Rabbits - unusually prolific animals, for an adult female to give life to 60-70 rabbits a year - the norm. But an uncontrolled increase in the number of livestock is not required, the rabbit needs healthy and strong rabbits that have positive, stable signs.
In this article, we will talk in more detail about the age at which rabbits can be used, how to do it correctly, and when to happen after the enrollment.
Table of contents
- Favorable age and season for first mating
- Partner selection and pairing
- Culling animals
- Proper preparation of the rabbit for reproduction
- Feeding the rabbit
- Coating process
- Control pairing
- Checking the results of mating
- Refusal of the rabbit from mating
- Forced or accidental inbreeding
- How can you happen in the cold season?
Favorable age and season for first mating
First, let's analyze the age at which rabbits begin to multiply and when it is possible to happen for the first time. Sexual maturity rabbit reaches already to 3 months after birth. Avoiding occasional coverings, from this age, the animals are sorted and planted, based on belonging to a particular sex.
However, for a healthy and strong offspring, 3 months are still an early age.Therefore, 4 rabbits are suitable for the planned rabbit mating.
This age is not considered an exceptional rule. So, if the farm contains rabbits of meat breeds, the first mating starts at 5 or even 6 months.
However, you should not overdo the rabbit. Non-participating animals gain excessive weight, lose interest in a partner, and such sorols are few in number.
Okroly in natural conditions occur all year round. On average, a healthy female accounts for 6-7 quarls per year. Late autumn and winter their frequency is less likely due to weather factors. October and November are considered unfavorable for mating.
butthe best offspring grows more often in winter. Rabbits born in the cold season, healthier, stronger than their summer relatives. If the goal of growing rabbits is getting fur, then winter is the most favorable season for rabbit mating. It is also necessary to avoid rabbit mating during active molting.
For successful mating, the time of day is also important. In the summer for mating the morning hours are most suitable, since it is not hot yet. In winter or in cold weather - the warmest hours of the day, that is daytime..
Partner selection and pairing
When selecting suitable males and females, the following criteria are used:
- Animals should be healthyand be at a suitable age and condition. To receive high-quality offspring, individuals over 3 years old, lame rabbits, animals with underdeveloped or damaged genitals are not suitable;
- Rabbits should bear the best signs of their breed or their individual qualities as much as possible suitable for rabbits;
- For mating, it is desirable to select winter rabbits, as well as those born in early litters of the rabbit. These rabbits are best suited for the role of producers;
- It is not allowed mating of related individuals. With a lack of animals, they can always be found on the side. It is worth remembering the need for quarantine and a thorough check of health for new animals entering the herd, especially if it concerns manufacturers.
Experienced rabbits besides choosing active and strong individuals also pay attention to the mother and siblings of the future producer. If there were many weak or sick rabbits in the litter, as well as the mother has shortcomings (frequent miscarriages, bad character), then the probability of their recurrence is high.
In addition to individual selection of partners, experienced breeders pay attention to the formation of pairs. The ideal option is to hold several cases at the same time. In this case, the excess (deficiency) of rabbits in litters can be mutually compensated, and the choice of future producers will be greater.
When forming a pair, the experience of the male and female is also taken into account.
Frequent situations when the manufacturer loses its status. There are several reasons:
- Rare or, conversely, too frequent mating leads to a loss of positive properties of the manufacturer;
- The onset of the "ultimate" age. The best offspring in rabbits 1-2 years of age;
- The presence of a disease leading to frequent miscarriages. The death of several litters in a row testifies to the presence in the rabbit of listeriosis - a dangerous disease that is inherited;
- The loss of the maternal instinct in the rabbit, reaching the destruction of its own offspring, is a clear sign that the animal is unfit for further reproduction;
Fecundity of rabbits gives their owner ample opportunities for breeding.Therefore, if for some individual reasons doubts arise in the suitability of a rabbit for reproduction, it is better to replace it..
Proper preparation of the rabbit for reproduction
The key stage in the preparation for mating is the determination of the rabbit's willingness to maternity, otherwise called the hunting period. Its duration depends on the season of 3-5 days.
Between hunting periods mating is unlikely. Breaks between the next hunting of the female also fluctuate from 5 to 10 days. In winter, they can last longer, as the sexual activity of animals decreases.
You may be interested in the following articles on the topic:
- How correctly to feed small rabbits?
- How long does pregnancy take in rabbits and how to take birth correctly?
- A feature of the breeding of rabbits in the pit.
Determining the period of hunting is quite simple.This is evidenced by:
- Increased rabbit activity;
- Plucking down on the abdomen;
- Procurement of materials for the nest.
For persuasiveness check the condition of the genital of the rabbit, called a loop. Its reddening and swelling are unequivocally indicative of the onset of a hunting period in the female.
For males, such restrictions do not exist.
Immediately before mating, it is important to properly prepare the cage.
From the cage, all the excess is removed, including the drinking bowl and feeder. Animals will not be up to eating. The cell must be washed and disinfected. Only after this, you can attach the rabbit to a partner..
