The necessary norms and rules for the operation of gas appliances are often not met, since most users do not fully possess the necessary knowledge and skills. This is evidenced by at least the fact that the owners use hundreds of thousands of faulty gas appliances. And they do not think about the impending danger.
Agree, it is a shame to suffer from the consequences of a gas leak or due to a faulty gas appliance. But it is not difficult to fix the situation - it is worth starting by studying the rules that will significantly reduce the likelihood of situations that are dangerous to life and health. In this article, we will talk about what the fire safety of gas equipment is and what standards must be observed when operating various gas-using devices.
The content of the article:
- Safety rules for every day
- What to do in the event of a gas leak?
Rules for the use of gas appliances
- Type # 1 - gas stoves
- Type # 2 - gas-fired boiler
- Type # 3 - gas oven
- Type # 4 - instantaneous water heater
- View # 5 - gas cylinders
- Safety measures for the operation of the chimney
- General fire safety rules
- Conclusions useful video on the topic
Safety rules for every day
Before any use of the gas appliance, there are a number of mandatory steps that must be followed.
Namely, it is necessary:
- Make sure there is no gas smell.
- Check for traction. It should be remembered that its absence is a direct threat to life.
- Open the window. Modern metal-plastic products can be set in ventilation mode. Which should take place during the entire combustion process of the energy carrier.
- Monitor the operation of the gas appliance. That is, you should not leave operating equipment unattended.
- Turn off the taps of the gas appliance when it is no longer necessary to use it.
And also it should be remembered that the electric hood located above the gas stove must be turned on before the gas combustion process begins. If the sequence is not followed, then the use of the specified equipment should be refrained from.
It is important to remember that only people who have the appropriate skills and knowledge are allowed to operate gas appliances.
What to do in the event of a gas leak?
The formation of a gas-air mixture in a room is a fire and explosive phenomenon. And often leads to sad consequences. Therefore, when a leak is detected, appropriate measures must be taken.
The presence of a hazard is determined by the characteristic smell of "blue" fuel (gas is added special substances - odorants - with a pungent unpleasant odor to make it easier for users notice the leak). Also, for safety reasons, you can install a special device that detects gas leakage - sensor.
It is allowed to use only serviceable gas appliances. Which consumers are required to keep clean. And this rule applies to the main ones for a reason. The reason is that fats, soot, and other combustion products deposited on the surfaces of equipment, chimneys, and hoods are often the cause of fires.
An effective procedure for preventing fires and explosions is to regularly check the presence of draft in the smoke exhaust system. This operation must be performed before each turning on of the gas equipment, especially when the climatic conditions are difficult. Since an ordinary gust of strong wind can create a reverse thrust and burning sparks will fly into the room
Leaks most often occur in the area of gas distribution connections, as well as taps.
Having identified the smell of fuel, it is necessary to perform a number of actions, namely:
- Turn off the cocks of the gas appliances (if they are open).
- Arrange room ventilation. This means the opening of windows, doors to ensure air exchange. At the same time, it is forbidden to turn on electric hoods, use other electrical appliances, lighters, lighting devices.
- Leave the area where the leak was detected. But, if there are other people in the danger zone, then it is necessary to notify them and warn about the need to observe safety measures.
- Arrange for evacuation if necessary. In this case, you do not need to use electrical devices (for example, calls, telephones). That is, in order to wake up the tenants of the neighboring apartment, you just need to knock, and not press the bell button.
- Notify the duty services of the gas department by calling 104 (04). But it should be remembered that the call can only be made in a safe place, which a room saturated with gas is not.
Special services personnel can arrive to fix the leak at any time of the day. And they must be admitted into the necessary building, premises.
Gas consumers often try to dry things over burning burners. And the network is full of recommendations on how to quickly dry clothes using gas and a hood, make a dryer for the stove, etc. But it is forbidden to use gas appliances for other purposes - this is one of the main causes of fires.
Having identified a leak and / or discovered a malfunction that may lead to a leak or has already led, it is imperative to call the gas service. As well as to take other necessary measures. Otherwise, you can pay a fine in the amount of 1-2 thousand. rubles (according to Art. 9.23 Administrative Code of the Russian Federation). And this is if everything went without consequences and there was no threat to the lives of citizens, and the mistake was made for the first time.
The necessary measures should be taken regardless of where the characteristic smell of fuel is detected - indoors, outdoors, in other places. That is, the procedure is the same for all situations.
When detecting the smell of gas, you do not need to reassure yourself with the thought that it is weak. Since explosions with a possible subsequent ignition occur, just at a low concentration of "blue" fuel, when it does not exceed 5-15% of the volume of the room. And at a higher value, the fuel just burns.
