Kinds of sockets and criteria of their choice
Electricity is a very valuable resource that a person uses in his apartment. To use it for domestic purposes, it is necessary to install special devices, such as sockets and switches. There are many different types of sockets and switches, but in order not to make a mistake with the choice, it is necessary to get acquainted with the existing varieties of these products.
- 1Arrangement of household sockets
2Types of electrical outlets
2.1Sockets with timer
- 2.1.1Sockets with mechanical timer
- 2.1.2Video: socket with mechanical timer
- 2.1.3Sockets with electronic timer
- 2.1.4Video: socket with electronic timer
- 2.2Sockets with ejectors
2.3Sockets with Wi-Fi (GSM-sockets)
- 2.3.1How it works and controls the GSM socket
- 2.3.2Ways of using GSM-sockets
- 2.3.3Video: GSM socket
2.4Sockets with remote control (remote control)
- 2.4.1Video: socket with remote control
2.5Sockets with USB port
- 2.5.1Video: Socket with USB
3Criteria for selecting outlets
- 3.1Posting type
3.2Degree of protection of the socket housing
- 3.2.1Labeling of sockets by degree of protection
- 3.3The presence or absence of grounding in a residential area
- 3.4Rated operational characteristics
3.5Manufacturers of sockets
- 3.5.1Video: a review of the manufacturers of rosettes and their products
4Types of switches
4.1Switches with integrated motion sensor
- 4.1.1The principle of operation of switches with a motion sensor
- 4.2.1Principle of operation of remote switches
- 4.2.2Video: remote switch
- 4.3.1Video: touch switch
5Criteria for selection of switches
- 5.1Number of keys
- 5.2Installation method
6Features of the selection of sockets and switches in the bathroom
- 6.1Correct selection of the outlet in terms of safety
- 7How to distinguish quality sockets and switches from low-quality
Arrangement of household sockets
A household outlet is the final element of a power supply network that allows consumers to use electricity to connect existing equipment and equipment.
- The base, which serves to fasten the remaining two parts (conductive and fastening armature and front panel). It is made of ceramic or plastic. Ceramic bases are more resistant to fire, and also contribute to greater heat dissipation, but they have increased fragility and require careful installation. Plastic bases are more resistant to mechanical damage, but are subject to combustion.
- Current-carrying elements, which actually serve to power household electrical appliances. They are made of brass and bronze. Bronze contacts (used extremely rarely) conduct better electric current, however their cost is much higher than brass ones. For household sockets brass contacts are most often used. Current-conducting elements from ordinary brass oxidize very quickly and collapse, especially when interacting with cables with aluminum wires, and this is a major drawback. In practice, tin-plated brass contacts are used in most cases, which are devoid of the described drawback.
- The front panel protecting the conductive parts of the socket from outside interference. The panels are made of a small-polycarbonate. You can choose front panels made from other materials, such as wood and metal, that allows you to use sockets not only for their intended purpose, but also as an additional element interior. In addition, on some panels it is possible to install detachable decorative elements.
Types of electrical outlets
As mentioned above, there are several types of sockets - from ordinary to possessing some unique features.
Sockets with timer
Socket-timer is a simple device that allows you to automate control of the flow electricity during the operation of household appliances, as well as manage them on an individual basis. timetable.
Currently, rosettes with two types of timers are produced and sold: mechanical and electronic.
Sockets with mechanical timer
Sockets with mechanical timers are easier to operate. The principle of their work is based on the clockwork mechanism, which fulfills the laid-down program. The setting of the time for turning on and off the power supply is carried out by pressing the sectors that are located around the dial. The time interval for each segment is 15 or 30 minutes, depending on the model chosen. Thanks to this, you can install up to 96 (48) programs per day.
Before installing the program in sockets with mechanical timers, you must specify the current time on the rotating disc. To do this, you need to clamp the number of 15 (30) minute segments, which corresponds to the necessary time of the electrical appliance. Before setting the time, you must turn on the appliance.
