Many summer residents try to grow hyacinths on their site, planting and care in the open ground for which require a certain time. In this article we will look at how to grow these beautiful flowers (even in regions where the earth freezes in winter), when digging out hyacinths, how to store bulbs, how to multiply the variety you like..
- Planting hyacinths in the ground - selecting bulbs and places for planting them
- Cultivation of hyacinths in open ground
- How to care for hyacinth
- When to dig hyacinths after flowering
- How to propagate hyacinths at home
- Cutting the bottom of the hyacinth tuber
- Reproduction by scales from bulbs
- Reproduction of hyacinths by leaf cuttings
- Scoring of the bottom, as a method of hyacinth reproduction
In the early spring, as soon as the snow comes down, the green arrows of hyacinths grow from the earth. This flower with a charming and pronounced aroma differs in all shades of the rainbow. Inflorescences in the form of brushes can be both normal and double in structure, on the peduncle there are usually 20-30 buds.
Planting hyacinths in the ground - selecting bulbs and places for planting them
Perennial hyacinth is an onion culture, the bulb size can be different depending on the flower variety. The planting material is considered to be an adult by the age of 5-6 when it is fully formed. Tuber is a scaly sphere with a bud of renewal - it affects its growth. Adult bulbs by the 5th year usually acquire babies, which are formed near the bottom and hidden under scales.
When choosing a tuber, you should pay attention to the following nuances:
- Bulbs of terry species are often smaller in size, unlike their usual brethren.
- To grow flowers in the open ground, the tuber should have at least 4 cm in diameter, a full active kidney and multiple scales. Elasticity and severity - indicators of the healthy state of the bulb.
- The appearance of the bulb should be ideal - no damage, wilted sides, mold.
- At the bottom of the tuber (near the bottom) should be present root rudiments.
- Donce suitable for planting a bulb should be less than the bulb itself in about a half to two times (we are talking about the volume).
The pledge of a long and lush flowering is not only a quality planting material, but the very place for planting. You can break a flower garden near trees or bushes, but not very close to them. Place for plants should be calm, well illuminated by the sun's rays. The soil needs a loose, if you have a predominance of chernozem or loam on the site, it is advisable to make in advance peat in it (it is possible and sand). Soddy land or deciduous humus - excellent conditions for the development, growth and flowering of hyacinths.
As a fertilizer, the organic produces good results, but manure should not be used. If the soil is acidic (pH above), then it should be diluted with dolomite (limestone) flour. The tubers of hyacinths do not like excessive humidity. If on your site the underground waters run close to the surface (closer than, m), without the arrangement of high beds you can not do. In addition, plants will have to provide a quality drainage substrate, and also make a small slope of the ridge - for better outflow of water during the rains, spring melting of the snows. With the arrival of spring, high beds more quickly warmed by sunlight, hyacinths bloom much earlier.↑ back to content ↑
Cultivation of hyacinths in open ground
It is extremely desirable to prepare the soil in advance - dig at a depth of about 40-45 cm and make the required additives (depending on the composition and condition of the soil). Limestone (200 g), wood ash (150 g), superphosphate (50-70 g), magnesium sulphate (10 g) or potassium (20 g) are added from the approximate calculation for 1 m² of land. To ensure that fragile young roots are not damaged during planting, digging up the soil at the site of the future flower garden is also important. When the bulbs are buried, the soil temperature should be about 8-11 degrees, the distance between the tubers is no more than 10-15 cm. If the flowers are planted in beds, then the width of the aisle should be approximately 18-22 cm. If you want different varieties of hyacinths to blossom simultaneously, make sure that all the tubers are about the same size.
Hyacinth, photo of bulbs:
An acceptable time for planting bulbs is mid September / October. It should be borne in mind that if you plant a tuber too early, it will start to develop, but it will not be able to bear the winter. If you plant hyacinths too late, then they will not have time to take root and get used to the place - respectively, too, will perish. If you are late with a landing, then hurry to the first week of November - this is the latest date. To do this, you will have to resort to additional measures.
