I think many people know what flowers are marigolds. Growing from seed, when to plant, how to care for these beautiful flowers - let's talk about it. There are so many varieties of marigolds that everyone will find and grow their own for high or low flower beds, decorate the garden path, or even disguise an ordinary place in the country. Marigolds on the balcony, the veranda will also be appropriate. This bright and conspicuous flower, in the people there are several names: Chernobrivtsy, Tagetes, lights, but most often they are still called marigolds. This flower is loved by many for its attractive appearance and unpretentiousness, which makes it possible even for a novice gardener to quickly and easily grow them and decorate their land or area near the house.
- Types of marigolds, their appearance and properties of
- when they are sitting on tartan seedlings
- How to grow marigold seedlingsin cultivation, and the palette of its shades and varieties really amazes with its diversity. There are stunted marigolds growing in different directions in a bushy bush( rejected), among them there are real giants growing up to 100 cm in height. There are also miniature thin-leaved varieties, as well as large terry representatives that resemble balls of all shades of the sun. содерж to content ↑
Types of marigolds, their appearance and properties
All varieties of taghettes have a flat stalk and a thick “crown” of the bush itself, the characteristic, recognizable scent of this flower is difficult to confuse with some other. Plant height can be from 20 to 120 cm, the shape of buds is as diverse as the type of petals. They can be reed, twisted into long thin tubules, terry, the buds themselves are densely stuffed, "shaggy", whisk-shaped, chamomile-like, like a carnation. The foliage of the plant varies depending on the variety: pinnate, toothed, separate form, light or very dark green. Marigold flowers delight the eye for a long time - from the beginning of summer until the first cold weather.
Marigolds and snow, photo:
In general, the Tagetes varieties are subdivided into:
- Erect - in diameter, their buds can reach 12-15 cm, and the bush itself - 1 meter or more.
- Low-growing or rejected - differ in small size, their height can vary from 20 to 40 cm, the flower itself in diameter averages 5-8 cm. Terry varieties are also found among the usual petal varieties.
- Thin-leaved marigolds are the smallest representatives, their multiple flowers are small but bright. The foliage is carved, as if openwork, the aroma of fine-leaved Tagetes is always very expressive. On flowerbeds, these varieties form flower balls, and up to 100 flowers can bloom on each of the bushes. The bush itself is low, about 20 cm, and the flowers are up to 2 cm in diameter. Such marigolds are also called Mexican, to date, about 60 varieties-hybrids of such low plants have been developed by the works of breeders.
You can often hear such a question from novice gardeners - marigolds rejected and erect, what is the difference between them? In erect specimens, often, there is one big bud on the stem, and the rejected varieties actively branch and have many flowers on a single shrub. The color spectrum, as mentioned above, differs in all sunny shades, as well as lemon, creamy white, bright orange and deep red. Tagetes are decorated with flower beds, balconies, large flowerpots, they are grown in containers - anywhere. In addition to the bright appearance, these flowers scare away all sorts of garden pests with their scent, and also suppress the appearance of fungi.
Flowers marigold can often be seen near the beds with strawberries - and not in vain, because their intense aroma does not like the weevils, who love it very much. Experienced gardeners plant tagetes next to cabbage beds, because he dares the white-haul very effectively, again, thanks to his strong smell. This flower can also protect its fellow - representatives of the flower world. Marigolds will protect asters from Fusarium, and phloxes, roses, chrysanthemums, and clematis will protect nematodes. In addition to everything else, dried flowers( petals) marigolds are used in cooking as a spice or spice. In folk medicine, Tagetes is also actively used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases.
Marigolds along the track, photo:
When planting marigolds on seedlings
This plant propagates by seed, you can simply take the seeds and sow them right on the plot with the onset of spring, when you are finally sure that the frost will not return. The best time for this is May. After the seedlings grow, the seedlings can be thinned and placed more freely - this is the planting of marigold seeds in open ground. From the time of sowing to the beginning of flowering usually takes two months or a little more. In terms of entry into the flowering phase, the seeds that were sown simply in the soil, are two weeks late from the pre-grown seedlings. But then, until the deepest autumn, they will delight your eyes with their bright flowering. Sprouts spit for 10-12 days, the main thing - do not bury the seeds too much when sowing.
