Infrared heaters are very popular today. They are positioned by manufacturers as an economical, durable, super efficient devices. It would seem that this is the ideal solution for organizing additional heating.
However, many buyers are confused by the possible harm of infrared heaters, which are not just talked about "grandmothers on the bench." We will help to understand the difficult question. The article presented by us is based on the opinion of specialists who studied the effect of IR radiation on the human body.
The content of the article:
The concept of infrared radiation
- The principle of operation and advantages of devices
- Types of units and their features
Popular myths about emitters
- Myth number 1. IR heaters are dangerous a priori
- Myth number 2. Devices burn oxygen
- What is the real danger?
- Ways to avoid negative impact
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The concept of infrared radiation
The source of IR radiation is any heated body. Much of the radiation incident on the earth is infrared. Do heating devices, the principle of operation of which was borrowed from the heavenly body, pose a real threat to human health and the environment? Worth to understand.
Unlike UV radiation, which triggers photochemical reactions and acts essentially only on the skin, infrared has a predominantly thermal effect and the ability to penetrate deep into tissues.
There are natural and man-made sources of IR radiation, the first includes:
- solar radiation;
- thermal waters;
- Forest fires;
- active volcanoes;
- heat and mass transfer in the atmosphere.
All this is perfectly familiar to us processes and phenomena, the impact of which on the body is difficult to attribute to creating a real threat to factors.
Contact with infrared radiation is inevitable - we encounter it every day: at home, on the street, at work. It can have both beneficial and destructive effects.
Man-made sources of infrared radiation are:
- electric arc and coal;
- gas discharge lamps;
- electric heaters;
- electric cookers with a spiral;
- infrared lasers;
- plasma installations;
- nuclear reactors, etc.
Thus, it is abundantly clear that this radiation is a factor that continuously influences the human body.
Infrared rays occupy an area of the electromagnetic spectrum between red visible light and short-wave radio emission.
The infrared radiation itself is conditionally divided into:
- medium wave;
The length of the waves emitted by the body directly depends on its temperature: the higher it is, the shorter the waves, and the heating intensity is higher.
A person with a normal body temperature emits energy with a wavelength of 9.6 microns. And it is this radiation (9.6 microns and more) that is most comfortable and safe for the body. The range of working wavelengths of ICO is 3-10 microns, which is generally considered permissible
The principle of operation and advantages of devices
In traditional heating systems using radiators or convectors, the heat from the heating devices intensively diverted into the surrounding space and further distributed throughout the volume of the room by mixing of air.
Such a mechanism of heat transfer is called convective. The principle of operation of infrared heaters is radically different: the infrared energy flow directly heats objects, not the air in the room.
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The radiation of infrared heaters is favorable for the human body, which is essentially a similar emitter of electromagnetic waves of equivalent range.
Infrared heating devices work fine in open areas, creating not only comfortable temperature conditions, but also pleasant lighting
Equipment for infrared heating directs heat to objects and structures that are in its field of action. Heated objects transfer energy to the environment.
A weighty argument in favor of the use of infrared devices in heating is their ability not to affect the percentage of moisture and oxygen in the air mass
During operation, infrared heating devices produce virtually no sound, can be used as nightlights
Devices of the radiating type do not participate in convective movement of air streams, do not contribute to the movement of air and the dust captured by it.
Infrared heaters are used in the design of private housing, public and industrial buildings
IR heating systems are in demand in educational institutions, offices, cultural and sports centers, kindergartens, sports complexes
Radiation in the human-friendly range
Operation of heaters in the open area
The weighty advantages of the principle of operation of IR devices
Preservation of optimum air humidity
Priorities for silent operation of heating equipment
Advantages of heat propagation by radiation
Infrared device in the production workshop
IR heating in libraries and educational institutions
All the energy from the device reaches virtually no loss of people and objects in its zone of action. And the air is already heated by them. It is important to note that heating with infrared units is local, i.e. having settled out of access of its rays, you will not feel heat. But this is by no means a minus, but in many ways rather a plus.
In particular, when infrared heaters there is no accumulation of warm air mass under the ceiling - a phenomenon very characteristic of convective heating.
Thanks to this, ICE features are an excellent solution to the problem of economical heating of rooms with high ceilings. Emitters are also useful in situations where only separate work areas require heating.
Using this chart, it is possible to calculate the approximate heating area by infrared heating devices. Practical calculations confirm the high efficiency of the equipment
When organizing additional heating with this equipment, you can afford to slightly reduce the temperature in the main heating system without the slightest risk to health.