Leaving switched on gas appliances unattended is extremely dangerous. The reason is that a phone call, an interesting TV show can divert attention, which is fraught. It only takes a few minutes for boiling water to flood a flame or light food in a frying pan.
In case of incorrect operation of gas appliances, problems with wiring that threaten the formation of a gas-air mixture, the owner must arrange for their repair, and, if necessary, replacement.
If the owner of the premises, the building will be absent there for a long period of time, it is necessary to contact Gorgaz (Raygas) to turn off the gas supply. Which is one of the measures to prevent energy leaks.
Rules for the use of gas appliances
Since the specified equipment is of various types, you should know the features of the safe operation of each of them.
Type # 1 - gas stoves
Only people who have passed special instructions on safe use are entitled to use the gas stove.
It would be a bad idea to turn off the automation of gas appliances, especially the one that is responsible for safety. And also, you should not make changes to the design of boilers, stoves and other types of equipment. This is dangerous, and, in addition, the listed actions are considered offenses.
The rules themselves state that:
- the owner must keep his stove clean, and most importantly, in good condition;
- before turning on the stove, you must make sure that all its taps, as well as the tap in front of the device itself, are closed, the windows in the room must be open;
- first, bring the flame source to the desired burner, and then open the stove tap;
- the color of the flame should be with a bluish-violet (green) tint, the height of the flame is on average 2-2.5 cm (it should respond to a change in the position of the tap handle).
If signs of malfunction are detected or the flame begins to change color from blue to any other, while it smokes, then the stove must be turned off immediately.
Since the facts of incomplete combustion of gas are evident, which leads to the formation of a fire and explosive gas-air mixture in the room. A smoking flame signals that carbon monoxide is accumulating. Which, under certain conditions, can also burn.
Fires often occur due to unauthorized connections of consumers to gas pipelines. And it should be remembered that such a violation of security measures is caused not only by the insert into the system, but also unauthorized interference with the operation of measuring equipment, replacement, transfer of instruments without permissions
Carry out repairs yourself, maintenance, inspection of gas stoves, it is not worth making changes to their design. The same applies to replacement, transfer.
The identification of a malfunction, signs of incorrect operation of the equipment must be immediately reported to the gas service.
Having identified any malfunction, it is necessary to stop using gas appliances. And notify the gas service employees about it. Since only they are entitled to carry out repairs, connection and many other procedures. In addition, in severe cases, Gorgaz (Raygas) specialists have the right to perform their duties at any time of the day. And the owners of the premises are obliged to provide them with access
It is necessary to check the operability of the device regularly (the recommended periods are indicated by the manufacturer in the instructions for a specific model of gas equipment). What should gas service specialists do, with which you need to conclude service contract.
Type # 2 - gas-fired boiler
To avoid energy leakage and fire, any heater can only be used with draft. Which should be checked before turning on, as well as a few minutes after starting use.
Only a functional gas boiler may be allowed to operate. The same rule applies to his automation. In addition, to prevent the occurrence of fire hazardous situations, a number of other recommendations should be followed.
- the window during the operation of the boiler must be open, and its presence in the room that is used as a furnace is a prerequisite, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the requirements for gas boiler room ventilation;
- before ignition, open the gate (limiting flap);
- on a regular basis, monitor the current state of the chimney, since its usual freezing can cause the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the room.
Before the start of each season, the owner of the gas boiler is obliged to carry out work to prepare it for operation. Which should include monitoring the state of ventilation systems, smoke removal. And if there are third-party objects, dirt is cleaned, since the same soot quite often causes fires.
In addition, it is necessary to check and promptly eliminate the violation of the integrity of the chimney.
It is no coincidence that the gas is called "blue" fuel - its flame is exactly that color. If a color change is noticed to any other or the burner starts to smoke, then the use of the gas appliance should be stopped immediately.
Fire safety measures during the operation of existing gas appliances will be incomplete if the places of inputs of all kinds of communications through the foundations of buildings are not sealed. The reason is that gas can penetrate into the building through the formed cracks, cracks, and splits (in cases of leaks from underground pipelines).
If the thrust does not differ in stability, then it must be remembered that phenomena such as fog, strong wind.
Type # 3 - gas oven
Gas ovens are similar in principle to boilers and are structurally similar. As a result, the rules for safe use, the risks and causes of fires are identical for both types of equipment. And you can get acquainted with them in the previous section of the article.
Type # 4 - instantaneous water heater
The room in which the specified instantaneous gas water heater (column) is located must be equipped with a window and a hood located at the ceiling.
Effective ventilation and a smoke exhaust system are the key to the safe use of any gas equipment. Therefore, the condition of their internal channels should be monitored regularly. And if necessary, carry out cleaning. Moreover, this rule is relevant for all types of buildings, including apartment buildings.
In this case, regular monitoring of the presence of traction is considered an important fire-prevention measure. What should be done before turning on the water heater and 3-5 minutes after.
