Well-equipped housing, whether it is an apartment, a private cottage or a small country house, is unthinkable to imagine without running water. The supply of cold and heated water has long been a prerequisite for a comfortable stay. Homeowners are trying to choose the most practical option for water supply.
Statistics show that most prefer a plumbing made of polypropylene: even an inexperienced plumber will be able to equip such a system with his own hands. In order for the result of your efforts to be flawless, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with the detailed polymer system assembly technology.
We presented all the methods of connecting polypropylene pipes, led the types of fittings used in the construction of circuits. Indicated typical errors. The information we have provided is supplemented with schemes, photo clips and videos.
The content of the article:
- Why choose polypropylene?
- Features of the assortment of polypropylene pipes
- Accessories for polypropylene pipes
- Starting point: where to start?
- How to connect polypropylene pipes?
- General installation features
- Common mistakes and how to avoid them
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Why choose polypropylene?
Steel has long been considered the traditional material for water pipes.
However, today this option is rarely used. He was replaced by various plastics, among them - polypropylene.
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Pipes made of polypropylene are actively demanded in the field of construction of water supply systems, which is justified by resistance to aggressive environments, long-term use and affordable price.
The polymer used in the manufacture of pipes is harder than metal-plastic analogues, reinforcement is only in products for hot water supply
Pipelines from PP pipes are assembled and joined by diffusion welding using angled and T-joint fittings.
The estimated service life of water pipes collected from PP is 50 years. Cold-water system can work for about a century
Polypropylene communications do not rust, sediment is not deposited on their internal walls, therefore it became possible to lay communications inside building structures
Pipes made of polypropylene do not need to be painted and protected from corrosion. They look good even when open laying
Polypropylene pipes are produced for all types of water supply systems, both cold and hot. For cold-water is designed for + 20º, + 45º, universal options for + 80º
PP pipes with aluminum reinforcement, designed to transport water heated to + 95º, without consequences can withstand exposure to + 100º
Polypropylene pipes in the organization of water supply
Typical technical properties of polypropylene
Methods for assembling and connecting pipelines
Plumbing for long-term operation
Hidden laying of water supply system
Exterior layout of polymer pipes
The range of products for cold water and hot water communications
The popularity of PP pipes is not accidental, because the material has many advantages:
- High stabilityto aggressive environments During a long time. In addition, polypropylene does not corrode.
- Durability. The manufacturer guarantees trouble-free operation of its products for at least 50 years, which is three times more than that of analogs.
- Good leak tightness. Compared with other types of plastics, it is considered the best.
- High sound absorption. The noise of the water passing through the pipeline is completely absorbed by the material.
- Full environmental safety polypropylene, it is allowed to use it for arrangement of a drinking water supply system.
- Low hydraulic resistancetherefore, there are no head losses.
- Low weight, which greatly facilitates the installation, repair and transportation of parts.
- Easy installation. This is due to a wide range of components, ease of cutting and fitting parts.
- The possibility of hidden styling pipeline
The most significant drawback of pipes made of polypropylene can be attributed to the high value of thermal expansion and low temperature resistance, which requires special attention when choosing a material for arranging hot water supply.
In addition, polypropylene is nonplastic, therefore, to change the direction of the main branch requires the use of connecting fittings.
Thanks to the technical qualities of the PP, pipes can be used both in the construction of new water supply networks and in connecting new branches to existing metal circuits
Another disadvantage of such pipes is the need to use special equipment. Soldering is used to connect the parts, which is performed using a special soldering iron with nozzles.
For cutting elements, it is desirable to use special scissors. True, this deficiency is easily corrected. Most shops selling polypropylene pipes provide soldering equipment for rent.
Polypropylene pipes are a great alternative to traditional steel parts. They are not subject to corrosion, resistant to aggressive media, environmentally friendly, reliable and durable
Features of the assortment of polypropylene pipes
Polypropylene is a type of plastic produced by cracking petroleum products and petroleum gases. Its base is propylene gas. Under high pressure, with the presence of a catalyst, a polymerization reaction is carried out, as a result of which polypropylene is obtained. Pipes are subsequently produced from it. For water pipes produced two types of such products: single and multilayer.
The first option is intended mainly for various types of pipelines through which cold water is transported. Multilayer or reinforced parts are used for arranging hot water lines, they are also used for the installation of heating systems. Their main difference is the presence of several layers of polypropylene, between which the reinforcing material is laid.
