Everyone knows a lemon - this evergreen perennial - a guest from the subtropics, which is quite comfortable settled in our houses, apartments. The homeland of lemon - Southeast Asia, more than a thousand years ago, these fruits were imported from India, and eventually found popularity in Africa, America. This deservedly popular citrus can live in your home. How to grow a lemon from the bones at home, you learn from this article..
- How to plant a lemon from a stone?
- Lemon room - home care
- Lemon transplantation into a new pot, pruning, shaping the crown
- Diseases of indoor lemon
- Lemon in the apartment - good or bad
One of the main stages is the selection of quality seeds - this is the guarantee of the future harvest. For the planting material, the bones from the purchased ripe lemons are quite suitable. Sow at once a lot of bones, so that you can then choose the strongest sprouts.↑ back to content ↑
How to plant a lemon from a stone?
Step by step process:.
- At home, from ripe large citrus fruits, take out the bones, select the largest of them.Most seeds are immediately sown, but some gardeners are recommended to pre-treat them with a solution of sodium gummat. The solution is diluted with water according to the enclosed instructions, the seeds are immersed for 24 hours.
- At the bottom of pots or special containers, drainage is poured in advance (small pebbles, charcoal or expanded clay), the top is filled with soil. Soil for indoor lemonashould consist of equal shares of peat, land for flowers. You can buy already prepared soil mixture for citrus plants. Lemons feel great in chernozem mixed with leaf humus (:), there you can add sand.
- Bones are buried approximately 1 cm, the distance between them should be at least 5 cm, and from the sides of the tank - at least 3.
- To maintain the necessary temperature in the home, the soil must always be moistened, but not supersaturated with water. The ideal temperature for germination is + 18..23ºC.
- After about 10-14 days, the first bone marrow appears. From the very beginning, stronger specimens are seen, they are selected for further growth.
- To the room lemon began to grow, showed the world the first full-fledged leaves, it is necessary to create a suitable microclimate for it. To do this, sprout sprouts are covered with glass jars, and then put in a well-lit place, however, direct sun rays should be avoided.
- Airing should be daily. Banks are removed from the shoots for 15-20 minutes.
- When full leaves appear (two or three pieces), it's time to replant the indoor lemon in separate containers. A pot for a sprout with a diameter should be no more than 10 cm. Drainage at the bottom of the pot with nutritive soil mixture is a prerequisite.
Here, a young seedling from the bone should grow to about 17-20 cm, after which it is transplanted. The volume of the new pot should be larger than the previous one.↑ back to content ↑
Lemon room - home care
This tree loves bright, but diffuse light, so that in summer the scorching sun rays do not harm the leaves, it needs to be shaded. Here, as with watering, you need to adhere to the golden mean, since with a lack of light, the fruits will be acidic, and the leaves are flaccid and sparse.
Optimum temperature regime for flowering, fruit formation (tie) - approximately + 17..20 ° C.
Lemon room does not like when it is moved from place to place, but staying in the open air (for example, on the balcony), it still does not hurt. Keep an eye out for the weather forecast, as a sharp temperature drop can harm the plant (it will throw off the foliage). Wintering should take place in cool home conditions, a temperature of + 15..18 ° C will be enough.
How to care for a lemon in terms of watering? Like all citrus cultures, he loves moisture. In summer, it is necessary to provide copious watering to the perennial, twice a week is enough. In winter, one watering is enough for a week. Overflow should be avoided. At the same time, water should be boiled, have room temperature or be well-kept. This plant does not tolerate chlorine, which is rich in tap water - consider this factor.
Photo of a lemon room at home:
Citrus fruits require frequent irrigation of the crown with moisture. This is especially true in the summer, and in the winter (with constantly working batteries or heaters) spraying becomes simply necessary. Sometimes you can arrange a warm shower plant - this is a good prevention against the appearance of mites, scutes. To further increase the humidity, a pot of lemon can be installed on a tray with wet claydite (or charcoal, gravel).