The check is carried out using a lighted match, which must be brought to a special hole. If everything is in order with the draft, then the tongue of flame will pull into the protective casing.
During water heating, it is imperative to control its temperature. That is, you should not leave the room with the device. As well as keeping the igniter in the working position for a long time.
In addition, the column is one of the most problematic gas appliances. Therefore, it should not be turned on idle. You can only use a serviceable water heater with correctly operating automation. Moreover, there should be no traces of external damage.
View # 5 - gas cylinders
The specified type of equipment - gas cylinders - cannot be used in the presence of any malfunctions.
It is important to always remember that it is strictly forbidden to use fire, electrical appliances when replacing an empty container with a full one.
Before lighting a flame, it is necessary to open a window and ventilate the room where the gas appliance is installed. This simple action will help cleanse the air from gas impurities, and, therefore, prevent an explosion, fire.
Cylinders should be installed no closer than:
- half a meter from the gas stove;
- meters from any heating device;
- if the heater is open, then the distance to the cylinder increases to 2 meters.
It is allowed to store cylinders outdoors, but for this you need to use a metal cabinet with ventilation holes.
The gas cylinder has traditionally been an increased source of danger. The reason is that even a simple drop or change in temperature can lead to problems.
Also, we must not forget that even if all the rules and recommendations are followed, gas cylinders will always be a source of danger. Therefore, if possible, they should be discarded.
We recommend to see the detailed recommendations for the use of cylinders at home.
Safety measures for the operation of the chimney
This device must provide stable traction in all operating modes of gas appliances. But in difficult meteorological conditions, even a serviceable smoke exhaust system can lose efficiency.
And in some cases, it even occurs reverse thrust. Which sometimes causes fires.
A leak can only be identified by its characteristic odor. And to find the place of leakage will turn out with the help of soap suds. But it is better not to engage in independent searches, even when the leak is insignificant.
Therefore, in heavy snowfalls, with fog, freezing, during rain, a particularly careful control of the presence of traction is required, and the combustion process must also be monitored.
In addition, the following can lead to a decrease in the efficiency of smoke removal and an increase in fire hazard:
- ineffectiveness of supply ventilation;
- tight closing of windows, doors, which disrupts air exchange;
- unauthorized connection of additional gas appliances, which increases the load on the chimney, which it may not be able to cope with.
If signs of ineffective removal of combustion products are identified, it is necessary to inform representatives of the gas company, another specialized organization.
And also the owners of gas equipment must provide access to specialists in a timely manner to check the functionality. chimney.
General fire safety rules
Consumers are required to stop using any appliance after it shows signs of malfunction. This is especially true for situations where a gas leak is detected.
An important fire prevention measure is the promptness and correct response when a hazard is identified. First of all, it is necessary to turn off the taps of the gas appliances and open all the windows. Which in a matter of minutes will reduce the concentration of hazardous impurities in the room
It is forbidden to disable safety automation, regulation when using gas equipment.
And also you can't:
- close access to the gas riser taps or complicate it in any other way;
- use smoke exhaust systems, ventilation after the period of validity of the act on the performance of their cleaning has expired;
- arbitrarily change the layout of the placement of gas equipment;
- prohibit employees of gorgaz from performing any work (some of them can be carried out at any time of the day);
- preschool children must be allowed to operate any gas appliance and children must not be left unattended in the room where the said equipment is located;
- store empty or full LPG cylinders indoors, in basements.
Do not bend, twist rubber-woven sleeves. If damage to their outer layer is allowed, then the product should be replaced. Otherwise, fuel leakage will start after a while.
It is inappropriate to tie ropes to pipelines, as this leads to a breakdown of the connections with subsequent gas leakage.
It is forbidden to heat any premises with gas stoves and other appliances not intended for these purposes. Place flammable substances, liquids near them.
The norms and recommendations listed in the article are spelled out in the Fire Safety Standards NPB 01-93, put into effect by order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation of December 6, 1993 No. N 521.
Conclusions useful video on the topic
The first video will help you better understand how to identify a gas leak using the materials at hand.
The following video will help you learn how to identify problems by the color of the gas flame.
Correct action during the detection of the characteristic gas smell in the room will help prevent a fire. And what exactly needs to be done is outlined in the next video.
Today, fire safety in the operation of any gas equipment is the lot of every consumer. Since users are personally responsible for the good condition of their stoves, boilers, cylinders. And this must be treated responsibly. Otherwise, small and large troubles are inevitable, and in severe cases, complete or partial destruction of buildings, premises and even human casualties.
Would you like to supplement the above material with recommendations for the safe operation of any gas appliance? Or do you still have questions that we have not considered in this material? Write your comments, ask questions, participate in the discussion - the feedback form is located below.