The choice of heating system is a key issue, the solution of which depends on the comfort of living and the safety of the owner’s financial resources. Considering the various options, you should pay attention to electric heating in a private house, to evaluate its pros and cons, to compare with other proposals.
Modern systems that feed on electricity are very diverse. Not all of them consume an excessively large amount of electricity. Consider in detail each of them.
The content of the article:
- Why choose electric heating?
Water heating with electric boiler
- Coppers with heaters like TEN
- Coppers with the electrode principle of action
- Induction type heating boilers
- Infrared heating equipment
- Heating Electric Convectors
- Electric systems "warm floor"
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Why choose electric heating?
It is believed that home heating systems that run on electricity is too expensive. Therefore, their advantages are somehow not taken into account.
Electric heating systems are among the most environmentally friendly. They do not give any emissions to the atmosphere.
This is fundamentally wrong, because electrical systems have many significant advantages that distinguish them from other types of heating:
- Security. The equipment does not work with an open flame and explosive substances, like other heating devices. Qualitatively laid wiring - reliable protection against possible fire.
- Easy to manage and maintain. Automatic systems regulate the operation of equipment, which requires minimal human intervention. Items that require regular replacement or cleaning are not available.
- Full environmental safety. During operation, the system does not emit toxic substances, so it can be mounted in any premises.
- No need to store fuel. Therefore, no special room is required for storing flammable materials.
- Compactness. Most of the equipment is small. The diverse design of devices makes it easy to choose a model for anyone according to the style of the interior.
- Low cost. In comparison with other types of heating devices, the price of such equipment is much lower.
Of the significant shortcomings of electrical systems, in addition to the fairly high cost of electricity for fairness, it is necessary to note the full energy dependence of the equipment.
This means that when the power supply is cut off, all devices will stop working, which will be especially noticeable in areas with frequent blackouts. In addition, for the smooth operation of the equipment will need a powerful power grid, which is not everywhere.
For arrangement of hot-water heating with an electric boiler, only a closed system with a membrane-equipped expansion tank is selected, with which the pressure in the system is regulated.
Water heating with electric boiler
It is a standard system with a heat transfer fluid circulating around the heating circuit. Its main difference is that the heating medium is heated only through the use of an electric boiler.
By virtue of this, such a system will have some peculiarities. First of all, it can only be of a closed type and must be equipped membrane expansion tank.
Otherwise, it will not be possible to avoid uneven heating of the premises, loss of speed and heat transfer capacity, which will lead to excessive energy consumption and, consequently, unjustified costs. For the same reasons, it is not recommended to install a system with natural circulation.
A photo of
Electric heating option requires a minimum investment in the organization and installation. For the device of electric heating it is not necessary to construct a boiler room, no need for a place to store fuel
Electric boilers are produced in single and double circuit versions. If for maintenance of the house there is not enough double-circuit boiler, then separate single-loop units are installed for hot water supply and heating.
Single-circuit electric boilers serve only the heating line. In this case, gas or electric instantaneous water heaters are used to heat water.
Electric boilers attract the most simple and expeditious installation. For their installation, you only need to obtain permission to connect to the power line with the required power.
Electric boilers in a country house
Electrical equipment for heating and hot water supply
Electric boiler with a gas water heater
Easy installation and connection
The best option is forced circulation of the coolant, which will make it possible to save energy as much as possible. To work with such a heating system, you can use three types of electric boilers. Let us examine the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.
Coppers with heaters like TEN
In each of these devices are installed TENY. These are heating elements operating on the principle of resistive heating of a conductor through which an electric current passes.
Due to the fact that they have to work in a liquid, the devices are additionally protected in the form of a waterproof case and reliable insulation. Therefore, the power of heaters is somewhat reduced.
The figure shows the design of an electric boiler with a heater.
As a result, the efficiency of each such heater is no more than 80. Therefore, in order for boilers of this type to heat the coolant to the desired temperature, it is required or to increase the number TENOV, or put more heaters power.
In any case, the loss of energy is inevitable, which negatively affects the efficiency of devices of this type. Most often in one boiler manufacturers install 3-4 heating elements. Provides different modes of operation of the device. Depending on this, all heating elements can be included in the work, only one of them or groups of elements.
Power electric boilers Tenovy type varies ranging from 3 and to 50 kW. The most powerful models are designed to connect to a three-phase network, less powerful ones can operate from a single-phase one.
The layout of the heaters in the device may be different, which affects their appearance. They can be made in the form of cylinders with heating elements “hidden” inside and a separate building control unit or to have the usual rectangular shape with the bodies displayed on the body management.
