Garlic is a close relative of onions. Like any vegetable culture, it has its own characteristics of planting, care, cleaning and storage. Planting garlic, growing it - there is nothing complicated. We'll figure out..
Distinguish between firing and non-spilling, winter and spring varieties - this depends on the biological characteristics of the plant. The non-stopping garlic multiplies only by the teeth, which is fired - plus to them by air bulbs.
The main thing when growing winter garlic - creating conditions for a good winter. This is ensured by the correct choice of the site for planting, the timing of sowing, the depth of seeding. Place the culture should be on fertile land with a flat surface, clean from weeds, not flooded by autumn or thawed waters. The best predecessors are the cultures, early liberating the field, under which organic fertilizers are introduced: cucumbers, zucchini, early cabbage, lettuce, legumes. Garlic is a good predecessor for all crops except for onions, since they are affected by pests and diseases that are identical with it.
- Preparation of beds
- Preparation of planting material
- Planting garlic for winter - terms
- Norm and scheme of planting garlic
- Care of crops, top dressing
- Harvesting garlic
- Dosing and storage of air bulbs (bulbs)
- Storage of garlic
- How can I get a one-toothed garlic?
Preparation of beds
The soil in the garden is treated well in advance, so that it settles somewhat. Directly under plowing or digging can be made humus (40-60 t / ha), mineral fertilizers. The norm of mineral fertilizers per 1 weave: 30-40 g of ammonium nitrate, 50 g of superphosphate, 15-20 g of potassium chloride. In the fall, do not bring saltpeter, only in the spring..
Preparation of planting material
Three types of planting material are used to plant winter garlic or spring wheat:
- air bulbs (bulbs);
- Sevok (single-handed, grown from air bulbs).
Only garlic heads with healthy teeth are selected. All diseased, shrunken or bulbous bulbs are discarded. Large or medium-sized teeth are the most suitable material for planting.
The gears prepared for planting are etched, disinfected with a 1% solution of copper sulfate or a 3% suspension of TMTD 10-15 minutes. If disinfection is not carried out, then it is useful to soak them for 12-24 hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Such training contributes to the improvement of planting material, protects it from diseases.↑ back to content ↑
Planting garlic for winter - terms
In order for garlic to take root, but not sprouted, it should be planted under winter for two to three weeks before the onset of a cold snap. The optimal time for planting winter varieties of garlic for the winter is the third decade of October in the Kuban. At an earlier planting, for example, in September, sprouted teeth, go under winter with 2-3 real leaves. To prevent the leaves from being affected by frosts or cold winds, the plants are hilled, and in the early spring a transverse harrowing is performed in order to free the neck of the plants.
At a later planting, the teeth do not have time to take root - there is a great thinning of the crops from the influence of cold winds and frosts.
Verify the timing of the planting of garlic with the lunar calendar of planting for 2017.
Aerial bulbs sow in autumn or early spring. Of these, so-called sowok grows - these are not teeth, but roundish small onions. If you put air bulbs in the fall, then most of the summer will give the arrows, and in the spring planting, there is no rifle, and round bulbs are formed-single-heads (apples). They are planted in autumn, as they are poorly preserved until spring.
Spring varieties are planted early in the spring, as soon as there is a possibility of entering the field, as they are very demanding on soil moisture, low temperature at first growth. When delayed with planting, growth, development of plants are delayed, yield decreases, product quality deteriorates.
If the planting material is stored at a temperature of 0 ° to + 5 ° C, it is early to plant it in the spring, then, for the most part, bulbs are formed by a single-tooth..
Norm and scheme of planting garlic
Garlic is usually planted in rows, the distance between which is 20-30 cm. The teeth are located at a distance of 6-8 cm, but this distance depends on their magnitude: for larger ones, the distance is longer, small ones are planted closer to each other. One to two days before planting the head should be disassembled. If this is done, for example, a week before sowing or even earlier, they will lose some percentage of germination.
How many teeth are needed to plant, for example, 1 square. meter garden, say it is complicated. The rate of planting depends on the size of the teeth that you plant. Typically, agronomists call the number 130-380 teeth per square meter. The first figure they receive on the basis of their average weight of one tooth 3 g, and the second - if it weighs 7 g.
From larger teeth, larger heads grow. Planting a tooth weighing less than 3 g is not worth it, since they will grow small heads.
At what depth to plant? This depends, first, on the size of the teeth, and secondly, on the timing of planting.
In autumn, winter varieties are planted for winter. Large teeth are planted not deeper than 5-7 cm. Smaller teeth - not deeper than 4-5 cm. But, that when planting in the spring, that - in the autumn, it is necessary to make sure that the layer of earth from above is at least 3-4 cm. You can cover the beds with a small layer (5-7 cm) of mulch - straw or dry grass.
Spring planted spring varieties. Depth of planting garlic spring - 4-5 cm. Also, make sure that the ground layer above the teeth is at least 3-4 cm. This will provide optimal conditions for good rooting, to form heads of the right shape.↑ back to content ↑
Care of crops, top dressing
One of the secrets of growing garlic is feeding..
In the early spring, after the snow melts, as soon as the first warm days come, it would be nice to feed crops with nitrogen fertilizers, for example, urea (1 tbsp. spoon / 10 liters of water). Approximately 5 liters of solution should be used per m2..
