How to choose the right type of electric gun and serve it correctly
Rubanok was used in the processing of wood from ancient times, but spread in Europe received in the 15-16 centuries. The frieze was a wooden shoe, inside of which a metal blade was attached with a wedge. Then, instead of the deck, a metal frame was used. With the advent of electricity and the creation of an electric motor, the hand planes went to the background, and in their place appeared electric planes. In industry, stationary planing and jointing machines are used. For household and construction needs, mobile electric guns with different power and depth of wood processing have been developed. To choose a device correctly is an entire science.
- 1The main features of the instrument and its purpose
- 2Pluses and minuses of electric planes
3Electro-bank device and its operation principle
- 3.2Chip removal system
- 3.3Electro-bank sole
- 3.4Knives and knife drum
4Technical characteristics: how to choose the electric plug correctly
- 4.1Appearance is not the main selection parameter
- 4.2.1Video: jointing machine from a conventional electric gun
- 4.3Speed of rotation of the knife shaft
- 4.4Depth planing
- 4.5Width planing
- 4.6Tool weight
- 4.7Additional structural elements
5Which electric plane is better to choose for a house and villa
- 5.0.1Video: comparison of Electrolanks Interskol and Devalt
- 5.0.2Feedback on devices
- 6Rechargeable electric guns
7Non-standard varieties of electric guns
- 7.0.1Video: Thicknesser from the ordinary plane with own hands
- 8Safety rules for working with electric guns
9Malfunctions and repair of electric guns
9.1How to change knives
- 9.1.1Video: replacement of knives in e-bank
- 9.2.1How to set them up: video
9.3Replacing the transmission belt
- 9.3.1Video: how to install a new belt on an electric car
The main features of the instrument and its purpose
The electric drill serves to flatten the plane of the wooden surface and eliminate irregularities and roughness. This is achieved by means of planing - removing fine chips from the outside. In this case, the surface becomes smooth, "without a hitch and a hitch." A well-cut board becomes glossy, acquires a polished appearance. The natural texture of the wood is visible on the surface. In contrast to the grinding of wood, in which only the top layer is treated (up to 1 mm.), When planing, a layer of up to 4 mm is removed. and more. Most accurately, this treatment can be called "scraping."
In contrast to manual, several basic functions are combined in an electrical plane: chamfering, quarter selection, grooving and others. In addition, with the appropriate equipment, the tool is used as a jointer - a stationary planer fixed to the work table. An additional ruler and gon allows you to align the workpiece and give it a rectangular shape.
Pluses and minuses of electric planes
We note the main advantages of this type of equipment and disadvantages.
- Planers are not applicable for leveling floors (tiers);
- Carelessness can lead to injury - the drum with knives rotates at a very high speed;
- Do not replace hand tools for processing corners and ends, they will have to be finished with an additional planer or a folding arm.
- High performance;
- Does not require the application of physical effort;
- Possibility of use in the form of thicknessing or jointing equipment;
- Qualitative sample of the quarter;
- Savings of financial resources - planed sawnwood almost double the raw for a price.
Electro-bank device and its operation principle
The power unit of the device is an electric motor connected to a rotating shaft by a belt transmission. The motor of the asynchronous type operates from a mains voltage of 220 V and 6 A. Power can vary from 500 watts. up to 2000 watts. Number of revolutions - from 10 to 18 thousand / min. The speed of rotation depends on the gear ratio of the teeth in the gearbox.
Virtually every electric car is equipped with two buttons - one button on the engine and the second - a protective button from an unintentional start. On the body are two handles for convenient control of the movement of the device along the surface being treated.
Chip removal system
Unlike the hand plane in which chips are removed through the slot in the shoe, the electric tool is equipped with a convenient system for removing wood dust and sawdust. It is located, as a rule, on the casing on the right in the direction of travel and represents a plastic branch pipe, which is combined with a hose of a vacuum cleaner or a dust-collecting bag.
The sole is called the metal platform of the plane, which slides over the workpiece. It is a flat and smooth plate consisting of two parts. The rear part (in the direction of motion) is fixed immovably to the tool body. The front part is fixed with the help of the planing depth adjuster. Thanks to such a device, the user can set the thickness of the removed layer of wood. For chamfering, there are triangular grooves on the front.
