sleeve, which ensures that the circuit is closed.
If we compare single-and two-core cables, the first ones lose in the fact that electromagnetic interference from them occurs much more than from two-core analogs.
The height of the cable system, including centimeters, used to prepare the base plus the thickness of the floor covering itself, reaches 10 cm (+)
But in view of the laboriousness and duration of the installation, which requires the master to have appropriate qualifications, and a long waiting period before commissioning of the system, such cable options gradually lose their position in the market, giving way to more modern thermomatams.
A key feature of the finished heating mats is that single- and twin-core conductors are initially fixed to a fiberglass mesh frame.
Due to the fact that the heating mats are allowed to lay on the basic base, bypassing the construction phase of the substrate, and the tile "put" directly on them, the height of the system reaches only 5-6 cm
Unlike cable analogs, heating mats do not emit a harmful electromagnetic field, and their elements are resistant to rust.
Infrared film floor
Film floor is considered one of the most efficient among modern heating systems. Unlike the above-described analogs of the system, it does not create electromagnetic fields, but emits waves that are close in spectral parameters to solar radiation.
Due to this, the room is fully heated uniformly, and the ionized air has a positive effect on the health of the household.
In an effort to improve the durability and reliability of the plates, some manufacturers cover the heating elements with graphite coating
There are two types of film systems:
- With carbon type plates on lavsan filmthat emit far-infrared radiation. When connecting carbon bands used parallel circuit. They can be laid safely under both porcelain stoneware and tile.
- Carbon bilayer films with bimetal stripsmade of copper or aluminum alloy. Heating strips in such films are located between layers of elastic, but at the same time dense polyurethane. For this reason, they are poorly compatible with ceramic coating.
Infrared PLEN systems allowed to be placed on horizontal surfaces as well as on vertical bases. Their laying is allowed to be carried out without a coupler. Therefore, the thickness along with the finishing lining does not exceed two centimeters.
Regardless of the type of system chosen for connection, you will also need to purchase a thermostat, the design of which is equipped with a thermal sensor
The choice of thermal sensors presented in the domestic market is wide and diverse: with push-button and mechanical control, with LCD and LED display, in various colors and original design solutions.
Any of the presented models is designed for installation in a socket outlet of standard dimensions.
Ways to install film floor
When installing a warm film under the tile, the installation of the floor system is performed using one of two technologies: “dry”, involving the use of gypsum sheets, “wet” - by pouring concrete.
Since tile glue adheres too poorly to a smooth film, when laying such a floor system, an intermediate layer is built between it and the tile.
For this purpose lay:
- gypsum sheets, which are gypsum panels, pasted on both sides with thick cardboard;
- glass magnesite sheets made of composite materials, supplemented with wood chips.
Both materials weakly resist infrared radiation, so that the loss of properties of infrared radiation becomes minimal. As a result, such a multilayer system evenly distributes the heat generated over the entire floor, thereby eliminating the possibility of overheating.
The electric floor heating system is assembled according to the principle of “multi-layered cake”: a heat insulator is laid on the base, on top of which a thermal film is lined, and then covered with plasterboard and tiles
Laying infrared floor heating under the tile is performed in six stages:
- The heat-reflecting layer is lined on the repaired from cracks and crevices, and then leveled base.
- The second layer is laid strip of carbon film so that the edges of the layers do not find each other. It is desirable to cover the laid strips with a film from dense polyethylene.
- Having installed terminal clips on the edges of copper plates, connect them to electrical wires. The assembled system is connected via a room thermostat, after which they check the uniformity of heating of all the plates.
- Sheets of drywall are cut into blanks of the appropriate size in order to completely cover the heating strips with them.
- Plasterboard sheets fastened to the base are covered with a layer of primer.
- With the help of glue intended for the system of warm floors, glue the tiles.
The main thing when laying a carbon film - to ensure the most intimate contact with the insulating material. This is necessary in order to exclude the occurrence of an air-filled void.