Fertilizer for indoor lemon is an indispensable condition for harmonious development, fruiting. In comparison with other domestic perennials, this citrus needs to be fed more often than its green counterparts. In summer, fertilizers are introduced weekly (with water for irrigation), in winter - once a month will be enough.
Mineral top dressings are more effective, but organic contain all the important trace elements, have a beneficial effect on the soil structure, activate vital activity of all important microorganisms. If you combine minerals with organic, then such an alliance will provide the best nutrition for this citrus at home..
During the activation of shoot growth (in the spring) it is appropriate to introduce potassium, nitrogen fertilizing, and when the flowers appear phosphoric. Carefully study the information on the package with fertilizers - compliance with the dosage is very important, as you will subsequently use these lemons. With the onset of the so-called "rest period" (autumn-winter time), the dose and frequency of fertilizing decreases to one time per month.↑ back to content ↑
Lemon transplantation into a new pot, pruning, shaping the crown
Every year, preferably in spring (the beginning of vegetation), lemon is transplanted. Transplantation should be carried out carefully, so that the perennial root system is not disturbed. The method of overtaking is most preferable for this case. Every year only young specimens are transplanted when they reach the age of 3 years (some varieties are 5 years old), the transplant is performed every 2 or 3 years. It is highly discouraged to carry out this process during flowering or fruiting - the plant can discard inflorescences with fruits.
Do not forget that quality drainage at the bottom of the tank is a prerequisite for citrus cultures. The size of the pot is also important, since if the capacity is too low, then the plant will not have enough land or nutrient components. Too large pot, too, will not work - the soil will be sour, and the root system will rot.
Pot for lemon - size (diameter):
- small shrubs up to 2 years old - about 20 cm;
- plants 3-4 years - 30 cm;
- young trees 5-6 years - 35 cm;
- citrus older than 7 years - 45 cm.
It is desirable that the pot was made of clay, but wood, glass, plastic are also acceptable, the main thing is that the tank has drainage holes.
To give the crown shape, remove excess branches is also better in the spring (April), until the active growth of shoots began. At the first formation of the crown, the trunk of the bush is cut at a length of 25-30 cm.On the sides there are the strongest buds (these are shoots of the first order), from which after grow skeletal branches. Usually there are three or four of them, make sure that they are located evenly, because the beauty of the future crown depends on this. Each successive order of shoots need to pinch 5 cm shorter than the previous one..
Most citrus fruits are observed on the branches of the 4th and 5th order, these branches grow in the second or third year of life.On branches of the first order, fruits are not tied at all, and on branches of the 2nd and 3rd order - only in certain varieties (for example, Meyer)..
The number of flowers should also be controlled so that the vital forces of the plant are not exhausted.In order for the tree to develop harmoniously, at about 3 years of age it is necessary to start removing half of the inflorescences (the harvest will be smaller, but the fruits will be larger), and leave 3 or 4 pieces out of the ovaries. For the same purposes, in a year, you can leave 5 or 6 citrus, and for the future not leave more than 7 or 9.
Branching branches can be gently, without excessive enthusiasm, cut to the eye, so that the crown visually had an attractive shape. It should be borne in mind that short circumcision provokes the growth of new powerful shoots, and the long one promotes the birth of fruit buds.
The skeleton of a tree is considered formed after the young growth of branches grows, will grow lignified. Correctly formed crown gives all the leaves the required amount of light and air.
How to pinch a lemon? If it actively branches, it forms shoots, then unnecessary fragments should be deleted as soon as they appear. In those shoots that are left for development, the tops are plucked after the appearance of the 6th leaf.↑ back to content ↑
Diseases of indoor lemon
Often, the disease appears due to non-compliance with the rules of care: nedoliv leads to the drying of the tree, with a glut of moisture, the root system rot and the leaves turn yellow.
If the foliage becomes covered with yellow specks, and after it turns pale and dries, then the lemon, most likely, lacks iron.