The place for the future flower garden is mulched with leaves or some other suitable material, covered with a polyethylene film, to preserve heat. After the deepening of the tubers, the area is covered with wood chips or peat, and it can again be covered with foliage or coniferous lapnik. Special covering material is excellent for this purpose. With the advent of the first days of spring, the protective coating can be removed to free the road to the gnarled hyacinth sprouts..
As mentioned above, the bulbs should be healthy, but if you are still afraid of fungal manifestations, you can pre-soak them in a solution of the fungicide. The width and depth of the hole under the tuber should be equal to its two dimensions - about 15-25 cm, a little sand can be poured onto the bottom, then ditch the tuber downwards (somewhere 13-15 cm). The bulb is sprinkled with soil, which must be slightly compacted, then poured. The root system of the plant absorbs moisture and nutrients from the earth within a radius of about 20 cm from the tuber - this should be taken into account. Small onions can not be deeply buried, they should also be planted quite densely.↑ back to content ↑
How to care for hyacinth
After the protective shelter is removed, the care for the plants will consist of weeding, regular watering, loosening of the soil, and introducing additional fertilizing. It should be borne in mind that hyacinths are bad for the neighborhood of weeds. When the buds begin to tie and the time of flowering comes, fertilization of the soil becomes especially urgent. After the sprouting of the shoots, the flowers can be fed with nitrate (25-30 g per 1 m²).
The second stage of fertilization should be in the period when the buds are gaining color. Now, in addition to ammonium nitrate, you can add potassium chloride (25 g) and a phosphorus additive (for example, superphosphate, 35 g). At the end of flowering, superphosphate and potassium chloride are added to the site - 35 g of each product per 1 m² of area. Fertilizers are processed row-spacing or places between the flowers, after applying fertilizing always follows watering.
Hyacinths - how to care after flowering? Unfortunately, this beautiful period is fleeting, after drying flowers should continue to saturate the roots with moisture. To make the tubers well restored after flowering, watering and fertilizing should be in the first place. If you live in a "cold" region, then for the winter hyacinths can not be left, they will have to be dig out - these are the necessary measures for the further favorable formation of the replacement kidneys.
If you live in the Kuban, in the Crimea, in the north of the Caucasus, then the annual excavation of tubers can be avoided, but only under the condition of a very hot summer. It should be borne in mind that the bulbs left in the ground for next year will give much less flowers.
From my experience I can share this observation: I accidentally dug several bulbs of hyacinths, forgetting that they grew up in this place. I did not dig it, because I urgently needed to plant a rose seedling. And I forgot about them, leaving me to lie on the porch. Accidentally stumbled upon them only in the fall. Has planted. And in the spring she was surprised by the large peduncles, abundantly dotted with flowers that had emerged from the earth in this place. Other hyacinths also bloomed, but their flowering was much more modest, about the same as in the photo below..
When to dig hyacinths after flowering
The optimal period is the last weeks of June - the first half of July, when the leaves of the plant become yellow and weak. The ground part of the flower is removed, the tubers are removed from the soil, washed with water and thoroughly dried. Further we carry out revision - the damaged (or with obvious signs of illness) copies are thrown out. If there are undeveloped babies on the bulb, they are separated and laid to grow. Before storage, all tubers are treated against diseases and pests..
Planting material, photo:
After all manipulations, the bulbs should lie for about 7-10 days in a well-ventilated place at an air temperature of +17.. + 20 ° C. To do this, they need to be spread out on clean paper, and after the specified time, hide in paper bags. It is the period after the flowering, as well as the processing and storage of tubers - the most important for hyacinths. At this time acclimatization of planting material takes place, scales dry up, tubers are prepared for the summer period.