The cost of boilers of this type is very small, due to their uneconomical.
During operation, the surface of the heating element is covered with scale and salt deposits, so it has to be changed regularly.
There are some drawbacks to TEN devices. First of all, it is a short term "life" of the heating element. During operation of the device, it is covered with salt deposits and fails.
Therefore regular change of heaters such a device is necessary. Another "minus" is that when you start the equipment with a small amount of coolant or in its absence, the heaters fail.
Coppers with the electrode principle of action
The principle of operation of the device is fundamentally different from the PEN models. To generate heat, frequency oscillations in a variable network are used, which, in turn, cause oscillations of ions in the electrolyte, which leads to its rapid heating.
The boiler itself is a housing with two electrodes immersed in a coolant, the role of which is played by a conductive liquid or electrolyte. Most often for this purpose antifreeze of one brand or another is used.
Electrode devices are distinguished by their compactness and low weight, while their heating power is high. Such boilers can be installed in groups, starting up one or more devices at once as needed. Another advantage of the electrode equipment lies in its almost complete insensitivity to voltage drops in the network.
Electrode boilers are very compact, which favorably distinguishes them from analogs of TEN type
The safe range of drops for them is 15-20%, which is quite a lot. However, the stability of the AC frequency is very important for devices. Electrode boilers are completely fire safe, since such a device cannot overheat, and in the absence of heat carrier it simply will not turn on.
The device heats up very quickly. In terms of efficiency, it is 20% higher than the fuel element analogue, that is, its efficiency is about 98%. However, its performance can be increased.
This is achieved by strapping the device with metal pipes. Thus, the ionization zone of the coolant expands significantly, which has the effect of increasing productivity. The cost of electrode boilers is low. Therefore, when such equipment only appeared, it was considered almost an ideal heating device.
However, during the operation revealed and disadvantages. First of all, it is not a stable device power.
It very much depends on the chemical composition of the conductive fluid and its temperature, because even with small deviations change the conductivity of the solution, which leads to changes in the intensity heating. In addition, the electrode system is very poorly controlled automatically and adjustments.
Electrode boilers can be installed in groups, which makes them very convenient to use.
For boilers of this type, the composition is extremely important. heat carrier. In the case of non-compliance with the proportions of the solution or its pollution all the advantages of such a system disappear. Therefore, at least once a year it is necessary to carry out the correction of the chemical composition of the electrolyte.
With the same frequency it will be necessary to clean the heat exchanger and the entire heating system from salt deposits that will accumulate quickly enough. A prerequisite for connecting the electric heating system of the house of the electrode type is the presence of a grounding circuit.
Thus, despite the fact that such heating devices are more economical than their heating elements, they do not use special demand. A sufficiently large number of drawbacks make their use for heating a private house not very convenient.
Induction type heating boilers
These are the most advanced representatives of electric heating systems. The basis of these devices is the principle of electromagnetic induction. Everything happens as follows. Electric current is passed through the primary winding located in the core of the device.
It induces a voltage in the secondary winding located closer to the device case. It is a labyrinth pipe system through which the coolant passes.
The figure shows schematically the induction boiler and its principle of operation.
When the secondary circuit is closed, resistive heating of the conductor and, accordingly, of the coolant occurs. There are no losses of energy, therefore the efficiency of such a system is almost 100%.
Heating of the fluid occurs very quickly and evenly. Induction boilers are very economical. This indicator increases even more due to the self-induction of the system, which is associated with additional reactive power.
It is produced by the currents passing through the secondary closed loop. At the same time, the values of additional power arising are quite large. A somewhat different kind of inductive boiler - a vortex induction heater or VIN.
A voltage is applied to its primary winding, which is pre-converted to high frequency. Thus, the intensity of the electromagnetic field increases dramatically.
What gives the same rapid increase in current that is generated by this field? The peculiarity of the boiler VIN is that it has no secondary winding. Instead, all metal surfaces of the equipment are used.
They are specially made from materials with pronounced ferromagnetic properties. The appearance of eddy currents leads to magnetic reversal, which causes a strong and almost instantaneous heating of ferromagnetic alloys.
Induction boilers are compact, but have significant weight.
Consequently, practically all massive elements of the hull are involved in the heat exchange process, which makes it possible to obtain a very high efficiency approaching 100%. Induction boilers of both varieties differ in significant weight and relatively small size. They can be installed individually or in groups, the latter provides significant advantages in organizing the heating of a building.
Induction type boiler for arranging a cottage or a small private house can be made by hand. Induction Boiler Assembly Guidegiven in the article we recommend will help you choose the best option and correctly build the unit.