The sole is made of aluminum alloy and can be cast or stamped. Cast is more accurate in size and strength. The level of lifting or lowering of the sole is controlled by a special mechanism. Most often it is combined with the front handle, the rotation of which regulates the position of the platform.
Knives and knife drum
The working part of the electric gun, which directly processes the wood billet, is called a knife drum. It consists of a metal cylinder with two or three slots for fixing removable knives. Most often, 2 knives are used in the tools, but there are models with one or three knives (for example, the P382 SPARK PLAN).
The knives are fixed using screw clamps. They are one-sided or two-sided. One-sided knives can be grinded by yourself. The sizes of knives are divided into 5 kinds and are selected to the plane, depending on the size of the knife shaft. The standard sizes of knives: 50, 75, 82, 100 and 110 mm. Replaceable knives are sold in tool shops in sets of 2 pcs.
As for the material from which the knives are made, two main groups can be distinguished:
- carbide knives;
- knives made of high-speed steel.
Carbide-tipped alloys are designed for a long service life, and, as the name suggests, they are made from high-carbon high-strength alloys. The main disadvantage of such knives is the high price.
High-speed steel is less solid, but its great advantage is the possibility of sharpening. In the majority, the masters who regularly use electrorubank tend to use this type of knife. In addition, the cost of such knives is not high. And if there is no possibility of their imprisonment, they simply buy new ones.
To complete the picture, it remains to add that instead of knives in the drum, you can insert curly cutters, with which the wooden surface various shapes are given - wavy, serrated, etc. To work with mills you need certain skills, the movement of the plane must occur strictly one by one line. In a free sale to find such cutters is not easy - most often they are made to order from turners-toolmakers. Self-sharpening the cutter in the home is problematic enough.
Technical characteristics: how to choose the electric plug correctly
The choice of the tool is carried out depending on the purpose. If it is supposed to operate an electric bank on a household scale, from case to case, there is no sense to acquire "heavy artillery" - professional tools that have high power and correspondingly considerable the cost. This technique is designed for daily use with maximum loads and, in this connection, has a large mass and high power consumption. There is no point in using it to process a 3 cm thick board. It's like going for bread to a bakery, located around the corner, on a battle tank. When buying, you need to really assess the scale of the work that will be assigned to the instrument.
It is best to focus on the technical characteristics, which are given in the product passport.
The documentation is included in the tool kit, and best of all, if it is in Russian. Among other things, this is evidence that the supplier firm is not a one-day business, but works on the Russian market in the long term.
So, let's pass to the review of the main parameters.
Appearance is not the main selection parameter
In appearance you can determine the degree of "professionalism" of the instrument. Many companies paint the plastic body in a certain color, emphasizing its belonging to a certain category. For example, all the tools of the German firm Bosch are divided into green and blue. Green correspond to the level "for home use blue - "for professional use". Some unscrupulous producers (mostly of Asian origin) abuse this gradation and deliberately color their products in blue colors, trying to mimic the quality tool.
The Makita tool is traditionally blue. Hilti - red, Devalt - yellow, etc. Knowing the coloring, you can immediately distinguish a substandard counterfeit from the original.
The next distinguishing feature of a solid tool is ergonomics or usability. This is not only an elegant design, but also the convenience in work, compactness, the absence of sharp corners. Large producers of the whole world pay great attention to this, small firms-imitators produce raznoshostny product, not differing in convenience and quality.
The case carries all the load during operation. A logical consequence of this should be the use of high-quality plastic for its manufacture. In the conditions of construction, any tool sometimes falls on the concrete floor, it is operated in conditions of high dustiness. A characteristic visual feature of high-quality plastic is gloss and the absence of thin, brittle details. If the instrument is sold in a case - this is a good sign, it is even better if it has spare parts (replacement knives, drills, graphite brushes, etc.) as well as operating instructions in Russian language..
Some online stores sell tools without technical documentation, referring to the fact that they have data on their site. From the point of view of the user, such a statement of the question is not justified. Not always at hand is a computer to find out a particular issue on using an electrical appliance..