How to grow marigold from seed otherwise? Tagetes are first planted in special containers, and after the frosts are over, the already prepared seedlings are transferred to flower beds, beds, etc. If we take into account the fact that it takes about 40 or 50 days from the time the sprout appears before flowering begins, then seed must be sown somewhere in the first days of April. Planting marigold seeds is made in a special ground mixture, which you can buy at a flower shop or make up yourself. Such a composition is quite suitable: 2 parts of peat, 1 part of compost( or humus), 0.5 part of pure river sand( you can pre-ignite it).At the bottom of the tank should be holes, as well as laid with a thin layer of drainage( about 3 cm of fine gravel or expanded clay).For seed reproduction, it is best to take the most recent material, but if the shelf life of seeds has not exceeded 2 years and was carried out according to all the rules( dryness and darkness), then they will also work. How the seeds of marigolds look can be seen in the photo below.
Seeds are either bought at a flower shop, or collected personally from completely dried inflorescences that are left on the bush for exactly these purposes. From the moment of the beginning of flowering and by the time of collecting the seeds, about 40-45 days should pass. Be prepared for the fact that the collected seeds can give slightly different flowers in appearance - this is normal when self-collecting seed material taggetes. Cross-pollination in marigolds often gives interesting hybrids. How to collect marigold seeds? Just pull the top with dried petals, and the seeds remain in your hand.
They should be stored in a dry and dark place, in a paper or cloth bag, and sown safely in the spring. The sooner you sow the seeds, the sooner they will sprout and bloom. Experienced gardeners sow upright cultivars in the second half of March, and stunted and small-leaved, in turn, are sown in the first week of April. Thus, you can adjust the timing of simultaneous flowering of all varieties, around June they should please you with the first buds and inflorescences.
Another interesting point follows - is it necessary to soak the seeds of marigolds before planting? For sowing seed can be pre-soaked in water, but not necessarily. Soaked in water at room temperature, as well as already slightly germinated seeds give a higher percentage of germination and seedling density. This option will be relevant in the event that you managed to get some very rare varieties, and even in small quantities. Then, in order to increase their germination, you can pre-soak them not even just in water, but in water with a solution of growth activator.
Another, no less interesting option of how to grow marigolds is planting seeds with boiling water. What is all this done for? Seed material has a natural etheric shell, it "works" as a barrier when pecking. And the hot water simply dissolves it, washes it away, thereby facilitating seed germination. How does this happen? Capacity is taken, drainage is put on the bottom, filled with pre-prepared soil mixture, then all this is generously watered with freshly boiled water. While the ground is hot, we take tweezers and use it to bury the seeds in the soil, not too deep, then the container is covered with plastic film, placed on the radiator( for about 1 hour), and then transferred to the window sill, etc.
Marigold shoots, photo:
You can slightly differently beat such marigold cultivation through seedlings. To do this, prepare the tank with the ground, as described above, slightly press the seeds into the soil( using a spoon), and only then the whole thing is poured abundantly with boiling water. The end result does not change. The container should also be covered with polyethylene, placed closer to the heat source( heating battery or its electrical counterpart) for 1 hour, and after that moved to the place reserved for the seedlings. After such a “shock” treatment, the seed grows much faster and better - it is checked.содерж to content ↑
How to grow marigold seedlings
And now let's consider the classic variant of planting seeds for seedlings:
- Black leg disease is what often destroys marigold seedlings. To prevent this from happening, it is better to pre-disinfect the planting tank and to steam the soil mixture itself. For processing, you can use the fungicides "Vitaros" or "Maxim", they are dissolved in water according to the instructions, and then they spill a container filled with earth. For more confidence, if there is such an opportunity, steamed the soil in a double boiler for about 1 hour. This procedure will destroy all harmful fungi and viruses.