In April, when the shoots grow up, the fertilizing is carried out twice, for example, this is the middle and end of April. The first feeding should contain more nitrogen. Its composition can be as follows: half a liter of chicken manure + 1 tbsp. a spoonful of nitroammophoski on a bucket (10 liters) of water. In the second feeding should be more phosphorus and potassium. The composition is as follows: 1 tbsp. spoon double superphosphate + 1 tbsp. spoon of potassium sulfate + 1 teaspoon of urea per bucket (10 liters) of water. On 1 m2 we also spend about 5 liters of solution.
Necessarily after top dressing the next day, loosen the soil between the rows, after a week or one and a half more loosening, if the soil is dry - pour. Garlic loves loose soil without weeds - oxygen must necessarily flow to the roots and bulbs of the plant, so loosen the soil between rows after each watering or after the rain. By the way, if there is no rain, watering should be done at least weekly. Water abundantly - 12-15 liters per 1 m2.
Easier work gardener will be able to mulch rows. Mulch will retain moisture, and the soil under the mulch will always remain loose.
That you have grown large heads, arrows must be broken in time. Try to break or cut them, and do not pull up - so you can pull the bulb inadvertently or damage its root system. Break the arrows when they have reached a length of 12-15 cm, the place of breakage should be as close as possible to the outlet of the leaves. If you break it down, it will continue to grow - you will not get a large head.
The breaking of arrows is a special agro-technique, which allows not only to increase the dimensions of the head, but also to accelerate their maturation.
By the way, do not throw away the broken arrows - they can be used for preserving blanks, as a seasoning for eating.
For example, add finely chopped garlic arrows to the boiled potatoes, after you have drained the water, slightly dried it. Add the butter or sour cream, mix and serve to the table. Once upon a time, I read this recipe - it was called "Phytoncid Potato". Since then, this is one of the favorite dishes of our family.
Finely chopped arrows can be added to boiled hot pasta or vermicelli - it is also delicious, useful, especially in spring, when there is not enough vitamins.↑ back to content ↑
Usually at the end of July, the leaves of garlic begin to turn yellow. This indicates that it's time to clean up. There is an unwritten rule for gardeners: it is better to remove earlier, than later. Even a delay of 5 days is important. At an earlier harvest, it is left in the open air under a canopy for ripening. Leaves do not break. In this case, nutrients from the leaves enter the bulbs, which increase their mass. The heads are dense, they are covered with dry top scales, of a good attractive appearance. And if you are late with cleaning for literally 3-5 days, then the scales covering the heads burst, the teeth fall apart, the head itself becomes loose. Such garlic will not be stored for a long time.
But I want to say about the timing of cleaning separately. There are many varieties, which have different maturation periods - that means they should not be removed at once, but by turns. How much I have not talked with the familiar truck farmers, almost no one knows what sort they grow. By the way, I, too. But the differences of the variety can be seen by the color of the outer shell of the head, by the number of teeth in the bulb. I try to sort the heads before planting, to at least approximately plant the variety separately.
How do you know when it's time to remove the garlic from the beds?
Very simple. I always leave a few arrows, I do not break everything when they start to grow. The first time during the growth of the arrow curiously bends, are curly. But as soon as I noticed that the arrow was straightened, it stands upright - this is the first sign that it's time to dig out the garlic.
There is another sign - the flower heads, which have already formed bulbs, have burst - while cleaning.
So, knowing these signs of maturation, wherever you live - you will never be late to clean the garlic in time. Although the cleaning time for everyone will be different.↑ back to content ↑
Dosing and storage of air bulbs (bulbs)
To the next year you had your garlic for planting, leave on the bed some of the plants with arrows, do not break them. These plants with left arrows should be left in the garden for another one to two weeks after harvesting the main crop. Then the arrows with air bulbs are cut. You can tie them in small bundles, hang them under a canopy (not in the open sun) to dry them. So stored arrows of garlic with air bulbs for 20-30 days. During this time, there is an outflow of nutrients from the arrows to the bulbs, they are covered with dense scales, become pale straw or lilac (the color depends on the variety). Bulbs grow very much, the shell bursts. If you are going to plant them in the fall, under winter, then cleanse, sort them by size. And if bulbochki intended for spring-summer planting, then the best they should continue to store beams until the spring, as during cleaning, sorting in the fall bulbocks are injured, can wither, lose germination. Keep them in a cool dark place.↑ back to content ↑
Storage of garlic
For storage, ripe, mature, well-dried heads are taken with intact scales intact. The best temperature for storing the house is + 18 ° С. Store garlic better in mesh pouches, pigtails or cardboard boxes.↑ back to content ↑
How can I get a one-toothed garlic?
To obtain a single-rod, air bulbs can be planted in autumn or spring. It should be remembered that during the autumn sowing a part of the onion grows freezing, rotting. Therefore, sparse shoots are obtained. In the early spring sowing shoots appear on the 10-20th day, as a rule, amicable. Scheme of sowing: the distance between the rows is 20 cm, along the row there is a solid planting of onions. Care consists in watering and following them shallow loosening, fertilizing with complex fertilizers. Remove the single-toothed bulbs as soon as the leaves began to lie. After weighing (10-12 days), drying is cut off by roots, dried leaves. The single-piece is stored at a temperature of 16-18 ° C, relative humidity of 70-75%..
And the last... Avoid planting garlic from vegetable stores or supermarkets, as in the process of growing garlic you risk bringing serious virus diseases to your site.