Of course, the engine's power is an important indicator of the "capabilities" of an electric gun. The higher the power value, the greater the productivity of the tool. Engines with power consumption, kW are installed on professional planers with a blade width of 100 mm. For the household level, the power from 500 to 1000 W is quite acceptable. When choosing a tool, you should take into account not only the amount of power, but also other parameters. For example, the predominance of softwood for processing involves one power, hard rock (oak, hornbeam, maple) - quite different. In construction, softwood (pine, spruce) predominates. In the furniture industry, materials made of "heavy" wood species that have high strength and decorative value are more often used..
Rubanks with one knife favorably differ in terms of saving electricity. The lightweight design of the knife shaft allows the use of smaller motors without compromising the performance of the tool..
Video: jointing machine from a conventional electric gun
Speed of rotation of the knife shaft
The specific feature of the electric gun is that the higher the speed of rotation of the knives, the more smooth and more qualitatively the surface of the wood billet is processed. Therefore, it is difficult to overestimate this indicator. The minimum speed is 1, 00 rpm. Rough processing assumes from 12 to 13 thousand rpm. Ideally smooth surface is achieved at 15-18 thousand rpm. It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that in some devices, when the load increases, the speed of the shaft decreases - this will certainly affect the quality of processing. Therefore, some models are equipped with a speed control system (for example, Makita KP 0810 C) - they are scraped with the same speed for large and small loads. Among other things, this system protects the motor from overheating.
The depth of planing is considered to be the maximum chip thickness that a plane can shoot in a single pass. The more this indicator, the faster and better the processing of wood. Adjust the depth of planing by moving the front (moving) part of the platform in relation to the rear (fixed). The standard range of displacement is from 0 to 4 mm.
It is carried out by rotating the front handle around its axis. On the case there is a graduated scale, along which the necessary depth of dipping of knives is set in the material. Adjustment step from, mm. before, mm. In practice, many planers even in the zeroth position begin planing. This should be taken into account while working and make an amendment, if the depth should be accurately maintained.
The cutting speed depends on the width of the knife. A board with a width of 10 cm can be aligned in one pass, provided that the cutting edge is 100 or 110 mm in size. If less, for example 75 or 82 mm., It will have to pass at least twice. And the quality will suffer significantly. Therefore, choosing from two tools with different widths of planing, the preference, as a rule, is given to the one whose knives are wider.
The size of knives in professional planes can reach up to 350 mm. Such devices are used only in production conditions. In the household, electric guns with a knife size of 82 to 110 mm are the most common.
An important factor in the operation is the weight of the electric gun. On the one hand, a heavy tool contributes to the minimum physical exertion on the part of a person. Under its own weight, the sole plane is pressed against the parts, inertia extinguishes small vibrations and vibrations. The user just needs to direct the tool in the right direction, the rest he does himself. But if the mass of the plane is too large, it can become a burdensome factor during work. For household tools, the optimal weight is 3, kg. Professional models weigh a lot more, but this is offset by their greater resolving power.
Additional structural elements
- Soft start system.A very useful feature that will increase the cost of the appliance, but it will significantly extend the life of the plane. It consists in the fact that acceleration of the engine occurs smoothly, the speed of rotation of the shaft increases in 3-5 seconds. Due to this, wear of all electrical and mechanical parts is markedly reduced. Especially useful is the smooth start-up for powerful models, in which the voltage jump causes a powerful impact on the gear and transmission belt.
- Electrodynamic brake.After finishing the planing and turning off the power, the drum can still rotate for a long time by inertia. This wears the operator and can damage the knives if the rotating tool is placed on a hard concrete floor. The presence of the braking function shortens the time for a complete stop of the drum (2-3 sec.) However, in some models A protective lever is provided on the rear platform, which operates when the tool is torn from the surface tree.
- Speed control system (constant electronics).We have already mentioned this function above. Maintaining the speed of the working shaft at the same level will not only prevent the motor from overheating under increased loads, but also reduce the risk of jamming the knives in a viscous wood material. Unfortunately, such electronics significantly increases the cost of the instrument.
- Handle.The main requirement for the handle of the electric gun is the ease of use. When purchasing a tool, it is worthwhile to hold it in your hand, to assess how comfortable the handle control is. A good indication is a gasket of rubber that frames the body of the holder. It will protect the hand from slipping and prevent electric shock in the event of a power failure.