- Press the soil a little( compaction), slightly moisten with a spray bottle. We make shallow “ridges” on its surface, and they should be spaced from each other in a couple of centimeters. Next, carefully lay the seeds in the beds, sprinkle with a thin layer of soil( about 1 cm).
- Watering seedlings should be done very carefully so that the water jet does not dislodge the seeds from the soil. At the same time, it is extremely important that the soil mixture is always moderately hydrated! Tanks with planted seeds are constantly kept warm, while the air temperature should not be below +20. . + 23 ºС.If you want, you can additionally cover the container with plastic wrap, create a kind of greenhouse plants. But such a "hotbed" will need to be aired daily.
- How many seeds of marigolds sprout? With proper observance of these simple manipulations, the seeds should rise no earlier than 7-8 days.
- After the first shoots appeared, the capacity needs to be transferred to the light - to a place where the temperature will be lowered to +16. . + 18 ºС.
- When sprouts have the first 2 or 3 full leaves, they can swoop down. It is best to transplant plants in special cassettes for seedlings or plastic cups. Once every 2-3 weeks it will be possible to feed the young livestock with complex fertilizer to give strength, “Agricola” or “Mortar” will work well for this.
Then we dive marigolds. Planting seedlings in cassettes is still the most convenient in all respects. Soil mixture can be used similar to the one that was bought / made up for sowing seeds. To improve the growth of marigolds, nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer and wood ash can be added to the soil( 1 full tbsp. Of fertilizer + 2 full spoons of ash for every 5 liters of ground mixture).Everything is thoroughly mixed and distributed in the cassettes, the ground is pressed down slightly, with the help of a pencil( conveniently) it is used to make a recess where the seedling will fit.
Marigolds, seedlings, photo:
The seedling itself is carefully removed from the total capacity. To do this, you can use the handle of the spoon - it is convenient and does not damage the roots. We submerge the plant in the cell of the cassette by about 1 cm, making sure that the cotyledons( the lower elongated leaves) do not come into contact with the ground. Then we very carefully water the younger generation. If after watering the soil mixture substantially subsides, then pour more soil on top. You only saw that the top layer of the earth began to dry up - immediately water the saplings. But make sure that there are no overflows, it is better to underfill the water than pour it in excess.содерж to content ↑
Marigolds - planting and care in the open field
It is necessary to plant marigolds for permanent residence when the threat of frost is finally passed. Roughly for central Russia, this is approximately the second half of June. For warm regions this may be the last week of April, but, more reliably, the first and even second half of May for planting marigolds in the soil. One caveat: marigold seedlings at the time of transplanting into the ground should be "tempered."About a couple of weeks before disembarking, take out the tank with seedlings for a few minutes to fresh air. Continue to do this every day, gradually increasing the time the plants stay in the open air.
With a place to land, you need to decide in advance, it should be sunny, since the sun flowers "sun flowers" Tagetes will feel most comfortable.
In some cases, you can plant them in a semi-shaded area, but be prepared for the fact that there marigold flowers will not bloom well and abundantly.
I already wrote above about the neighborhood with vegetable and berry cultures - you know better what task this flower will perform, decorative or decorative. They do not like too wet soil and flooding with water - keep this in mind.
Do not place them too thickly, next to each other, this plant prefers good air exchange. It is better to sit up the marigolds at a distance of 40-50 cm one from the other, more stunted varieties - closer, 20-30 cm. For marigolds, it is important that the soil is loose and well breathable, fertility does not play a big role in this matter at all. If clay prevails in the proposed planting site in the soil, pre-add sand with peat to it. When you make a hole for the plant, keep in mind that the stem will additionally be buried about 2 cm into the ground. Each seedling is carefully removed from its “nest”, placed in the hole, free space is filled with soil on the sides, and the ground around the flower is slightly crimped.