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Polypropylene pipes are used to lay water pipes in new buildings and to replace damaged parts of systems in old houses.
From polypropylene pipes, water supply systems are connected to flow and storage electric water heaters, as well as to geysers
Of the parts manufactured for the installation of water supply systems of the PP, collector devices are constructed that distribute water along the contours of the radial system
Structures of hot and cold water supply systems are constructed from polypropylene pipes of the corresponding diameter
With the help of polypropylene products modules of drinking water preparation systems are quickly and conveniently connected.
From polypropylene pipes, fittings and water outlets, produced for the organization of water supply systems, there is a software connection to sanitary fittings
Polymer pipelines are excellent in rooms with high humidity and unstable temperature conditions. Smooth walls do not have a fungus to resettlement.
From polypropylene pipes, the easiest way is to build a pipeline section for connecting meters at a convenient height for monitoring.
The construction of the system of polypropylene pipes
Water supply equipment
Assembling the distribution comb
Water supply risers from practical polypropylene
Water Filter System
Plumbing divorce from polypropylene in the bathroom
The organization of the water supply unit under the kitchen sink
Ustki for installation of measuring devices
It can be aluminum foil, polyethylene or fiberglass. Details differ in the thickness of the reinforcing layer and the base.
In the manufacture of polypropylene pipes used such marking of the material used in the manufacture of:
- PP-N. Products for cold water can be used for ventilation systems.
- PP-B. Material for the production of high impact resistance. Designed for arranging cold water and floor heating.
- PP-R. The pipes made from it can be used for arranging water supply of any type.
- PPs. It is used in the manufacture of flame-retardant products intended for pipelines through which hazardous substances are transported.
The classification of materials used in the manufacture of piping products from thermoplastics for the construction of communications is given in GOST under number 52134-2003.
Single-layer polypropylene pipes are mainly used to transport cold water.
Marking of finished products is different. For polypropylene pipes the following nomenclature is used:
- PN10. Products manufactured for transporting cold water with a working tº not more than + 20º C.
- PN16. Universal products that can be used for the construction of hot and cold water pipelines. However, the temperature of the liquid should not exceed + 60º C. Produced rarely, besides limited batches.
- PN20. Pipes that provide normal transportation of fluid tº + 80ºС. By analogy with the previous type refers to the universal.
- PN25. Resistant to high pressure parts can be used for water supply and for heating. The pipes are reinforced with aluminum foil, can be used in transporting water with a temperature of up to + 95ºС.
According to the marking of the pipes, the pressure is determined by which the PP pipes can resist when water is moved along them. For example, pipes PN 10 normally work at 1 MPa, PN 20 at 2 MPa, PN 25 at 2.5 MPa.
Polypropylene is sensitive to ultraviolet, so pipes of different colors are produced. Black parts have the highest resistance to UV radiation. Production of polypropylene pipes is standardized, so they are available in certain sizes.
Multilayer reinforced pipes can withstand higher temperatures and pressures. The reinforcing layer may be aluminum, as shown, or fiberglass.
The first thing you need to pay attention to is the inner and outer diameters. They can be marked both in inches and in the usual millimeters. Values of diameters determine the selection of the dimensions of the reinforcement that will be used to connect the details of the pipeline.
External diameter of products varies from 16 to 500 mm. The length of the pipes can be from 2 to 5 m, which is quite enough for arranging the intra-house water supply system. Moreover, the products are easy to process.
The diameters of PP pipes must be considered when selecting fittings for pipeline assembly. It is assembled by means of separate connections using fittings and tees (+)
Accessories for polypropylene pipes
For installation plastic pipe plumbing various components are used. Their assortment is very extensive and amounts to dozens of items in the price lists of manufacturers. Details differ in shape, size and purpose. Consider the most common types of such elements.
For pipes made of polypropylene produced a large number of components. When buying them, it is important to choose parts from the same manufacturer as the pipes.
Couplings. The simplest connecting piece. The shape resembles a small keg, the inner diameter of the hole of which exactly corresponds to the cross-section of the pipes being joined. The element is intended to connect two pieces of pipe.
Adapters. These parts are designed to connect pipes of different diameters. Outwardly, they are very reminiscent of couplings, but their main difference is that the inner diameter at the two opposite ends of the element is different.