The advantages of induction boilers include fast, almost instant heating. The equipment is easy to adjust, so automatic control units are mounted on it to ensure precise settings. In terms of electrical and fire safety, these devices are the most safe when compared with other types of counterparts.
The high efficiency of induction devices does not decrease even after prolonged use. This is due to the fact that inside the device does not accumulate salt deposits or scum. They are removed by high-frequency microvibrations that accompany the operation of the equipment. For the same reason, there are no specific requirements for the chemical composition of the coolant. Boilers to her insensitive.
The use of induction boilers saves about 40% of electricity compared to other types of electric boilers.
Another advantage is the long service life of induction boilers. Without exaggeration, it can be calculated for dozens of years. This is explained by the fact that there is simply no equipment with vulnerable nodes. Contact of the electrical part of the device with the coolant is completely absent.
Problems can only arise with welds, which usually last a very long time. The main advantage of this type of equipment is efficiency.
Practice shows that it allows you to save up to 40% of electricity compared to its electrical and electrode counterparts. Among the shortcomings it is worth noting the small vibration noise that boilers emit during the work.
Massiveness that requires attention during installation, especially if the device is attached to the wall. Another disadvantage is the rather high cost of induction devices.
Infrared heating equipment
For heating your country house with electricity you can use modern infrared heating systems. For their work, the principle of wave energy transfer over a certain distance is applied.
Everything happens as follows. The emitter converts electrical energy into the infrared wave and transmits it. Waves move until they hit any opaque surface.
Temperature distribution when using infrared heating is much more comfortable for a person than when using traditional methods of heating
Here they are converted into thermal energy, heating the body, which met on their way. An object heated in such a way, be it a large furniture, floor or wall, begins to give off heat to the atmosphere, thereby heating the air in the room.
Thus, the room is heated as evenly as possible, and the temperatures are distributed in the most comfortable way for a person. At the same time there is practically no energy loss, which causes a high efficiency of infrared heaters.
They are available in various versions. Especially popular special infrared film with carbon-emitters sealed inside. It is used for arranging the system of heated floors, can be used on the ceiling and on the walls. The film is closed with any finishing material that does not affect its properties.
The thickness of the infrared film is small, it is invisible under any coating. The system is moisture resistant, it is not afraid of dynamic loads. It is subject to dismantle and the subsequent use.
On sale you can find infrared heaters, there are both ordinary and made in the form of plates of various sizes. They are also designed to be fixed on the walls or ceiling. However, in this case, it is more about additional heating than the main one.
A photo of
Infrared film systems - a great option for the organization of electric heating of a country house
All that is needed for the device of the heating infrared system is a simple set of tools for wiring, tape and IR film directly
The polymer base of the IR film is cut out with ordinary scissors. When cutting should observe the condition: the film is cut only in a straight line and only along the transparent strip
On top of the infrared heating floor any coating is laid with a suitable thermal conductivity: laminate, ceramic tile, linoleum, carpet
Parallel laned strips are connected in series and connected to a power source.
Infrared film systems are stacked on any type of building structure. More often on the floor, more rarely on the ceiling
Film type of heating is used in the attic space arrangement. In wooden houses it is the safest electrical option.
With the use of infrared films, it is possible to organize the heating of glazed loggias and even open terraces, since IR rays heat objects, not air
Infrared film in home heating systems
Tools and consumables for IR systems
Cutting the infrared film system before installation
Laying laminate on infrared film floor
The principle of infrared heating floor
The construction of the heating ceiling of the IR film
Using IR film for attic
Infrared film on the loggia floor
Infrastructure equipment is superior in efficiency to all known electric heating systems. This is due to the fact that he manages to heat the room very quickly, after which the automatic control unit periodically turns on / off the device, maintaining the desired temperature.
The disadvantages of infrared systems include strict heat directivity. The device heats only the area located in front of it. Therefore, for example, an infrared film is laid around the perimeter of the floor or ceiling.
Another disadvantage is the rather high cost of such equipment, especially if you need to purchase material for arranging a heated floor or PLEN system for the ceiling. However, it must be admitted that such investments quickly pay for themselves.
Modern infrared heaters can be made in the form of a decorative panel
Heating Electric Convectors
The operation of these devices is similar to the functioning of heating radiators. They also heat up and transfer heat to the surrounding air. The difference is that in convectors there is no coolant. Therefore, inlet / outlet pipe systems are not needed.
Instead, inside the device are heaters, which heat its surface. For the intake of cold air is the lower part of the device.