- Ventilation pipe.The output of the chip removal system is terminated by a branch pipe to which a vacuum cleaner or a dust bag is connected. As a rule, he goes to the right side, since it is calculated that most people work with his right hand. However, there are models with nozzles that extend to the left or both sides. This solution is ideal for left-handers and for conditions in which it is inconvenient to work only on the right. Much more convenient when there is an additional possibility of connecting the hose of the vacuum cleaner. The diameter of the nozzle is compatible with the standard hose, and is, see,
Which electric plane is better to choose for a house and villa
There is no doubt that the choice of the instrument is determined by the volume and intensity of the proposed work, the technical parameters of a certain model. However, buying can become the acquisition of a "cat in a poke" if one does not adhere to some general rules of choice.
- You can fully trust only well-known and respected firm-producers. Buy equipment is best in branded stores, from the official representatives of the manufacturer. The guarantee for such products must be at least 2 years.
- During the purchase, check the working capacity of the tool. There are cases of factory marriage and equipment. All problems associated with this fall away if detected at the time of purchase.
For home use, there are many models of the corresponding class. Among foreign manufacturers it is possible to note such well-known trade marks as Makita, Bosch, Devalt, Status. Domestic manufacturers also reach international quality standards. Firm Interskol, Energomash, Stavr and others are gaining more and more fans not only among amateurs, but also among professionals. Moreover, the price of "our" planes is often an order of magnitude lower.
Video: comparison of Electrolanks Interskol and Devalt
Feedback on devices.
"Interskol" attracted me by its simplicity of operation, and a rather low price. I got it about 5 years ago when I was building my house. This electro plane is suitable for everyone who has a country house. It perfectly scales, even wet wood. He has good speed. With proper use of this electric tool is enough for a very long time. During my use, I only changed knives, and several times a belt. Although I use it almost every day in my work. This plane has a very good nozzle for removing chips, it is almost not clogged, it is clogged only if the wood is wet. So if someone thinks about repairing the house, this plane will not be an interchangeable assistant.
STURM! P-1067. Small and light, weighing only 2.5 kg. Slack, the power is only 670 watts. but it does not take much from him. A pretty good copy of the Makita plane. Production - China but done rather neatly. Despite the fact that the tool is cheap and unpretentious flatness of platforms is present. I had unloaded knives from the store, I had to tinker, I would note an inconvenient adjustment system.
I bought this electrolank for a long time. And I still use it and am very pleased with the purchase. The Japanese know how to do good things. Easy, reliable, neat. Very easy to use. There is nothing superfluous, everything on business and to the place. Knives are easily removed and sharpened. You can easily change it to new ones. Strict quality and smooth.
Advice for beginners. If it is necessary to plan hardwood that has a coarse and uneven surface, the depth of planing can be safely set at maximum capacity. After the first pass, the depth is reduced by 70-75% and the second pass is made. This sequence allows you to qualitatively process any workpiece..
Rechargeable electric guns
The accumulative analogues of all kinds of instruments are increasingly winning consumer sympathy. This fate did not escape the electric guns. An obvious advantage of such equipment is autonomy, they can be used outside of electricity networks (though limited time) Modern technologies have almost leveled the difference in the power of battery and network tools. If earlier such models were considered insufficiently powerful, today many models are not inferior to wired instruments in anything. Most planes work from lithium batteries with a voltage of 18 V. There are also 1, - volt apparatus. Low voltage and direct current make the tool safe for the person in terms of damage to current strikes.
The only drawback is the high price.
Non-standard varieties of electric guns
In addition to the standard models of planes, the leading companies produce specific tools that meet special requirements.
Not infrequently in the complete set of the standard equipment mechanical devices with which help it is possible to expand considerably possibilities of the tool are added. For example, the well-known STATUS company completes almost all the planes with additional accessories for the stationary installation of the tool. They can be used not only in manual mode, but also as a jointing machine. For this, it is necessary to firmly fix the plane with the sole upwards, and hand the wooden workpiece. When processing small billets, this is much more convenient.