Adapters are selected according to the diameter of the pipes to be connected and come in various sizes. Parts with internal or external threads are produced, designed to switch to threaded connections.
Corners. As known, polypropylene tubes can not bend. Therefore, to perform the turns required during installation, the manufacturer produces special fittings bent at an angle of 90 ° and 45 °.
Corners can end in holes for pipes or have threads, both internal and external. For example, such parts are used to mount the mixer. At the same time they can be both double and single.
Some homemade craftsmen argue that it is not necessary to complicate and use corners. After all, polypropylene is plastic and can be bent. They heat the pipe to a softening temperature and bend it as they need.
Indeed, it is very easy to bend a part, but it must be understood that in this case unpleasant changes occur in it: the wall on the outer side of the bend becomes thinner. This will significantly reduce the life of the pipe and lead to its breakthrough.
Polypropylene ball valve is installed in the water supply by soldering
Crosses and tees. So called elements designed to connect three or four pipes at the same time, which is often required for the installation of water supply. Available in a wide variety of variations: with differently sized hole diameters, with fittings other types of pipes, for example, under metal-plastic or copper, with internal and external threads of various sizes.
The contours. So called specially shaped bends, which are used to trace the pipe around a small obstacle. It is desirable that the distance from the pipeline to the wall was minimal. The contour is welded into the gap in the water supply section so that the pipe sections before and after it are straight.
In addition to these components, other items are also available. Among them are plugs used to block unnecessary branches of the water supply system, special ball valves for polypropylene pipelines.
To fix the pipes to the wall, special clips are used, which are matched to the diameter of the part. Can be single or double. Experts advise to choose pipes and components from the same manufacturer. So there will be fewer problems with installation, and the system will turn out better.
For pipes PP all sizes produce a wide range of fittings, allowing in fast installation of the plastic contour and, if necessary, connect it to the metal branches
Starting point: where to start?
First of all, you need to make a competent project of the future system. By this is meant a scale-based schematic plan of the pipeline, on which all the design features are applied and consumers are indicated.
To do this, you must perform accurate measurements, which are subsequently constructed drawing of the building. After it will be executed, the pipeline scheme is built.
For distributing water pipes, you can choose one of two options: tee or collector
With creating a project Different plumbing placement options are considered, and the optimal one is chosen. In addition, several factors need to be taken into account during the design process. The first is the type of layout.
It can be triple or collector. In the first case, the points of water pumping are connected in series, one after the other. On the one hand, this is good, since it requires a minimum number of pipes and, consequently, low costs.
However, the pressure in water-consuming appliances will be different. The farther from the beginning of the pipeline, the lower the pressure. This is extremely inconvenient, and in the case of a large number of points of water intake and unacceptable.
Collector wiring assumes the presence of a special distribution node that separates the flow of water and sends an individual branch to each consumer.
For collector pipeline assembly of PP products, you can use a ready-made distribution unit or assemble a collector yourself, using fittings
In this case, there is practically no pressure loss in the system; all devices operate with the same water pressure. The main drawback of collector wiring is the high consumption of pipes and, consequently, the higher cost of the whole structure.
The second important point - the method of installation of the pipeline. This can be done by an open or hidden method. The second is more aesthetic and involves laying pipes inside walls or partitions.
The open method of laying assumes that the pipes are fastened over the wall. Closed - stacked in the grooves made at the base
In addition, experts recommend that when designing a pipeline to minimize its length as much as possible. The number of bends and joints should be minimal. This is explained by the fact that it is in these areas that the threat of leakage is most likely.
Turning the pipe at a right angle reduces the pressure in the line, this must also be taken into account. According to the finished scheme, the required amount of materials for laying the water supply system is calculated.
Specifications and the promised 50 years of manufacturers of impeccable service of pipes PP allows you to lay a branch pipe in a hidden way
How to connect polypropylene pipes?
To connect pieces of pipes made of polypropylene soldered. It is performed using a special soldering iron. Using such a device is easy. This can very quickly be learned by anyone, even the most inexperienced plumber.
Process soldering of polypropylene pipes as follows. First you need to prepare the parts that should be soldered. To do this, on the wall outlined pipe mounting areas.
After that, with the help of the level, the correctness of the basting is checked, then the so-called clips or fastening pads are installed on the wall. Then you need to measure the pieces of pipe that will need to be connected, and then cut them with a cutter or special scissors.