After this, your flowers should be watered with marigolds. For the future - do not be afraid to water them with a hose( above), their foliage is not afraid of vertical watering, moisture on the flowers or leaves, as well as rain.
The subsequent care of the seedlings will consist in timely weeding, puffing the soil, removing weeds. If you really really want to feed Tagetes with fertilizers, then for the whole season you can feed it 1 or 2 times with potash-phosphorus additives. This will positively affect the pomp and number of buds. You can cover the mulch ground around the bushes - this will give the plants an additional decorative design, as well as keep the growth of weeds.
If you notice that your marigolds are growing too thick, be sure to thin them.
The timely removal of faded buds is also a part of flower care, which contributes to the extension of the flowering phase. And still flowers marigolds can be formed by nip, if you want the bushes to be more lush, then pinch them to the top.
These are very unpretentious plants, even if you do not water them for half a month, they will still bloom and smell.содерж to the content ↑
Marigolds - varieties with photos and names
The distribution of plant sizes has already been mentioned above. The most common among us are rejected, upright and thin-leaved varieties of Tagetes. Rejected instances branch well; they can be both short and medium tall. High-growing varieties look solemnly and are suitable for cutting into a vase. Consider some varieties in more detail.
Lemon Queen - marigolds upright, one of the highest representatives in the numerous family of Tagetes. They can grow up to 120 cm in height, but their buds themselves are not too huge, about 8-9 cm in diameter. The shade of the flower is lemon, light yellow, this variety blooms in the very middle of summer - in July.
Lemon Queen, photo:
Gnome is a low-leaved variety, with numerous small, but very cute flowers of orange and yellow color. This is the best sort for decoration curbs, in group or mixed plantings, it will also look harmonious.
Antigua - marigolds are erect, but compact and not too tall. The height of the stem reaches 30 cm, but a large bud may be 12 cm in diameter. This is a decorative variety, designed for flowerpots, decoration of balconies, mixed dense plantings. Antigua reacts poorly to cold and waterlogging. Flowers gives large, rich yellow, golden and orange color. Maximum shows its decorative qualities in the sunlit area.
Mandarin - the name speaks for itself, the color is appropriate, rich orange and even the shape of the flower resembles this citrus. Not very high variety, both the buds and the foliage have a bright rich color. Foliage, by the way, it is quite interesting - it is elongated, which only adds unusualness to the flower. It blooms profusely all summer, so is an excellent option for flower beds.
Lime Green - marigolds upright, growing to 90cm height. They can boast of very large buds that reach 15 cm in diameter. The color of lemon, with greens, the bush itself has an unusual shape, something resembling a pyramid. Starts to bloom in July and continues to delight eyes until September inclusive.
Lime Green, photo:
Hawaii is a high-growing variety that can reach 100 cm in height. The buds form a sort of “basket”, reaching 10–12 cm in diameter. It blooms from early summer until frost occurs. Very noticeable orange decorative tagaget that looks great on flowerbeds and is good for cutting.
The eye of the Tiger - marigolds deviated, low bushes - 25-30 cm in height. Inflorescences are small( 3-5 cm in diameter), with yellow terry center and red petals along the edges. Tsvetogamma buds vary from yellow-red, to alo-brown shades. This variety looks very attractive, attracts eyes, is perfect for planting along the tracks, in flowerbeds as a central figure. Very unpretentious cultivar, normally tolerates semi-shading, unlike its other counterparts.
Eye of the Tiger, photo:
Vanilla - marigolds of an unusual shade, vanilla-white, with their appearance resemble ice cream balls. The height of the plant is about 40-50 cm, the diameter of the flowers is 6-8 cm, it likes the sun, it is resistant to heat and drought. It will bloom from the end of June until the arrival of the first frost.