If the leaves dry the tips, and they themselves seem to rust, then this indicates a lack of phosphorus.
The lack of potassium leads to the wrinkling of the leaves, and with the deficiency of manganese, the ovaries are completely discarded.
A competent, timely fertilizer of the plant is an ideal prevention of the above-described negative manifestations.
Little to know how to grow a lemon, you need to know how to protect it in a timely manner. Weakened plants are the first to enter the risk zone, they are the ones that are most often affected by diseases. Proper care is the basis of lemon content at home. If the tree is sick, then the affected leaves, flowers, fruits, branches should be removed immediately. If a pest is detected, it is necessary to immediately carry out a protective "attack but after certain types of processing, the lemon can no longer be eaten.
Good results show the drug "Fitosporin". It suppresses an extensive spectrum of causative agents of citrus diseases. It is also good in that it has no odor, does not contain toxic compounds. It is diluted with water during irrigation, irrigates the plants. This drug is very good for disease prevention.
Communicating with friends of interest, you can often hear complaints: "room lemon dropped leaves, what to do?" The main reasons such a reaction is insufficient lighting, overflow or underflow, depleted soil, excessive dryness of the air, heat or strong cold. For reference, we list the most common diseases of domestic citrus, we give a brief recommendation for eliminating the cause:
- Scab or warty - has a fungal origin, manifests itself on young shoots and leaflets: first appear pale yellow spots, which later become warts grayish color. The growths grow, cover shoots, which subsequently perish. The scab also affects the fruits: bright yellow spots appear on them, which then turn red and darken. All affected parts of the plant must be cut and destroyed, and the trunk with the crown should be richly treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid (mixture of copper sulfate solution and lime milk).
- Anthracnose is the most common fungal cause of why the leaves of a room lemon turn yellow at home. With this disease the tree loses buds, the fruits appear brown spots, the branches die. All affected shoots, fruits must be removed, and the plant itself should be treated with the above-described preparation "Phytosporin" or Bordeaux liquid.
- A black fungus is a consequence of defeat by pests - a mealybug or a scab. Active preventive measures are a sure way to protect the tree from such consequences.
- Gummosis - manifested by the appearance of dark red spots on the trunk and branches, on the places of damage the cortex cracked, a sticky liquid (gum) emerges from the crack, which subsequently solidifies. The causes of this disease are many: improper penetration of seedlings, "dirty" soil, mechanical "trauma" of the plant, improper care for a room lemon. Treatment - finding out the root cause of the disease, as well as radical cutting of the affected areas with an acute knife. Damage should be treated with a 3% solution of copper sulfate, and then covered with garden varnish.
This citrus perennial must be regularly inspected to notice the disease at the very beginning. As you know, any disease is easier to cure at the initial stage. You need to inspect not only the trunk or foliage, but also the root system of the tree, the soil.↑ back to content ↑
Lemon in the apartment - good or bad
Of course, the benefits from it are much greater than the possible harm. Everyone knows the medicinal, protective properties of this citrus for the human body. Vitamins, flavonoids, biologically active substances successfully suppress viruses, create a powerful shield against pathogenic bacteria.
The use of this yellow citrus strengthens the immune system, normalizes the hormonal background, improves eyesight, stimulates the digestive tract. Lemon mobilizes the body's internal resources, helps with sore throats, colds. Widely its application in cosmetology: face masks (whitening, healing, cleansing) and hair (growth stimulant). Even just a green tree (room lemon from a stone, at home grown) saturates the air with phytoncides, raises the mood, facilitates breathing.
Contraindication to use may be individual intolerance, peptic ulcer of stomach, duodenal ulcer, chronic gastritis, pancreatitis. In everything you need to know the measure, since eating a lemon in large quantities will not lead to anything good.
Given all of the above, now you know how to grow a lemon from a stone at home. Despite the abundance of information, this process does not require special knowledge or skills. It is necessary to understand and take into account the main criteria - the rules of maintenance and care, competent pruning, timely prevention of diseases..