When preparing sauces and various spices, it is often used as one of the ingredients of mustard powder. You can make it yourself by growing on your part mustard and grinding its grain. Procurement in addition to culinary use is also used in cosmetology, medicine and gardening. About the subtleties of growing a plant and whether it is necessary to dig up the bushes sown in the autumn, this article will be discussed..
Table of contents
- Description and characteristics of mustard
- The benefits and harms of plants, the advantages and disadvantages of using
- How to apply in a garden garden
- Use as a siderata to control grass and weeds
- The right time for sowing in the soil
- When to clean
- Is it necessary to dig up the mustard sown in autumn
- Advantages of planting as a siderata
- Use mustard cake as a fertilizer
- Useful properties of fertilizer
- When to fertilize
- Application of cake
- The use of mustard in food
- Therapeutic action
Description and characteristics of mustard
Mustard belongs to the Cabbage family, has a one-year life cycle. Culture has several types, but the following are very popular:
- field (wild);
- English (white);
- Sareptian (Russian).
The herbaceous plant in the lower part has a pinnate leaf shape, the upper verdure is lobate. The height of the stem isfrom 20 to 100 cm. Inflorescences represent brushes combining several small flowers of yellow color.
The flowering period begins in June and lasts until August. From the flower, a fruit is formed in the form of a pod about 3-4 cm in length. Its surface is covered with hard hairs. Inside the fruit, round seeds are placed, of which a mustard powder is made.
The root system of the rod type penetrates deep into the soil for 2-3 m. This factor explainsculture resistance to dry weather.
Experts consider the birthplace of the plant Asia. Now it is cultivated in many countries, but India is the largest center of cultivation. Fruits are collected, dried and sent to various branches of the national economy.
Main directions -cooking and medicine. In the food industry, processed raw materials become a component for the preparation of oil, the grains are used for processing into powder, for seasonings or sauces.
In agriculture, the plant is sown as a siderata. Cultureenrich the soil with nutrients, improves the structure, makes the soil loose. Mustard has a disinfecting effect, which is important for cleaning the soil environment from bacteria and harmful microorganisms..
The benefits and harms of plants, the advantages and disadvantages of using
Useful micronutrients, essential oils, glycosides and enzymes, which are part of the culture, are of value not only in cooking, but also in medicine. Mustard hasantioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, its powder is included in a mixture of masks, compresses, trays and solutions.
The processed fruits of the plant are useful in disorders of the digestive system, flatulence, liver and gallbladder diseases, atherosclerosis, etc.
It is believed that the mustard component in combination with other plants is used as an auxiliary in the treatment of oncology. In addition, the plant has a positive effect on work:
- of cardio-vascular system;
- the nervous system;
- bone tissue.
During the processing of the plant waste is formed -cake. It is a brown powder. The composition of the product includes a large number of micronutrients and essential oils.
Advantages of use:
- plantThe rapidly growing, unpretentious in care;
- intensive growth does not allow us to break through on the weed;
- content in the composition of essential oils createsscaring off effect;
- the fruits of culture have universal application (in the kitchen, for cosmetic and medical procedures, for soil disinfection);
- when it enters the soil, the grass, if mown, is converted to humus.
- It hassimilar to cruciferous diseases, therefore, when using it, the crop rotation rule is strictly observed;
- seeds are located on the surface, which attracts birds (there is a chance to remain without planting material).
How to apply in a garden garden
Experienced gardeners appreciate the mustard for their worth, allocating a garden bed for their crops every year. Its uniqueness lies in universal use.
- If a garden is covered in spring with a thick carpet of weed grass, after harvesting at this place it is necessary to plant mustard, this place needs to plant mustard. By the next season the soilwell cleared of weed seeds, the structure will become loose, which is ideal for the development of the root system of any plant.
- When identifying any larvae, insects that are dangerous to vegetable crops, scab, phytophthora, it is recommended to spread mustard on the contaminated soil. Plantperform sanitary functions, disinfecting the soil environment from harmful microorganisms.
- Spice well neighbors with shrubs, fruit trees, vegetable crops, so it can be safely chosen as companions. This neighbor scares off pests, prevents the spread of weeds and pathogenic bacteria along the site.
- Green mustard can be usedas a bait. It is enough to cover the greens with a hoe, and the bed can be enriched with nutrients. If the land is severely depleted, along with plant nutrition, you need to put in compost or water the mown green Baikal. This will accelerate the process of decomposition of fertilizer.
- Soil treatment with mustard meal allows you to get rid of the onion fly, wireworm and other pests.
Use as a siderata to control grass and weeds
The plant can be used as a siderata. The process of growing and harvesting the crop is somewhat different from the general agricultural technique.
The right time for sowing in the soil
Mustardadapted to any kind of soil, grows worse only on marshy areas. After the correct landing for 2-3 weeks about the seedlings, you can forget, the shoots will appear without fail, even if at night the temperature has dropped to a mark of -5 degrees. The green mass of harm it will not cause.
The landing is plannedfor autumn or spring(at the discretion of the owners), the seeds are laid in the soil in rows, deepening them on 1 After 3-5 days, the first shoots will appear.