The human-sensed temperature in the right areas will still be comfortable, despite the cooler air. Thus, the "IR additive" allows you to reduce energy consumption and save money on heating.
Installed under the ceiling or emitters built into it do not create any problems when installing other equipment, furniture, interior items. Compact floor models can be easily carried between rooms, taken on the road.
Thanks to the IC, you can also solve some specific tasks - for example, to create thermal curtains in front of panoramic windows, glass stained glass windows, domes and other translucent structures, the heat-shielding properties of which may not be are sufficient.
Infrared radiation directed to the window construction facilitates its smooth removal from ice and snow - the sediments simply sink, without having time to freeze. Similarly, steps, porch, paths leading to the house, exit from the garage can be cleaned. Human hands do not do such a high quality job.
As for the power consumption of infrared units, their power can be from a couple of tens of watts to several kilowatts. Despite the decent "voracity" of the devices, they are considered highly efficient, since about 90% of the energy consumed is converted into heat.
With criteria selection of infrared heaters read the next article, the content of which we advise you to read.
Types of units and their features
There are the following types of PPI:
- devices with hot water supply.
Application of diesel and gas units Optimally in the open air, for the heating of residential premises is not the best option. Such equipment is the most economical, but to ensure its high-quality and safe work requires the removal of combustion products.
Gas infrared heaters are used with great success for heating open areas, gazebos, balconies, verandas, hallways, garages, hangars, technical rooms
The most popular and purchased are electrical appliances. with infrared lamps. In the simplest devices of this type, the heating coil (tungsten) is placed in a transparent glass quartz tube. Such equipment has a small warranty period of service (only 1-2 years) and a relatively affordable price.
Power consumption devices - 1-2,5 kW. The main drawback is the presence of visible radiation, albeit not very intense. For people with increased eye sensitivity, regular “contemplation” of such devices may be highly undesirable.
PID with carbon fiber backing is more durable (able to work without interruption for 5 or more years), but also expensive. Visible radiation at carbon heaters also present.
Ceramic devices - the most successful choice among electric infrared heaters. Their heating coil is securely “hidden” in the ceramic shell: there is no visible luminescence from the devices. Manufacturers warranty on such equipment - from 3 years. Ceramic heaters have a wide power consumption range - this is their important advantage.
Depending on the method of installation of IC, there are:
- wall mounted;
- floor standing;
The ceiling units are most in demand today - they completely eliminate the effect of convection, and therefore do not tolerate dust.
Electric infrared heater in a unique design can be not only a reliable source of heat in the house, but also a real highlight of the interior
There are newcomers to the “family” of infrared devices that have appeared in the consumer market relatively recently. it mikatermichesky heaters, with the features of work and the device of which, as well as to the guidelines of choice, the article recommended by us will introduce.
Popular myths about emitters
Despite a lot of obvious advantages, the issue of damage to infrared heaters stops many from buying. Let's try to debunk the most common prejudices regarding radiant heating equipment.
Myth number 1. IR heaters are dangerous a priori
Categorically talk about the dangers of infrared equipment is impossible. This is tantamount to stating that the Sun is 100% evil. After all, their action is similar.
On a hot summer day in the sun, especially without a hat, you can easily get sick with heat stroke. But if you choose the right time for a walk, put on a kerchief and sit in the shade, the sun's rays will bring exceptional benefits.
The same goes for infrared emitters. Sitting "hugging" with a device of dubious quality is clearly dangerous. A well-chosen and positioned device of a proven brand will do no harm: on the contrary, it will improve well-being, will have a tonic effect on the body and will save money on heating.
The efficacy and safety of infrared radiation in reasonable dosage has been proven by numerous scientific studies. A weighty argument in favor of IR radiation is its widespread use in medicine and manufacturing (including food).
Properly dosed infrared radiation has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, stimulating and circulatory effects. Do not take it as an absolute threat to health.
Myth number 2. Devices burn oxygen
No heater burns oxygen - this is the usual "bike". Oxygen is an oxidizing agent, and burning is, in fact, a special case of oxidation, accompanied by the release of heat. Oxidize the oxidizer? This is some kind of anti-scientific nonsense.
It is more correct to say that the heating equipment can “dry” the air (and with it all the mucous membranes) in the room. After all, a decrease in the relative humidity of the air is a regular process when it is heated. "Burn" heater can except house dust.