When laying the carbon film, it should be placed with copper elements down so that the connection contacts are directed in the direction where the thermostat is supposed to be hung. Places of cuts of a film from seamy side, and also points of connection of electric wires must be covered with a layer of bitumen insulation.
From the bottom side of the lined film, the temperature sensor is mounted, and after connecting all the contacts, the heat controller is connected directly to the network (+)
Plasterboard sheets fixed to the primary base by screwing, trying not to violate the integrity of the plates.
Wet screed filling
The implementation of this method of installation will require a lot of time and effort. To save bills for consumed kilowatts, which are used to warm up the floor slab, the substrate is laid out in the form of insulation under the floor system.
In the role of the substrate used:
- Isonon - polyethylene foam having a disconnected molecular structure;
- folgizol - created on the basis of polyethylene foam and coated with metallized polypropylene film;
- technical traffic jamhaving a honeycomb structure.
The insulating material is cut into strips, the size of which corresponds to the width of the thermal film. Blanks spread out under each mat so that all the cutouts in the film fell on the substrate.
Thermal insulation is designed to prevent the loss of heat generated, making it possible to use it as fully as possible.
On top of the insulation stack heat-reflecting layer. All joints are treated with special glue.
Since there is no grounding for the installation of a film warm floor, it is not allowed to use aluminum foil, which is a conductive material, as a heat reflector.
For the same reason, a reinforcing mesh with cells of 20-40 mm, intended for a concrete screed, should be made not of metal, but of polymer.
The role of earthing can perform electrically conductive adhesive tape, which is glued around the perimeter of the room. To improve the security of the system, it is necessary to “power up” it from a separate machine, and on entering install a residual current device.
To the heat-reflecting interlayer with the help of pieces of building adhesive tape, glue heating plates, conductive tires which "look" down
The laid floor system is covered with plastic wrap and proceed to the laying of the concrete screed. For this, a cellular plastic mesh is placed on top of the film, the size of the sections of which is 5 * 5 cm or 10 * 10 cm.
It will serve as a reinforcement cage. The mesh is attached to the previously laid layers, taking care not to damage the thermal film.
Concrete-cement mortar is applied on top of the laid and fixed mesh, forming a layer 5 mm thick, so that it completely blocks the technological holes. Leave the screed for a week and a half to complete drying.
When the screed acquires the necessary strength, proceed to the stage of gluing tile or porcelain stoneware. Lining technology is common. The only thing - "put" the coating on the glue, which is not afraid of temperature extremes.
Technology installation of cable floor tile
Installation of cable under floor tile requires a certain qualification. In addition, to include such a system is allowed only one month from the date of installation.
Before proceeding with the installation of the system, it would be correct to pre-scale the layout of its layout on paper. When developing a plan from the total working area exclude areas on which furniture is placed and it is proposed to install heavyweight household appliances.
It should be understood that further rearrangement may adversely affect the performance of the floor system.
A buffer zone of 100 mm (+) must be provided between the heat sources in the form of radiators and the floor system.
Taking into account all the nuances in the finished form, the layout plan will have the shape of an irregular shape of the figure, which is inscribed with a rectangular and square coverage area.
Based on the total working surface area, the cable length is calculated taking into account the factor that the cable should cover 70-75% of the total quadrature. From that, the floor system is how competently designed, its efficiency will depend.
At the design stage, you need to think about a convenient place for thermostat placement. In some cases, when arranging the floor system, it is necessary to lay a separate electrical wiring line of the required power.
Preparatory and energy saving work
A key condition for proper installation, as the heating system, and the finishing tiles is carefully aligned surface. The task of the master is to bring the base to zero, because the worse the base is prepared, the worse the final result will be.
In case of severe damage to the base, it is better to complete the dismantling of the old coating, and level the floor afterwards with a concrete coupler 3-5 cm thick.