Video: socket with mechanical timer
Sockets with electronic timer
The main distinguishing features of sockets with electronic timer from mechanical is the possibility of setting up to 140 programs, and also presence of built-in presence function, which includes power in accordance with the specified program, but only when in the room of people.
Sockets with an electronic timer can be both daily and weekly (you can program the schedule for turning the power on and off for a week ahead). For ease of programming, these sockets are equipped with controls (keys) and a display.
Video: socket with electronic timer
Sockets with ejectors
Sockets with ejectors are equipped with a special mechanical device which, when the button is pressed, disconnects the power cord of any electrical appliance. Such sockets are very useful in those houses where owners often use various techniques and constantly connect and disconnect it from the mains.
If domestic appliances are used in the house, for convenience of operation it is possible to purchase combined sockets, which allow connecting several types of plugs. It must be borne in mind that these rosettes are not very stable due to their configuration.
Sockets with Wi-Fi (GSM-sockets)
GSM-sockets are universal devices that are designed for use in smart home systems, but can be installed in ordinary houses or apartments. With the help of these outlets it is possible to monitor the temperature changes both indoors and outdoors, as well as to monitor the state of supply of electricity or other nuances of electricity supply.
How it works and controls the GSM socket
The principle of the GSM-outlet is based on the exchange of information between the user's smartphone and the outlet. From the smartphone to the number of the SIM card, installed in a special slot of the outlet, sent SMS messages. These commands consist of letters, numbers, or combinations of these. The socket accepts requests, processes them, and sends detailed reports based on the received data to the user devices, for example, information on the state of supply of electricity.
GSM-sockets are quite simple in operation and do not require special efforts for installation and installation. In order to start using devices of this kind, you should perform a few simple steps:
- Remove the outlet from the box, put a SIM card in the special slot (you can use the connection to any provider), put money on it and turn off the PIN-code (in order to be able to remote connection).
- Connect the unit to an electrical outlet.
- For the test, connect any household equipment that requires control and monitoring to the GSM-outlet.
- Make the settings of the outlet according to the user instructions.
Ways of using GSM-sockets
- Management of various processes: irrigating gardens or gardens, maintaining a constant temperature when connected to a thermostat outlet, etc.
- Remote programming of the on / off time of electrical appliances and lighting equipment.
- Monitoring the supply of electricity, as well as obtaining information about the status of the network.
- Monitoring the access of individuals to a personal computer.
GSM-outlets can also be connected to additional equipment in the form of various Sensors used in security or fire safety systems (microphones, video cameras etc.).
Video: GSM socket
Sockets with remote control (remote control)
Sockets with remote control, as well as GSM-sockets, are mainly used in smart home systems. Such sockets are used to ensure constant monitoring of the condition of electrical appliances and their management.
Standard configuration of sockets with remote control consists of:
- Wireless electrical outlet.
- Remote control.
- Batteries for powering the console.
All outlets from the remote control, regardless of the model or manufacturer, have the following parameters and characteristics:
- presence of grounding;
- working voltage 220-240 V;
- Remote control range up to 40 m (when powered by batteries);
- maximum load capacity (power of the connected device) up to 4 kW.
Video: socket with remote control
Sockets with USB port
Sockets with USB-port are compact devices with a special interface that allows you to charge any kind of portable and mobile equipment. The charging process can be initiated quickly and simply by simply plugging the USB plug into the socket and waiting until the battery of the device restores its capacity.
USB-sockets have a high level of compatibility with the universal standard of wiring equipment and can easily be integrated into the existing electrical network of an apartment or a private house. They have a built-in power supply that automatically provides the current required for charging.
Most USB-outlets, regardless of the model or manufacturer, have the following characteristics:
- Constant output current up to 700 mA.
- The output voltage is up to 5V.
- Low power consumption in standby mode.
Before installing the USB outlets, you should determine where to install them. It is advisable that there were objects along which you could put charged devices. A good place for USB-outlets is a platform under or next to a coffee table or, for example, above a bedside table.
The market sells a large number of different models of USB sockets - from simple, equipped with one or two connectors, to more complex systems that have special areas for holding a cell phone in the process charging.