At a sufficiently high summer temperature, air should be accessed to the bulbs and moderate humidity (if the thermometer reaches + 30 ° C). Approximately three weeks before planting, the temperature in the room with the bulbs should be lowered to +16 ° C - this will help them to adapt before planting.↑ back to content ↑
How to propagate hyacinths at home
Separately, it is worth considering the ways of reproduction, as tubers can give flowers for two or three years, but they will not form babies. For this bulbs need stimulation, it is carried out in various ways.↑ back to content ↑
Cutting the bottom of the hyacinth tuber
Even when planting on the site, the place where the largest bulbs are planted is determined. After the leaves turn yellow, the tuber is removed from the ground and immediately, without letting dry, arrange a "shower" under the strong pressure of water. During this process, old scales are removed along with the earth. Further bulbs are laid out in one layer in a ventilated box, taken out to a shaded place, dried for about 7-10 days. After this time, using a sharp knife on the bottom, a wedge-shaped notch is made, in which the kidney and the donut are completely removed. The cut point must be treated with crushed activated carbon.
After this operation, the tubers are laid out in a container, the bottom of which is covered with a layer of perlite. Bulbs should be cut with a donkey up. Then the container is placed in a large plastic bag (you can use garbage bags) to create the required microclimate. At a temperature of + 30 ° C and high humidity, babies will appear on the cut site, and after 2-3 months they will reach about 1 cm, they will acquire rudiments of rootlets and will start small processes. If the cutting of the Don was done in the first months of the summer, the tuber with the children can be planted in the soil and covered with sawdust (or peat).
If time is lost, the tubers are turned upside down, placed in a container with soil, placed in a cold (refrigerator, cellar), and with the onset of spring planted on the site.
After the hyacinths faded, what to do with them further? With the onset of August these tubers are excavated (by that time they are already covered with babies), detach the children. By the beginning of September, the younger generation of hyacinths is buried in the soil, cover 10 cm with a layer of mulch (sawdust, coniferous lapnik, foliage, peat). At the end of the first wintering, the mulching layer is removed, but left in place after the second winter. In the third year such hyacinths give color and please you with a wonderful fragrance.↑ back to content ↑
Reproduction by scales from bulbs
Large tubers (about 5-6 cm in diameter) are cut into 4 parts, after which some flakes are separated from the bottom, and the wound surface is treated with crushed activated carbon. Next, a container is taken, at the bottom of which pearlite or pure sand is poured, also charred charcoal with ash can be used. The broken scales are put in this container, then it is placed in a transparent plastic bag, securely tied and held for 2 months with not too bright illumination.
The air temperature should be approximately + 19..23 ° С, but in the second stage, which lasts a month and a half, the temperature should be reduced to + 16..19 ° С. During this period, a number of onions will be attached to the scales. Storage of young livestock is similar to the method described in the first method.↑ back to content ↑
Reproduction of hyacinths by leaf cuttings
To do this, you should wait for the period of the ovary and remove the hyacinth from a pair of sheets, they need to be cut as close as possible to the base. Further, the leaves are treated in a solution that stimulates root formation (for example, "Heteroauxin") and is buried 3-4 cm into a container with pure sand (or perlite). This capacity, again, is enclosed in a plastic bag, tied up and placed in a moderately lit place for a month and a half. The air temperature should vary within + 10..17 ° С, humidity - 80-90%. After a specified period on the cuttings you can see bulbous rudiments, and after 50-60 days - young roots and small leaves. Next, the plants are planted on the site, each stem subsequently gives 6-10 children.↑ back to content ↑
Scoring of the bottom, as a method of hyacinth reproduction
In this procedure, the donkey is not removed, as in the first case, but is cut crosswise. On large tubers, a pair of crosses is made, for those that are smaller, one. Damaged places are treated with powdered activated charcoal, then the bulbs are put in a warm room (+ 20..22 ° C) for 24 hours in order for the "crosses" to open. All further actions are similar to the above recommendations. With this method of stimulating the tuber, it is possible to get approximately 10-16 large young onions.
To these messengers of spring pleased you with long flowering, pomp of brushes and amazing aroma, you need to make efforts. Now you know how to grow hyacinths, planting and care in the open ground, which, although they involve difficulties, but, undoubtedly, are worth the effort and time..