By the way, do not believe the advertising slogans of manufacturers that there are good heaters that do not dry the air at all (read - their products), but there are bad ones (that is, all other companies). All heating units reduce the humidity in the room. ICO in this matter is not worse and not better than others.
How to deal with the "drought"? In order to breathe easier during the heated period in the house, the rooms need to be aired regularly, daily wet cleaning may be necessary to purchase a humidifier.
High-temperature infrared devices can not be used in fire hazardous areas. The surface of the operating device in order to avoid burns cannot be touched.
What is the real danger?
One of the most likely harmful effects of PPI is drying of the skin. The surface of the skin, under the influence of an infrared source, heats up and moisture evaporates from its surface. But since the subcutaneous layers do not have time to heat up, the body does not sweat. Because of this, the skin also dries out, sometimes burns occur.
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The real danger to the exploitation is gas-powered appliances.
In the operation of infrared heaters it is necessary to strictly comply with the manufacturer’s instructions, indicated by them in the instructions attached to the product.
If gas heating equipment is intended for use in an open area, it should not be used for space heating
When using gas infrared devices in the house, they must be installed in rooms of an area not less than that specified by the manufacturer and air the room regularly.
The real danger of gas appliances
Gas lamp heater in the country
Outdoor version of gas equipment
Installing a gas heater in the house
If you believe consumer reviews about infrared units, the effect of “baking” during their operation is quite common, especially the skin in infrared saunas. The effect of intense infrared radiation on people has been studied for a long time - both by physiotherapists and by managers of labor protection issues.
With prolonged or non-dosed exposure, infrared rays are considered a highly harmful factor. In physiotherapy, the effect of the use of radiant heat is considered beneficial with strictly regulated “portions” and a short duration of exposure.
The permissible intensity of infrared irradiation of the surface of the human body (with a long stay in a room with an IR source) is regulated by SanPiN 126.96.36.1998-96
Infrared heaters in themselves are dangerous for the eyes - thermal damage to the lens and retina can provoke the development of cataracts, as well as contribute to the progression of existing problems with organs view.
Directing infrared rays directly to the head cause migraines, nausea, worsening of general well-being. Such complaints from owners of ceiling emitters are especially frequent.
Whether the infrared heater will cause real harm depends in each case on such moments:
- The length of the waves emitted by the equipment. The most favorable for the human body long heat waves; short, penetrating through the skin and even the bones of the skull are not the best way;
- Radiation intensity. The body responds positively to infrared rays with an intensity of up to 100 W / m2: the activity of biochemical processes increases, vigor appears, and appetite improves. But the intensity of radiation above 150 W / m2 can be dangerous: it inhibits immunity, leads to irreversible damage to cells;
- Individual susceptibility. Some people respond well to the effects of infrared rays, while others feel worse immediately. You should always listen to your feelings.
It is also worth remembering that there are a number of diseases in which infrared heating is contraindicated regardless of the wishes (tumors, cardiovascular diseases).
Ways to avoid negative impact
To reduce the possible harmful effects of heaters, follow a number of simple rules when choosing and installing them:
- No need to strive to purchase a super-power device, it is better to buy several units of lesser capacity. This will ensure more comfortable heating. Several devices will warm the body evenly from all sides.
- Favorite copy should be carefully examined. Read reviews on the Internet, closely consider its appearance in the store, find out from the sales assistant all the nuances of operation.
- It is better to refuse the cheapest devices of unknown brands. As a rule, they are made of materials of dubious quality and emit hazardous (and even toxic) substances when heated.
- Selection of power equipment should be made taking into account the type of room, ceiling height, quality of insulation.
- Do not install IC in the bedroom and nursery. But if it is really necessary, it should be positioned in such a way that the rays would not be directed onto the bed and other permanent zones of people.
Ideally placed heater gives heat to the walls, floor, pieces of furniture and does not cause discomfort to the person.
Using this table, you can determine the optimal height of the suspension of IR-units on the basis of their power. But this data is averaged, each specific case requires more accurate heat engineering calculation.
Now widely used schemes for heating country houses, made on the basis of infrared heating systems. Features of their device and operation in detail described here. In the presented article the specificity of the effective variant of PLEN is analyzed.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. The short answer of the expert on the dangers of infrared units:
Video # 2. Feedback and impressions of real users of IR devices:
High-quality PPIs selected and placed according to the basic safety rules will not do any harm. They will provide high thermal comfort and good energy savings.
Modern infrared units are efficient, hygienic, do not require special maintenance - so in many respects it is a really good choice. The main thing is to approach the purchase wisely and not be tempted by any advertising "odes."
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