A set of tools that will be needed to perform the work:
- building level;
- roulette and ruler for marking and control;
- stripping tool and wire cuts;
- soldering iron with solder for tinning wires before switching;
- construction dryer for heating shrink tubing;
- perforator and grinder with a disc on the stone;
- multimeter for control measurements of the conductivity of the circuit and its resistance;
- megohmmeter to check insulation resistance;
- construction mixer and container for mixing cement mixture;
- roller and brushes for applying a liquid primer;
- notched and conventional spatula for spreading pasty cement mixture.
To prevent a situation when the laid system will heat the ceiling to its neighbors, it is necessary to perform energy-saving work.
The thickness of the thermal insulation layer depends on the category of rooms located below: if it is a heated dwelling, then it can be limited to two or three centimeters, if the basement or basement is at least 5 cm (+)
Planning to equip a warm floor on the loggia or veranda, a layer of insulation should be laid in front of the waterproofing layer. Sheets should be used for this purpose. extruded polystyrene foam 10 cm thick or mineral wool.
On the prepared base lay waterproofing layer, the basis for which is:
- foil penofol, representing the rolled material from the made foam components, equipped with internal reinforcement;
- extruded polystyrene foamhaving a foamed polymeric structure;
- polyethylene foamequipped with foil-coated.
Material should be laid with overlapping on the wall. To compensate for thermal expansion between the floor and the wall, a damping tape is laid around the base perimeter. Partial insulation of walls at a level of 20 cm from the floor level will help reduce heat loss.
Variant of floor heating device
Consider the step-by-step process of installing an electric variety of a warm floor from mats prepared for laying on a cement base.
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Step 1: Before the construction of electric floor heating with the subsequent laying of tiles, we repair and level the base. Then we try on lanes to select the optimal layout.
Step 2: Considering that the electrical system should not be placed under the furniture installed on the floor without legs, spreading the insulating substrate and laying the mats
Step 3: In order to prevent the moisture penetrating the tile joints from causing short circuits, we place plastic waterproofing over the electrical mats.
Step 4: The cable to which the thermostat sensor will be connected is entered into the corrugation. To lay the cable in the corrugation and the sensor we will groove the groove in the floor
Step 5: We start the cable of the thermostat with the sensor connected to it into the gate, which is then filled with plaster or tile glue flush with the floor plane
Step 6: The thermostat cable recessed into the wall is also laid in a corrugated pipe. Under the device in the concrete walls and brick walls laid strobe
Step 7: In order not to move or damage the floor heating system during operation, apply over electrical system, a layer of tile adhesive or pour polymer screed, which has the ability to expand when heating up
Step 8: Tile adhesive that can expand when heated, or apply a polymer screed evenly over the entire surface.
Preparation for the device electric floor
Laying substrate and electric mats
Floor waterproofing device
Device pens for connecting the sensor
Laying the sensor with cable into the gate
Installing the thermostat
Fixing electric mats
Glueing the entire area
Before directly laying the floor tile, you should consider the layout of the elements of the coating, especially if it is supposed to have any ornament.
Even if there is no pattern, you need to decide how best to put the ceramic elements with minimal trimming.
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Step 9: Apply glue to the base with a comb, the length of the teeth of which is 7 - 8 mm. We wipe and moisten the back surface of the tile, then apply glue on it too
Step 10: Apply the glue in segments so that their area is no more than 1 m². We lay the tile and check its horizontal position with a level; if necessary, we level it by adding or removing excess glue
Step 11: In order to keep distance seams between the elements of the coating, use plastic crosses or at least matches
Step 12: Each segment filled with tiles is checked for horizontal positioning, laying the level in different directions along the freshly finished surface.
Step 13: After laying the floor tiles in the room, we wait until the binder is completely cured. The glue should hold tight.
Step 14: After hardening the glue, we remove plastic crosses from the joints and prepare putty for their joining
Step 15: Gently fill the joints with putty, using a rubber trowel, instead of which you can use the same tile adhesive. Remove excess immediately with a damp cloth.