Now you can proceed to soldering. First you need to choose a nozzle for a soldering iron. Included with the device are several such elements.
Soldering iron for installation of polypropylene pipes can be rented. Included with it are nozzles for different diameters of pipes and fittings.
They differ in diameter of the working surface. The nozzle is selected in accordance with the cross section of the pipe and fitting. The part is set in place and the soldering iron is turned on. On the case of the device there is always a temperature controller with which you can control the heating of the nozzles.
For work with polypropylene it is recommended to choose a range of 250-270ºС.
A fitting and a pipe are put on the corresponding heated soldering iron tips and heat for about 5-10 seconds. It depends on the diameter of the elements. The more it is, the warm-up time, respectively, is longer.
After parts warm up, they are removed from the nozzles and immediately pressed against each other. At the same time it is impossible to make the twisting movement. Elements do not rotate, and press down one to another.
In this position, they hold for about half a minute. During this time, the plastic will have time to harden and you can remove your hands. After complete cooling of the polypropylene forms a solid monolithic connection of two nodes.
A sign of a quality job is a uniform shoulder, which is visible around the entire circumference of the pipe. He is inside the fitting, just there he can not see.
The parts are heated to the desired temperature on the nozzles of the soldering iron, after which they are firmly pressed against one another.
The collar is formed when the part is heated. If it is uniform, then warming up was normal. With uneven heating of parts, the height of the collar will be different. Where it is least, a leak is likely to follow.
The important point is the quality of the nozzles for the soldering iron. They are covered with teflon to prevent plastic from sticking to them. In the process, the layer of Teflon becomes thinner and even disappears.
Experts strongly do not recommend the use of nozzles, partially coated with a non-stick coating. This is due to the fact that during heating plastic will stick to those areas of the nozzles that are not covered with Teflon.
This does not mean that the item can not be removed from the nozzle. She will be perfectly off, but the connection will be poor. It is very likely that where the element is stuck to the nozzle, a leak will subsequently appear.
General installation features
It may seem to novice plumbing that the process of installing a polypropylene pipeline is complicated, but it is not. Before work will need to prepare all the necessary materials. Their type and quantity is easily determined by the preliminary structure of the project.
If such work is performed for the first time and the welding experience is still very small, you should buy everything “with a reserve” in case of possible damage.
Components and pipes must be purchased with a small margin, as in the process of soldering you can easily spoil the material
It is necessary to start laying the water supply system not from its beginning, as it may seem, but from the points of water discharge. Fastening to the devices-consumers of water is made using suitable adapters with a threaded connection.
It is strongly recommended to install before each sanitary device ball valve, which will allow, if necessary, to quickly turn off the water supply.
From the consumer branch goes to the collector or to the next point of water pumping. It depends on the type of layout. In any case, the pipe is laid so that it can be repaired without problems. To do this, it is fixed so that the distance between the wall and the part is at least 20 mm.
Fixing clips are placed at a distance of not more than 1.5 m from one another, as well as at each corner joint and on turns.
It is important to try to minimize the number of pipe passes through partitions or walls. Each of these passages must be equipped with a sleeve or a glass, inside of which the pipes are laid.
If drain valves are present in the system, pipes should be laid with a slight bias towards them. All rounds and corners are performed only with special fittings.
Connection to the collector is carried out only through valves, so that if necessary it is possible to easily disconnect the branch
When the branch is pulled to the collector, it is connected. It should be remembered that before connecting to the outlet of the collector, shut-off valves should be placed as close as possible to it.
Each branch of the water supply system is connected to its “own” collector outlet. This is true for both cold and hot water pipelines.
If the number of outlets on the collector comb is more than necessary, the excess can be cut off. After that, the plug is welded to the open part. In the case when the outputs, on the contrary, are not enough, you can additionally weld the square-sleeve.
It is best to have it with the transition to the desired diameter in the work. If desired, you can make a homemade collector with the desired number of outputs, welding it from several fittings.
At the last stage of installation of plastic plumbing, the branches prepared and connected to the collectors are assembled into a single system. Consider a typical version of this design. Its beginning falls on the section of the tie-in to the centralized highway.
If it is about autonomous systemthen it will be considered the beginning of the connection to the well, well or other water source. In the first case, water meters are installed immediately after the tie-in area.