Feeding the rabbit
The diet of rabbits before mating should always be more nutritious. For what the share of mixed fodder, oats, grain, bean products is desirable to increase..
For males is very useful steamed potatoes, oats.To feed with such products begin for, -2 weeks. For the females, the wheat is very useful. Full nutrition increases the number of rabbits in the litter and makes them more healthy..
And now let's find out how to happen to rabbits on the first and subsequent times. In small farms where artificial insemination is not possible, two methods of mating are practiced:
- The rabbits are attached to the male for an extended period of 5-7 days. In this situation, the animals themselves are determined with the optimal variant of pairing. First time for animals is desirable to observe. Cases fights, if the partner did not like - not uncommon. If the partners are aggressive and the matter ends in a fight, the animals should be seated to avoid serious injury;
- The second option is short-term female replanting for 2-3 hours. The minus of this method is the need for constant monitoring and, possibly, intervention of the rabbit breeder. It is not difficult to determine the moment of the coating visually. It lasts for half a minute. After covering, the rabbit collapses to the side and emits a characteristic squeak - a signal to the rabbit breeder that the partners can be seated. If the partners are too flirting and do not talk, then the experienced rabbiters simply hold the rabbit hands, allowing the male to perform his work faster.
Successful coverage of the rabbit does not guarantee pregnancy. Therefore, for the sake of accuracy, a control knitting is carried out 5-6 days after the first pairing. There are no features for control mating.
Often control pairing is also a test of the results of the first mating. If the rabbit shows aggression and does not admit a trusted partner in himself, you can be sure that there is no need for a control pairing.
If the mating occurs as usual, its date is marked, and accordingly, after 5-6 days, another control pairing is performed.
Checking the results of mating
It is possible to verify the effectiveness of the mating in just 15 days after it has been carried out. For this, the rabbit's stomach is very carefully probed. On the Internet there are videos showing this procedure, so in order to avoid harming the rabbit, it will be superfluous to review them.
The presence of one or two chains of elongated lumps is an unambiguous evidence of pregnancy.
Refusal of the rabbit from mating
If the rabbit does not allow the rabbit, the rabbit breeders choose one of the following options:
- Animals are attached to each other after a while, for example, after 2-3 hours. If the situation repeats, then the procedure is repeated after 24 hours;
- If the first method does not work, then you can change the male. Often this is the most successful option.
Forced or accidental inbreeding
Inbreeding or, to put it in a simpler way, related crosses also occur in experienced rabbit breeders. When the herd is kept together (in the pit, aviary, etc.), occasional crossings occur.
Another misfortune is the inability to select a pair of their own animals, suitable for health, external data or breed. Then inbreeding becomes forced.
Dozens of scientific works are written about the pros and cons of inbreeding, therefore, without going into too much detail, let us give an example from practice. Even ancient cattle-breeders aspired to exclusion of crossing of close by affinity of animals. Experimentally checked thatregular inbreeding in the herd leads to degeneration.Although in the laboratory, inbreeding is practiced to bring out new breeds.
If, on the other hand, a related crossbreeding occurred in your household for some reason, then the experienced rabbitries are guided by the following recommendations:
- They try in every possible way to prevent crossbreeding of the born rabbit with other relatives on the paternal or maternal line. Proceeding from what, in a small herd all rabbits born of such crossings will most likely go to meat, and in the future will not participate in reproduction;
- When forced inbreeding try to select a couple with the most weak family ties, that is, distant relatives. Given the fertility of rabbits, this is quite realistic;
- All the rabbits born with birth defects, and there will be more and more of them with each subsequent cousin, must be removed from the herd.
How can you happen in the cold season?
Rabbit breeder should not be afraid of winter relations. However, in order to prevent frostbite and death of animals, the following recommendations are adhered to:
- Winter mating is carried out warmly, in closed and heated rooms. A suitable temperature for rabbits is considered to be a range of 19-27 degrees Celsius. If you can not achieve the desired temperature, then a decrease of 3-5 degrees is not critical. With proper cell insulation it is permissible to obtain healthy offspring and at 10 degrees of heat. However, the worst enemy of rabbits is not the lowered temperature, but the drafts and dampness that need to be excluded;
- Rabbits should be full, and the diet is as varied as possible. Suitable for winter feeding future parents potatoes, legumes, oats, sprouted grains of wheat, corn and other cereals;
- Animal during 1-2 weeks before and during the matingrequires a long light day, not less than 12 hours a day. Artificial light is also allowed. Insufficient lighting leads to extremely small ones (1-2 rabbits) or acts as the main obstacle for successful mating.
Now you know how and at what age rabbits happen. However, we note that the experience of rabbit breeders comes with years and mistakes. However, a careful study of the issue, the use of advice and assistance of experienced rabbits will save from many, often fatal errors, and will allow you to get healthy rabbits who have the right signs.
And at last we propose to watch a small video, from which you will learn when you cover rabbits:.