Cyclamen - home care, varieties, breeding

Very beautiful flower! I tried to grow it, but my first experience was unsuccessful - the cyclamen disappeared. Care at home how difficult? Is it possible to ensure that it blooms all year round? One of my good friends is fond of cyclamens. I love to be at her house. All windowsills are made with these flowers. And they bloom from her almost all year round. Some cease to bloom, others begin.

Contents:
  • Features of cyclamens, varieties
  • We decided to buy cyclamen - what to look for in
  • Cyclamen Drops

Among its neighbors on the windowsill, this plant stands out for its bright beauty and abundant flowering. How to grow cyclamen, how to transplant it - let's look in detail. This representative is remarkable in that it blooms in autumn and winter. If you are interested in the process of growing cyclamen by yourself, you can buy seeds. It is also quite possible to get new plants by dividing the root. It should be borne in mind that the process of growing this flower from seeds is rather long, as long as it grows a tuber and flowers, it can take a long time.

Cyclamen, photo:

The flowering of a houseplant begins around November and ends by March. The five-petal flowers on a graceful thin stem are very beautiful - an unusual shape with curved petals. The leaves are also very decorative - something similar to a heart, an open white( or silver) pattern adorns a dark green "canvas."Thanks to the efforts of breeders, hybrids of this flower are periodically brought to light, which differ in shades and patterns on the leaves.

Photos of cyclamen flowers:

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Features of cyclamen, variety

The most remarkable quality of hybrids is the possibility of year-round flowering. Separate cultivars can be planted in open ground, used as garden flowers. There are about 20 varieties of this plant, but for home cultivation the Persian, European, Neapolitan( Ivy) varieties are most often used.

The Persian cyclamen is considered the most common representative. Flowers of this species can be of different shades: white, pink, dark red, lilac. The plant usually reaches 30 cm in height, has a large tuber with a diameter of 10-15 cm. The Persian variety can be grown both at home and in garden plots. If you want to plant it in your country house, then choose a place protected from the wind and direct sunlight, for example, near trees or shrubs.

Persian cyclamen, photo:

The purple variety has a characteristic feature that distinguishes it from its counterparts - from the bottom the leaf color has a violet hue. Also, in this species, the tuber does not protrude above the soil; upon closer inspection, the whole is covered with roots. The purple cyclamen retains its leaves all year round( there is no dormant period).Flower color varies from white to all shades of red, the leaves have notches on the edges. The plant gives color mainly in summer( June / beginning of October), its other name is European cyclamen. Flowers of this variety have a very pleasant aroma.

European Cyclamen( purple):

Neapolitan Cyclamen( Ivy):

Among the varieties of cyclamen, you can even find those that grow on mossy tree trunks. In this case, the tree does not suffer, since the root system of the plant is not buried beneath the bark. In summer, wild cyclamen blooms and smells( the scent resembles lilies of the valley), and with the onset of autumn it “falls asleep”.The height of wild representatives does not exceed 10 cm, they multiply by seeds, and insects help them. Caucasian cyclamen grows wild, can be grown at home, propagated by seed, division of tubers. It can also be planted at the dacha.

Wild cyclamen, photo:

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We decided to buy a cyclamen - what to look for in the store

It's hard to resist the charm of cyclamen and not buy a blooming specimen! Even if it does not bloom, the cap of leaves with blue-gray spots looks very decorative.

The question arises: where and when is it better to acquire this plant? It should be noted that the most common type of cyclamen - Persian - begin to sell in late autumn.

I advise when choosing to pay attention to those plants that have more unblown buds - the more of these, the better. Naturally, your new flower should not have damaged leaves. They should be located low relative to the peduncles. On the tuber, too, do not mind to pay attention. Properly located tuber should look out of the ground by half. This is important, because it will depend on how your cyclamen will develop.

When buying, pay attention to the soil. Usually plants from a flower shop are sold in a poor peat substrate, which is unsuitable for normal cultivation for a long period. Such plants should be transplanted immediately, but only after the end of the flowering period.

To do this:

  • carefully remove the plant from the pot, keeping it close to the root by the leaves;
  • shake peat from the roots of a flower;
  • check the condition in which they are - if we see rotten - boldly cut them to healthy tissue;
  • soak the roots in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 10-15 minutes - this procedure will disinfect the root system of cyclamen;
  • after disinfection, sprinkle root areas with powdered activated carbon powder;
  • , before planting, pour a small layer of expanded clay at the bottom of a clean pot;
  • as a substrate will suit any universal soil for indoor or flowering plants.

An experienced friend always tells me that cyclamen is an unpretentious flower, but you need to know some secrets.