Golden Ball - marigolds upright, very tall, reach 100-120 cm in height. Blossom is very abundant, the buds themselves are somewhat reminiscent of chrysanthemums, but the diameter of the flower is small - about 6-7 cm. The inflorescences can be regular or terry, have a golden-yellow shade, used for cutting and single plantings. Blooms early - in the first week of June. There is another kind of Golden Ball - marigold rejected, giving branchy low bushes, reaching 30 cm in height. The shape of the flower they look like their larger brother, but they are small, do not exceed 2 cm in diameter. Suitable for "carpet" plantings, resistant to cold.
Golden Ball, photo:
Double Gold Ball:
Fantastic Orange is a relatively tall marigold growing to 70 cm in height. They are distinguished by a rare decorative effect, abundant flowering, and resistance to bad weather. Bloom early - with the arrival of the calendar summer, continue to give you flowers until the first frost. The buds of Fantastic Orange are densely double, reaching 9-12 cm in diameter, the shape of the petals is rather unusual - pinnate, with sharp edges.
Fantastic Orange, photo:
French small-colored - as the name implies, these are low representatives, not exceeding 30-50 cm in height. Small flowers, however, are very bright and noticeable, can have a motley, double color of the petals. These are marigolds rejected, very unpretentious and quite common in our gardens, parks, on city beds. Usually bloom before the arrival of the first frost, can be a rich red hue( Cherry Bracelet).Branches magnificently, the diameter of the buds is about 4-5 cm.
French small-colored marigolds, photo:
Smiles is a large plant, but with small buds. Smiles means smiles, and indeed, the golden, bright yellow, orange numerous buds cause only positive emotions when looking at them. Variety gives color in the middle of summer - in July.
Friels - high-growing marigolds( 80 cm tall), with bright golden-orange super-tall buds( 7-8 cm in diameter).Optimally suited for flower beds, bloom in the middle or towards the end of the calendar summer.
White Kilimanjaro - marigolds upright, tall, reaching a height of 60-70 cm. They are interesting for their unusual color against the background of rich dark green foliage. This variety is suitable for making beds and for cutting. Blooms from mid-summer and continues to bloom until the arrival of the first frost.
White Kilimanjaro, photo:
African marigolds - this marigold variety boasts large buds-balls, double and single-colored. The diameter of a flower can be from 10 to 12 cm. This variety looks great in joint plantings, flowerpots and containers, its large flowers can be used to make bouquets. The plant does not tolerate the bogging of the soil and during long wetting it rots( for example, during the rainy season).
African Marigolds, photo:
Red gem - rejected marigolds that reach 40 cm in height. The shape of the flowers is rather simple, chamomile-like small flowers can have a diameter of 2-3 cm. This is the cultivar whose petals are collected, dried and subsequently used as a spice. The bush is richly covered with small, dark red inflorescences with a yellow core. Red gem - differs abundant flowering, it is a medium-growing varietyThe buds are small, the flowers are not terry, but the main advantage is the rich red color with the transition to burgundy hue. Flowering is long, refers to the autumn varieties, as it gives color mainly in the fall.
Red Gem, photo:
Carmen - marigolds rejected, small bush( up to 30 cm), the flowers seem to be rustic, but there is something catchy look in them. Clove buds, 4-6 cm in diameter, have a rich orange color.
Of course, this is only a small part of all varieties of marigolds, which, according to recent estimates, there are about 60 varieties. All of them are beautiful and amazing in their own way, among the variety of seeds available for sale, you will surely find the variety you wish to settle on your site.
When sowing marigolds on seedlings, how to process seeds, how to achieve faster germination, you already know. These flowers will be a worthy decoration of your cottage, because they have a lot of advantages: unpretentiousness, high decoration, survival with other plants, protection of the garden / garden and pests, resistance to drought( if you rarely visit the cottage, they will still bloom).
Plant and you marigolds in your dacha! About growing from seeds, when they are planted, how to plant - everything is described in detail in this article. You will have to make a little effort, and already this year your site will sparkle with new bright colors!