Video: Socket with USB
Before you purchase a rosette of one kind or another, you should review the selection criteria that will be described below.
Criteria for selecting outlets
There are several criteria that need to be considered when choosing an outlet.
Before choosing the outlet it is important to determine the type of wiring in the apartment or house.
- If the posting is hidden, that is, mounted directly on the surface of the wall, then you should choose an internal type socket. This type of outlet is very convenient to use and safer, since it is installed in a special casing, which is pre-mounted on the wall, which allows you to hide the electrical part of the device inside.
- If the wiring is done in an open way, then you must select an outlet of the outdoor type. Mounting of sockets of this type is carried out directly on the wall surface. A distinctive feature of the external outlet is that its entire body is located outside.
Degree of protection of the socket housing
In accordance with international standards, there are several types of outlets that differ in the degree of protection their bodies from external negative influences, such as moisture ingress or indirect interference by a mechanical tool. In order not to get confused when choosing a socket with the required degree of protection, special markings are placed on all devices.
Labeling of sockets by degree of protection
In general, the labeling of the sockets is an inscription - IP "A" "B where "A" and "B" are digital signage, corresponding to some degree of protection of the hull from the negative impact. In order not to make a mistake in choosing the outlet, you should learn how to decipher these combinations.
- The number A is the diameter and type of the object, from the influence of which the socket is protected:
- 1 - from the back of the hand and objects with a diameter of more than 50 mm;
- 2 - from fingers and objects with a diameter of more than 12 mm;
- 3 - from small hand tools and objects with a diameter exceeding, mm;
- 4 - from connecting elements (nuts, washers, bolts), individual conductors with a diameter of more than 1 mm;
- 5 - from the effects of dust, absolute protection from the effects of objects;
- 6 - full dustproof and protection from the effects of objects;
- 0 - no protection.
- Digit B - protection against the effects of various types of moisture:
- 1 - from individual drops falling in an upright position;
- 2 - from individual drops falling at an angle of up to 15 degrees;
- 3 - full protection from the effects of rain;
- 4 - from splashes of water falling from different angles;
- 5 - from water jets;
- 0 - no protection.
The presence or absence of grounding in a residential area
If the apartment or private house has grounding, it is better to purchase sockets equipped with an additional grounding contact. The presence of this contact in the design of the outlet will significantly prolong the life of yourself and the devices, sensitive to voltage fluctuations, as well as to the effects of static electricity, for example, personal computers.
Rated operational characteristics
When choosing outlets, you should also be guided by the parameters of household electricity (mains voltage - 220 B and frequency - 50 Hz), as well as the load (the power of machinery and electronics that will be connected to outlet). The rated current is chosen for the value of the load capacity.
The quality and longevity of its service will depend on how correctly the socket is chosen in accordance with the nominal parameters. In the event that the outlet is not labeled, it is worth not to purchase it.
Manufacturers of sockets
Currently, the market offers an extensive selection of outlets that divides into three categories:
- High-quality and very expensive. Produced by manufacturers from Europe, such as Legrand, Schneider Electric, Polo, ABB, Jung.
- Quality and with an average price. They are produced by Turkish and Polish companies Makel, Viko, Karlik, OSPEL.
- Very cheap and extremely poor quality. Basically it is Chinese products.
Video: a review of the manufacturers of rosettes and their products
Sockets and wiring are not the only components in the home network, except for them there is another important element - the switch. Switches, as well as sockets, have different types and ways of connection.
Types of switches
Switches are hand-operated switching devices and are used to turn the lighting on and off. They have different designs and functions, which is why they were subdivided into species.
Switches with integrated motion sensor
Switches with a motion sensor are mainly used on staircases and when creating street lighting networks. They are quite simple to operate: in order to start using these devices, it is enough to install and configure them according to the instructions.
The basis of switches with a motion sensor is made up of electronic components that continuously analyze changes, occurring in the level of illumination of the object (apartment, street or house), as well as any movement in the zone of the sensor functioning.