If the crop is scheduled for spring, work can be started after the danger of nocturnal frost passes, and the daily indicator will beabove 10 degrees. Most often this period falls on the month of April. And autumn work should beginimmediately after harvest.
To get early shoots in the spring, you need to seed the seeds for the winter, but it is likely that you will lose time. If the event is delayed, then the seeds thrown into the frozen ground will freeze, and if the November is warm, the shoots may appear earlier than the scheduled time.
When to clean
When growing mustard for fertilizer to cut greens you needbefore the flowering period(age about 5-7 weeks). At later dates, the stems become coarse, which complicates the processing..
To obtain grains with subsequent use in the farm, you must wait for them to ripen in the pods. After flowering, it takes about 5 weeks for the seeds to start tapping while shaking. This is the signal about the readiness of the harvest for the assembly.
Is it necessary to dig up the mustard sown in autumn
According to experts, young shoots of mustard, which have risen in the autumn,not worth it. Under the influence of frost, the grass will settle down, and the soil will cope with the spring with the processing of the siderata. In spring, it will be enough to rake the site to repair the remains.
The opinion of gardeners about the need for diggingare divided. Some of them believe that such a procedure is necessary to accelerate the process of decomposition of raw materials.
However, before performing the work, you should familiarize yourself with why and for what purpose, and with the recommendations:
- dig through betterin the beginning of autumnthat the plant managed to give the soil the maximum amount of nutrients;
- The greatest content of useful microelements is notedat the initial stage of flowering, then it is worth doing a digging;
- Using a shovel, turn the removed layer of the earth so that the grass is completely sealed.
Advantages of planting as a siderata
When deciding whether to plant mustard as a siderata, it should be taken into account that before planting cultures belonging to the family of crucifers, this can not be done. This can facilitate the transmission of various diseases through the soil.
Siderat is sownin the fall or spring immediately after the digging of the earth. After this, according to the planned plan, the planting of vegetable crops is carried out.
The green mass of mustard is rich in valuable trace elements, so after planting in the soil, fruit plants receive a dose of nutrients that promotegood tying and fruiting.
The most beneficial effect of siderate on such crops:
Greenery of spices is also used for purposespest prophylaxis. Sometimes, before planting seedlings, the grass is mowed or plowed. This need arises in cases where vegetable seedlings have a weak root system, which mustard can muffle. Say green before you start to turn yellow.
Use mustard cake as a fertilizer
One of the available types of organic top dressing ismustard greens. Young shoots that have reached the age of5 weeks, are saturated with useful microelements, which, when decomposed, enrich the soil with nutrients.
The prime cost of such a bait is cheap, labor costs are scanty. Planted seeds have good germination, so the time for agricultural technology is at a minimum, it remains only to wait for the first shoots to grow, harvest greens and plow the soil.
Useful properties of fertilizer
- Composition of fertilizerdoes not have weed seeds, pathogens and larvae of pests (as opposed to manure, humus).
- Eco-friendliness of the product.
- Availabilityphytosanitary properties.
- Increase in microbial soil activity.
- Prevention of erosion.
- Universal application.
- Affordable cost.
When to fertilize
You can fertilize the soilAt the end of the season after harvesting or early spring. It takes a little time to grow mustard, so you can sow it, for example, after an early cucumber or a tomato. And the resulting cake is distributed in the bed better in the autumn, there will be enough time for the decay of raw materials and soil enrichment with nutrients.
These factors alsoimportant for normal vegetation. In addition, the young green of the siderate contains a large number of useful minerals, they have a beneficial effect on vegetable crops.
Application of cake
The best option for enriching the land with cake is consideredautumn entry during digging. The rate of consumption depends on the type of soil and type of crop planted,100-800 gr. for 1 m2. To repel pests, it is recommended to add a little fertilizer to the hole.
When entering the spring cake before the beginning of planting works the following effect is achieved:
- the soil structure improves;
- waste is a mulch functional;
- prevention or control of pests.
The use of mustard in food
Mustard is known to mankind as a seasoning for several thousand years. From the seeds of the plant dosauces, aromatic and healthy oils, powder, which is included in the compositions of various spicy mixtures and is added to the food.
When using mustard, there is a wrapping effect, microbes, there is almost no chance for survival in the stomach. Due to its antioxidant properties, the product is used as an aid in the treatment of colds. It gives a warming effect, prevents the development of fever.
With all the useful properties of mustard, you should treat it with caution, observe the measure, otherwise you can burn the mucosa of the esophagus of the stomach.
Healing qualities of mustard were noted in the distant past of Hippocrates. At that time, plant seeds were used asexpectorant and antitussive. Among other things, the powder was recommendedto improve appetiteand restoration of the digestive system.
In modern folk medicine, mustard is used to treat the following diseases:
- disruption of the liver and gallbladder;
- bronchitis and pneumonia;
- hypertension and others.
Agrotechnics mustard is simple, besides the plant has sideratnye properties, which will help to rid the soil of pathogens and larvae of various insects. Any landlord will find a place even on a modest plot for such a useful culture..