If the water supply is supplied to a private house, then some part of it will be laid along the street. This is the so-called outer section of the highway.
In areas with a cold climate external water supply is placed in a trench, the depth of which exceeds the level of soil freezing. At the same time, it is also advisable to warm the main line so that the water in it does not freeze in the strongest cold.
Water meters are necessarily installed on the water supply, connected to a centralized highway. With their help, records of water consumption
The system is brought to the house, it is entered into the building, and then the installation of internal plastic water supply is carried out. At the site of the input pipe in the house or apartment must be installed coarse filter.
It will be quite enough to get rid of the largest particles of pollution present in the water. Further, before each household and sanitary appliances, it is desirable to install more filters.
The kitchen is usually installed cleaning equipment suitable for the specific conditions of the type for drinking water. If you plan to organize the heating of water, then after the coarse filter should be put tee. It will divide the incoming flow of water into two branches. The first will be cold, the second - hot.
The cold water pipe immediately after the tee needs to be connected to the corresponding collector. He, in turn, is connected to the wiring going through the building. The branch along which the hot water will move is first connected to the heating appliance. This should be done exactly according to the instructions.
Further the collector for hot water is mounted. Everything else is similar to the "cold" pipeline.
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Pipes PP produce white, green, gray and black. Color does not affect the characteristics, except for black - it means resistance to ultraviolet
Welding polypropylene pipeline is carried out with the use of an electrical device, called an iron. It can be bought or rented
The armature and the flow meters are connected to the polypropylene pipeline by means of couplings with external or internal threads, which must be sealed with a sanitary winding before connecting
If the pipeline will cross the internal partitions or main walls, it is better to protect the pipe from dust. For example, a finger from a latex glove
Corner joints, tee connectors, turns and pipe joints in length are made once and for all, therefore the quality of the seam should be approached with the utmost responsibility
The open-laid pipe to the wall is attached with clips that can be interconnected
Before the installation of a water supply pipe made of PP pipes, it is better to pre-mark all the details and the route of communications on the wall in full size.
According to the construction rules, between the DHW and the cold-water pipes must be at least 10 cm. If there are areas with shorter distances, the pipes should be warmed to avoid condensation.
Color options for polypropylene pipes
Welding PP pipe with iron
Protection against dust when laying
Corner Pipe Joints
Fastening clips according to the open pattern
The layout of the plumbing on the wall
Warming of the GVS and HVS lines
Common mistakes and how to avoid them
Errors in the work are quite possible. To prevent an unpleasant situation, it is worth knowing what the most common mistakes are to try to prevent them. All branches of pipelines near the points of dismantling should end with couplings with external thread, which is used to connect plumbing. This is true for all devices except the bathroom faucet.
Here you will need female fittings. This is often forgotten, and you have to either buy new clutches or install a sleeve. Many errors associated with soldering pipes.
If the pipe is not fully inserted into the fitting during the alignment process, then there will be a small gap between its inside and the end of the part. It is a section with a smaller wall thickness and a larger internal diameter than the pipe itself.
For this reason, the operating pressure in this section will be lower than in the rest of the system. Another problem may arise when excessive force is applied when joining two parts.
In this case, the collar formed during the compression process will be too high. It will become an obstacle to the movement of water through the pipeline. A similar effect gives and overheating elements.
From the quality of soldering polypropylene pipes depend on the performance of the new water supply. Underheating or overheating of parts should not be
The internal section of the parts is reduced, and outwardly it is completely imperceptible. Insufficient heating of elements is also dangerous.
The connection will look absolutely normal, but at the same time it will be extremely unreliable and will quickly flow. To prevent this, it is important to always pay attention to the temperature of the soldering iron and remove the heated parts only when the control light goes out.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Movie # 1. All about the types of polypropylene pipes:
Movie # 2. Professional plumbers uncover the secrets of working with polypropylene pipes:
Movie # 3. Example of improper pipe soldering:
Plumbing of polypropylene pipes - a great alternative to the traditional system of metal. The many advantages make its use very attractive for homeowners, and the relative ease of installation allows you to cope with the installation of such a system is not even the most experienced home to the master.
However, the advice of professionals should not be neglected. Then the new plumbing will delight long and smooth operation.
Would you like to tell how to independently assemble the polypropylene pipeline? Know the nuances that will be interesting and useful to site visitors? Please write comments in the box below the text of the article.