  • First, cyclamens do not like large containers. They prefer to corms rather closely than spacious. That is, the distance between the nodules and the walls of the pot should be no more than 2-3 cm.
  • Secondly, cyclamen refers to plants that periodically “hibernate,” that is, they need a rest period, which lasts about three months. At this time, the pot with cyclamen asleep is placed in a cool place. This may be, for example, some sort of pantry, toilet room, even the lower shelf of the refrigerator is suitable if the temperature there does not rise above 11 ° C.In the dormant period, cyclamen is not watered, except that only when the soil in the pot is completely dry. One tablespoon of water per week will be more than enough.
  • Thirdly, this is perhaps one of the few plants that does not like bright sunlight. Be sure to shade the pot with cyclamen, but rather keep it on the north window.
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How to grow cyclamen at home, care for it

In order for this bright flower to please you with lush flowering, you need to follow certain rules. The plant should feel comfortable: acceptable air temperature, the absence of drafts, proper lighting, timely watering - all these requirements must be observed.

How to care for cyclamen at home:

  1. The ambient temperature should not be above + 12..15 ° C, if the mercury column rises above + 20 ° C or drops below + 10 ° C - the plant will not like it. There should be no drafts where the flower pot will be located. The presence of a heating radiator( or battery) near the flowers is also highly undesirable.
  2. This flower requires diffused light, light shading, since direct sunlight on the leaves is fraught with burns. A bright light is needed for a plant only when it is in bloom. When the flower is over-illuminated, the flower reacts with the withering of leaves and the appearance of brown spots on them.
  3. How to water cyclamen? It is necessary to water this plant only through the pallet! Water can not be poured from above, it should not fall on the tuber, flowers, leaves and other parts. It is recommended to fill the tray or saucer on which the pot is standing with drainage claydite( thin layer).
  4. This plant prefers moist air. Here, again, you can use the expanded clay poured into the pan or small pebbles. Do not irrigate a flower with water from a spray bottle. With the onset of the rest period, it must be watered, but not as often as during active growth and flowering. If you notice that the leaves of the plant turn yellow, this can also be an indicator of excessive dryness of the air.
  5. Soil for a flower should consist of equal parts of rotted foliage( deciduous humus), peat, sod land, coarse sand, vermiculite and clay. You can also buy a ready-made substrate for cyclamen( an option for cacti is also suitable).

It is recommended to make top dressing only during the active growth of the plant, approximately 1 time in 14 days. The best choice of fertilizers is common mineral supplements for indoor plants.

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Cyclamen - how to transplant

It is best to make a transplant in the summer. In late spring, the plant ceases to bloom, a period of rest begins, at which time it is no longer watered, and the pot itself is laid on its side. Around July, slowly, in small doses, they begin to water again, and when the first leaves appear, you can start planting a flower.

It has already been said that the feature of cyclamen is the minimum of potted earth! But it would not be superfluous to repeat that the tuber should be a little crowded, it should only be partially buried - about a third of the tuber should rise above the level of the soil in the pot. After transplantation of cyclamen, it is not worth plentifully flooding the flower with water, the earth should only be slightly moist. Only when the plant comes to life, will actively plant the leaves, adapts to a new place, can we proceed to normal watering, adding supplements.

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How to grow cyclamen from

seeds If buying a ready-made potted flower does not attract you, you are interested in going through this whole process, then try to get quality seeds. Of course, you can select planting material from the existing colors, but you have to pre-pollination process( using a brush or cotton swab).Pollination needs to be done repeatedly, from flower to flower, with the presence of different varieties is welcome. When the plant ottsvetet and seed pods mature, tear them, not waiting for cracking. Wrap the boxes with a clean cloth or paper, when they are dry, they will open themselves - thus, the seeds will be saved.

Seed boll, photo:

For sowing seeds, you should choose a suitable soil. Substrates that are sold in flower shops, also fit. This soil often contains peat, leaf soil, vermiculite. If you want to make such a substrate yourself, then you only have to mix equal proportional parts of these components. Do not forget about drainage( large balls of foam plastic or small crushed stone), there must be holes at the bottom of the tank.

Two methods of sowing seeds are most commonly used:

  1. Seed material is presoaked with cold water( for two or three days), to which a couple of drops of dish detergent should be added every day. This water should be changed daily, its temperature should be quite low.
  2. The second option is more familiar to florists and gardeners - pretreatment( soaking) with a weak-caulk solution of potassium permanganate or Epin( 2 drops per 200 ml of water).For seeds, 15 hours of such a “bath” are enough, after such a treatment, even the inveterate seed gets a “shake”, sprouting.

You can try these two methods at the same time, then choose the one that is more effective and convenient for you.

Next, in order to grow cyclamen from seeds, prepare a container with holes at the bottom, lay a drainage layer, sprinkle the soil on top. Make grooves on the soil, lay the seeds in there, or moisten the soil, spread out the seed, sprinkle with a 2-3 cm layer of earth on top. Please note that between seeds should be approximately 3 cm of free space.

Further care for crops - cover the containers with plastic wrap, place them in a cool place. As mentioned above, the air temperature should not exceed + 20 ° C.

Observance of temperature conditions is extremely important for cyclamen, since with an increase in the degree, a transition to the rest period is triggered, and with a decrease in the seed, it can simply rot.

Every day you should briefly lift the film - air the seedlings, if you follow these simple rules, you can see the seedlings approximately - it depends on the variety. From the moment of emergence, the growth of young stock seems to be slowing down, this is due to the fact that the plants actively grow roots. After about 4 months, you can start planting them in separate containers, by which time each seedling should grow 2 or 3 leaves.