A photo of
To organize the heating of a private house with electric convectors it is not necessary to design and install a complex system of pipelines and channels. With their use eliminates the need for a boiler room device
The appliance just needs to be put in the optimum place for processing the room and plugged in. For towing to other areas and premises mobile convector equipped with wheels
Separating the wheels from the mobile device and hanging it on the brackets, you can use the convector as stationary equipment. Electric heaters made in the form of flat panels occupy minimum space
New models are produced with the ability to install their own substrate under the front surface, which allows the devices to literally merge with the wall
Extremely simple heating method
Elementary rules of operation
Wall mounted heater
Electric heaters with a unique design
It penetrates the inside of the convector through a special grid. Heated from the heating element, the air rises above and goes out through the upper grille.
In the course of operation of the heating device, a steady upward flow of warm air is created, which heats the room quickly enough. To control the heating temperature, the equipment is equipped with a thermostat, an automatic control unit can be installed.
Manufacturers produce a wide range of devices of various capacities and designs. For rooms with high humidity, you can purchase devices with special protection. With the criteria for the selection of electric convector will introduce next articlewhich we advise to read.
Convectors are extremely easy to use and safe. The heating element of the device is inside its case, but the outer panel heats up very little, so it is impossible to burn yourself.
The figure schematically shows the principle of operation of an electric convector: the cold air masses are tightened by the device from below and after processing are brought out to the top.
Heating devices are silent, therefore do not create any inconvenience. Available in various variations of convectors, among which there are mobile portable models. There are devices designed for installation in the floor. They are installed under the windows, in front of the doors and in other similar places, where appliances create an effective thermal curtain that prevents the ingress of cold into the room.
The negative characteristics of convectors include their low power. Therefore, to heat a building, a sufficiently large number of them will be required, which is a serious load on the wiring. In addition, the efficiency of such devices is low. They consume a fairly large amount of electricity.
A type of electric convector that fits directly into the floor.
Electric systems "warm floor"
Their principle of operation is to use resistive conductors that heat up when electric current passes through them. In fact, electric floor heating It is a heating cable, which can be two or single-core, which determines the way it is laid.
There are varieties equipped with a semiconductor matrix. These are so-called self-regulating cables that can control the heat.
A photo of
The most common type of electric floor heating is constructed from fully prepared for laying mats, in which the heating cable was originally enclosed in a mounting grid
If you wish, you can save the heating cable yourself, keeping the exact distance between the turns of the system.
The rod variant of the electric floor is a group of carbon rods, to the edges of which the electrical cable supplying them is connected
All heating film systems belong to electric types of warm floors: already familiar IR floors and new types with aluminum coating
Electric heating mats
Self laying cable
Rod electric floor
Aluminum film floor
For arranging underfloor heating can be taken heating cable, which fits directly into the screed. There is no other mounting option for it. In this case, the cement screed becomes a kind of heat accumulator.
More convenient for laying option - electric mats. They represent the same heating cable, which is fixed on a grid of fiberglass.
The advantage of mats is the possibility of laying not only in the screed. In some cases, for example, under ceramic tiles, such a system can be put directly into the glue, a layer of which will need to be slightly increased.
The main disadvantage of both cable floor options is the fact that if one of the system sections is damaged, a part of the structure located behind it fails.
When installing the heating cable is placed so that its parts are not in contact
This disadvantage is devoid of rod heating mats. They are pairs of conductors connected by parallel rods.
The system operates on the principle of self-regulation of the degree of heating. Warm floors of any type are equipped with a thermostat that controls the heating of the device to a certain temperature, after which the equipment is turned off.
Periodic automatic activation of the system is made only in order to maintain the desired temperature. This mode of operation saves energy, but such heating is still quite energy-consuming.
Therefore, it is more often used as an additional heating system and for arranging particularly comfortable warm zones in rooms. This may be, for example, areas for children's games or the floor in the bathroom.
Core systems continue to operate even if one of the elements fails.
Used in the home varieties of electric underfloor heating given here. Those who wish to compare different versions of systems, to evaluate their pros and cons, we advise you to familiarize yourself with the content of this article.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video review will tell you which of the electric boilers to choose for your home:
Consider the features of various types of electric underfloor heating:
How does infrared heating work:
Oil radiators, electric heaters and similar equipment can be classified as “yesterday”. To organize with their help full heating is almost impossible. In addition, they are very uneconomical, so electricity bills will be just space.
The electric heating systems discussed above are efficient and can be used for private homes. It is only important to warm the building well, otherwise you will have to pay too much for electricity.
And what type of electric heating systems do you use to improve the comfort conditions in your home? Perhaps you know the useful subtleties of the choice and operation of heating electrical equipment? Please write comments, leave a photo on the topic of the article, ask questions in the box below.