Video: Thicknesser from the ordinary plane with own hands
Other know-how is associated with the folding of boards. Many (almost all) planes have on the front platform a groove in the form of a rectangular depression. Such a device allows you to process the ends of boards, but within certain limits. If you want to remove the bevel with a depth of more than 10 mm. they become powerless. Therefore, a special plane is produced, which has the shape of a sole, which makes it possible to remove the angular layer up to 25-30 mm.
Such a tool can be used both in normal mode and, if necessary, in a special one.
To increase the level of processing of wood, models with spiral-shaped knives are produced. Another option - two (or one) knife, but located not perpendicular to the axis of the drum, but at an angle. This gives good results and is used, mainly, in furniture production.
The original model can be considered a plane, which allows you to curl curvilinear cavities (for example, in the form of a bowl). For the most part, it serves the masters of the artistic direction in woodworking.
Safety rules for working with electric guns
- Before you start, you need to make sure the plane is working. Damage to the power cord or cracks on the case is a good reason for repair, not work.
- The workpiece to be processed should be checked carefully for the absence of nails, screws and other metal objects.
- A reliable fixation of a part is not an idle recommendation, but a vital necessity. In the case of insufficient attachment, injuries and injuries can not be avoided.
- During operation, the operator must be in a stable and comfortable position. Nothing should distract him from his work.
- Use only regular knives, suitable for the plane in size. Increased vibration during operation - evidence of unbalance of knives, which need to be replaced.
- Working clothes and shoes should be comfortable and close to the body. Do not allow hanging sleeves and loose gloves.
- Use of safety glasses is a necessary condition for safe operation.
Malfunctions and repair of electric guns
Problems are inherent in any technique. And in spite of the fact that the electric plane is a relatively simple device, it must be repaired by a person who is well versed not only in mechanics, but also in electrical engineering. In addition, repairs require the availability of tools, sometimes non-standard. Many manufacturers insure their products against unauthorized access by means of special splines on threaded fastenings and other small "tricks". Therefore, if the tool is under warranty, the best solution is to contact the service center. They will also help in post-warranty service.
Here we confine ourselves to the simplest and necessary recommendations.
How to change knives
With this operation, as a rule, there are no big problems. If the plane was operated without gross violations, the replacement of knives is a matter of five minutes. For this you need:
- disconnect the tool from the network;
- Turn the knife shaft to the position where the blade fastening bolts are accessible;
- loosen the bolts until the jaws are free to "release" the blade;
- gently remove the used knife, avoiding contact of the sharp edge with the skin of the hand;
- in its place, insert a new knife and clamp it with the locking mechanism, wrapping the bolts with a little effort.
Video: replacement of knives in e-bank
If old knives change to new ones, then no adjustment is required. Simply, the new blades should evenly plunge into the groove of the fastening, resting against the bottom of the groove with the lower end.
If there is a replacement of the knives that have been sharpened, the position of the blade must be checked further. The point is that during the sharpening, a change in the geometric shape that is not visible to the eye can occur. This can affect the balancing of the shaft as a whole (the occurrence of vibration) and affect the quality of processing. To avoid such trouble, it is necessary to align both parts of the sole in the same plane and, using a metal ruler, set the edge of the blade strictly according to the shape of the platform. After this, it remains only to secure the knife in this position.
How to set them up: video
Replacing the transmission belt
The operation is standard and it is best to send the reader to the instruction manual - there it is described in detail taking into account the design features of each model.
Video: how to install a new belt on an electric car
In general, the order of changing the belt looks like this:
- Disconnect the tool from the network.
- Remove the protective cover above the belt.
- Loosen the belt tension with a special screw.
- Replace and assemble the instrument in reverse order.
Advice for beginners. If knife blades are blunted in the plane, this will immediately affect the shape of the shavings - it becomes "torn" and crumbles. The knife can be sharpened on a grinding machine equipped with a slope adjustment. Sharpening the knife, the main thing - to observe uniformity. The angle of the cutting edge is recommended to be kept at 45 °..
Electric plane - a high-speed tool, equipped with sharp metal knives. When working with him, you should pay attention to observance of safety measures and personal safety measures. It is inadmissible to operate a knowingly faulty tool, especially if there are signs of mechanical damage to the protective casing or fastening the blades. Negligent attitude leads to accidents or injuries during work. Before using the device, it is recommended to read the instruction manual of the instrument, as well as its technical characteristics..