The subsequent transplantation of cyclamen to a permanent place of residence is carried out by crossing over with a clod of earth. Pot with drainage holes, drainage material, the corresponding soil - everything should be according to the rules. Young tubers need to be completely buried, adult representatives, as mentioned above, should rise above the ground by half or one third.

It is possible to start feeding in 6 months, complex compositions for flowering houseplants are optimal for this purpose. Do not forget about the quality of regular watering of cyclamen.

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Cyclamen reproduction

The most convenient and simple way of reproduction is to divide the tubers during transplantation. Well, if your flower by this time has grown a child tuber. With the onset of the rest period, you can independently cut such a tuber into pieces, the main thing is that there are roots + kidney on each fragment. Cut surfaces need to be polished or carefully powdered with crushed activated carbon. The method of tuber division really works, try and make sure. Another way to propagate a plant with seeds is described above.

If you notice that your cyclamen begins to fade, the leaves turn yellow, what to do? Most likely, the reason - excessive lighting. Move the container with a flower in a shady place or hang thick curtains on the window. Heat, dry air can also cause yellowing of foliage.

The lack of iron can also affect the well-being of the plant: the leaves turn yellow just the same, they start to fall down. This phenomenon is called chlorosis, but the addition of the drug "Microvit K-1"( iron chelate) to the water for irrigation helps to cope with the problem.

Sometimes yellowing of foliage may be due to the appearance of a spider mite - insecticide flower irrigation is recommended. Make sure that the soil is moderately moist, too dry or too wet the earth also leads to yellowing of the leaves of the plant.

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Cyclamen has faded - what to do next?

With the onset of the resting phase, the foliage of the plant fades and dries. The remains of leaves and flowers should be cut or cut by hand, while ensuring that the tuber was not damaged. By this time, as mentioned above, watering should be kept to a minimum, but the soil near the tuber should not be too dry. If you have the opportunity to bring the flower to fresh air, do it. The plant should be in a cool, shaded place all the time, if you notice a pecking of new leaves, this will mean that the rest period has ended.

Beginning of the dormant period, photo:

Sometimes a flower with a pot is dropped in a shady place on the site, transplantation is performed when the plant wakes up from hibernation. In this case, the soil and the earth com are completely replaced, inspect the tuber, remove the tainted fragments, a month after transplantation they begin to introduce additional feeding during watering. You can buy a ready-made earth mixture for cyclamen.

Another option for preserving tubers is described above - laying the pot on its side, transplanting in July or August.

Why doesn't cyclamen bloom? You can sometimes see a similar question on the appropriate forums. The answer to it is proper care, following the rules when sowing seeds, transplanting, dividing tubers. It is very important to provide the plant with the required temperature and acceptable air humidity. Competent watering of cyclamen, timely fertilization - these are the basic needs of the plant, the key to its future lush flowering.

We should also mention separately the diseases and pests that threaten the plant, which can affect its flowering. Timely treatment with insecticides and supporting drugs is very important. Regularly inspect the flower from all sides, take action at the slightest suspicion of the presence of intruders or deterioration in appearance.

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Drops of cyclamen

It is worth mentioning one interesting and healing feature of this decorative flower - it is a medicinal plant, whose anti-inflammatory effect was familiar to Hippocratic. Today, it successfully treat sinusitis, make drops, ointments, tinctures. As with any other vegetable gifts of nature, cyclamen should be treated carefully, not too zealous with the doses and frequency of treatment.

Cyclamen root - it is a tuber, contains biologically active cyclamine( a substance of the saponid group), which provokes increased secretion of mucous membranes and thereby helps the natural cleansing of the sinuses( "clogged") of the sinuses. To prepare homemade medicinal drops based on the root of the plant, you need to take part of the tuber, grate it on a small grater( or wring out with a garlic press).The resulting pulp should be filtered through a layer of clean cloth, and the resulting juice diluted with boiled( or distilled) water 1: 4.Thus, you get a natural cure for sinusitis and rhinitis, bury it daily with 2 drops in each nostril for 7-10 days.

You can also chop 2 g of the root, pour 100 ml of boiling water over it, leave for about 1 hour, then dissolve one teaspoonful of this with a liter of boiled water, drip into your nose.

Root-based oil extract helps very well with a dried nasal mucosa. Pressed tuber juice is mixed with the same amount of olive or sunflower oil, infused for about a day, and then dripped into the nose in 3 drops for 7 days.

Taking note of all the information, now you will know how to care for cyclamen, how to grow flowers from seeds, how to transplant a plant and propagate it by dividing the roots.

His flowers are reminiscent of bright summer butterflies, crouching on a thin stalk, but the most amazing and valuable is that we can enjoy this magnificence during the winter blizzards and cold weather.

In order to bloom cyclamen in winter, home care should include high-quality summer rest. The root should not waste strength and nutrients on the growth of foliage. Despite the fact that this flower requires the same approach as most houseplants, it is considered capricious, but the result fully justifies the investment of time and effort.

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