Step 16: Wipe the ceramic floor completely upon completion of the installation and again wait for the curing of the composition laid in the seams. We do not turn on the heating system until the putty is completely cured
Applying tile glue comb
Horizontal tile alignment
Use of plastic crosses
Technological break for glue curing
The preparation of the composition for filling the seams
Floor tile seams
Cleaning of excess and contamination of tiles after installation
The first thing is to install the thermostat, making it fit into the wall with a special crown for the socket. The height of the nest is at least 300 mm from the floor level. A place placements in the consequence should not be closed by large-sized household appliances or heavy stationary furniture.
The temperature sensor is placed in a corrugated pipe with a diameter of 9-16 cm. To make the pipe run flush with the floor, a strobe is made for it with the help of a perforator or a grinder equipped with a disk for working on stone. A groove of 20 * 20 mm is laid between the floor in the wall and the corrugated pipe in the floor for the placement of electrical wiring.
The length of the horizontal part of the sleeve for the installation of the sensor must be about 0.6-0.8 meters, and its lower end is insulated with a plug or wrapped with electrical tape (+)
The heating cable itself before laying should be checked by the tester for the electrical resistance indicator.
Laying cable warm floor under the tile perform in several stages:
- A primer compound is applied to the cleaned and leveled base, which will ensure good adhesion with concrete.
- Over the entire area of the floor to be heated lay foiled rolled insulation, placing the reflective layer out. The strips are laid close to each other, and the seams between them are glued with masking tape.
- Guided by a pre-drawn scheme, they roll over the surface and fix the mounting tapes with self-tapping screws or dowels.
- By mounting strips with plastic clips or "antennae" fix the cable so that its loops bend without tension, while he himself did not intersect with other heating elements. Laying complete in the end coupling.
- Thermal sensor connected to the signal wire is buried in a corrugated tube, the outlet of which is closed by a cap. One end of the corrugated tube with the sensor is placed strictly between the turns of the heating elements, and the second is placed in the gate.
To facilitate installation, use fiberglass reinforcing mesh. It will act as a frame when laying the cable and will serve as an additional strengthening of the screed.
When installing a two-core cable, under no circumstances can they be cut, the heating elements should be laid only as a whole
If necessary, rotate the strip, the mesh base can be cut into fragments, while avoiding laying and crossing the cable. The cable itself can not be cut.
System connection and screed filling
The wires with the contacts of the laid system are brought into the box, inside which the bare “tails” are tinned and commuted.
Using a multimeter, measure the conductivity of the circuit and the resistance, comparing it with previous readings. If possible - additionally check the insulation resistance. Then briefly turn on the power network and check the performance of the system.
In the foiled insulation with a pitch of 1000 mm, “windows” are made with a size of 50 * 200 mm, which will ensure the contact of the future screed with the base of the floor
Having installed the system of beacons to a height of 3-5 cm, evenly distribute the concrete solution over the surface, trying to prevent the formation of air cavities.
A primer is applied to the dried screed and the flooring is laid out. At the time of hardening of the screed, it is important to completely eliminate drafts and to ensure uniformity of hardening of the composition without drying and freezing.
It will take from 7-10 to 28 days to harden and acquire the strength of the screed, depending on the composition of the solution and the recommendations of the manufacturer of the finished mixture. Starting from the third day after the initial setting, it is recommended to regularly moisten it with a spray bottle and cover with plastic wrap.
After the concrete has hardened, it remains only to lay the tile and wait until the glue dries completely. It is possible to start the system no earlier than one month from the moment of the tie filling. And it should be started gradually, starting at the level of 15 ° С, and increasing every day by 4-6 ° С.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to put the infrared system core performance:
Connection procedure for heating mats:
The sequence of laying film system:
It is better to attach a diagram indicating the location of the cable to the passport of the product, supplementing it with such data as the pitch of the coil, the distance from the walls, the location of the connecting and terminal couplings. These values may be required when repairs are needed.
Do you have a personal experience of laying electric floor heating under the tile? Want to share your knowledge or ask questions about a topic? Please leave comments and participate in discussions - the form for reviews is below.