The principle of operation of switches with a motion sensor
The operation of the switch with the motion sensor is based on the permanent scanning of infrared (IR) radiation, covered by the field of view of the sensor (sensor), which is usually made of pyroelectric materials. Basically, these switches have a wide viewing angle and are installed on the ceilings. In addition to tracking the presence of living objects, they have the capabilities to change the intensity of lighting, and can also be used in various internal security systems.
Remote switch is a set consisting of a compact control unit and remote control (there can be several of them). The device itself is similar in appearance to a simple switch of a flat type. A distinctive feature of the remote switch is the ease of installation, because in order for it To establish, it is not necessary to make preparatory works (to drill or drill walls), to carry out the latent wiring. It is enough just to pick up a convenient place, take a few screws and double-sided adhesive tape and attach the device.
Principle of operation of remote switches
The operation of remote sensors is based on the principle of reception / transmission. The user presses the power button on the panel, thereby creating a radio signal, which is then received by the relay, closing or disconnecting - depending on the command being supplied from the remote control - the circuit on the phase that is connected to the source Sveta. Depending on the state of the circuit, the light turns on and off. The coverage area directly depends on the design features of the living quarters, as well as on the materials that were used in the construction. In general, the coverage area of remote sensors is from 20 to 25 m. The transmitters are powered using conventional 12 V batteries (usually lasts 5 years).
Video: remote switch
Small and compact devices, structurally executed from several touch panels, which simplifies their use. In order to use the switch of this type, it is enough to touch its screen once.
Such switches include:
- Touch panel (the element that reacts to the touch and initializes the sending of the command for further processing);
- Control chip (deals with the processing and transformation of the team);
- Switching part (provides power switching).
Due to the use of electronic components, it is possible to remotely control lighting devices and connect additional elements: motion, temperature and light sensors.
Video: touch switch
Before you buy a switch of one kind or another, you should review the selection criteria that will be described below.
Criteria for selection of switches
There are several criteria that must be considered when choosing a switch.
Number of keys
The number of keys installed in the switch determines the number of lines of lighting devices that can be used. Therefore, before choosing a switch, you should consider how many devices it will be purchased.
- It is advisable to buy a single-key switch only if it is necessary to control, for example, one table lamp or a lamp.
- Multi-key switches should be purchased only if you need to control a group of lighting devices, which can be included both together and separately (the same applies to the lamps installed in one chandelier).
Switches by the way of installation, as well as sockets, can be built-in and overhead.
- Switches of built-in type are mounted in the socket, which is installed inside the wall. This method of installation allows you to hide and reliably protect the mechanism of the device, while leaving only the decorative frame and the control button outside.
- Surface switches are mounted on the wall surface and are designed to perform the same functions as built-in ones.
Features of the selection of sockets and switches in the bathroom
Sockets have become indispensable elements in the bathroom, as they connect a large range of electrical equipment Personal hygiene (electric razors, machine tools, etc.) and large household appliances (jacuzzi, shower cabins, washing machines, etc.). The bathroom is a dangerous place for installation and connection of electrical equipment, therefore special rules must be taken into account when choosing sockets.
Correct selection of the outlet in terms of safety
According to generally accepted safety standards for installation in bathrooms, moisture-proof properties (IP 44 and above), a lid to prevent moisture ingress, as well as grounding contact.
How to distinguish quality sockets and switches from low-quality
Evaluation of the quality level of the switch or socket before purchase is a fairly easy process, and it can be carried out independently. For this we perform the following procedures:
- We study the characteristics of the product (you can see the product labeling).
- We check the product for the presence of the quality mark of the country of origin.
- In addition, we are looking for the Rostest sign if the product is made by a foreign company (the presence of a sign indicates that the manufacturer's products have been certified in the Russian Federation).
- We perform a visual inspection. A poor-quality assembly will be noticeable almost immediately. It is characterized by uneven surface, cheap plastic and poor quality of fasteners.
There are many types of sockets and switches on sale. All of them have their own characteristics, and knowing about them, you can choose a model that is suitable for the implementation of your plans and creative ideas..