Most of summer residents and truck farmers prefer to have onions onions, which even a beginner can cultivate. Have you tried it? In my childhood on the table there was always a bowl with peeled small elongated bulbs. We did not know the words "shallots" then. For us it was a sorcerer. We ate it in a snack with borscht, even just so, with bread sprinkled with salt. Tasteful! Absolutely not sharp, even slightly sweet, juicy, does not cause tears. It's not for nothing that his delicate, soft tart taste and aroma are among the gourmets and chefs. Let's look at how to properly plant, grow this healthy vegetable, what conditions it prefers..
- Shallot onion - description
- Onion from shallots
- Onions from shallows - care, planting, protection from diseases
- Shallot onion - varieties
- Early-ripening varieties
- Grades of medium-ripe
- Grades of late ripening
Photo of shallot onion:
Shallot, what is it? It's just one of the many kinds of onions. We call it differently: family, nesting, kustovka, sorokozubka, kuschovka, bow of the Old Believers, etc. The name itself seems to hint at the main feature - multi-nest (multitasking). As I said, the name of the sorcerer is closer to me, as it is usually called in the Kuban.
In the preparation of various dishes, this vegetable can replace its counterpart, give them a new piquant taste. The green feather of the sorcerer is also used for food. It grows even earlier than the usual, more delicate and delicate taste.↑ back to content ↑
Shallot onion - description
In cooking, it can completely replace the usual habit, and its small size appeals to many housewives. The green feathers of the shallots are thinner, look great in cut form in salads. Plus, the sorcerer quickly grows green mass than normal. In addition to small sizes (about 20 g), it has a slightly elongated shape, and the head itself resembles garlic. According to the content of vitamins and beneficial ingredients, sorokozubka ahead of all their onion counterparts. It is tasty, useful, has antibacterial qualities, lowers cholesterol, strengthens the body's resistance to various diseases.
Onions shalot family is perfectly preserved, does not lose its kind and flavor characteristics for a long time. It is a perennial plant, but on the site it is most often grown as a two-year-old plant. Propagated by seeds and small onion bulbs (sowing).
In the first year of life, culture forms a "family" of 3-5 onions, and the next year grows up to 7-10 onions in one nest. The total weight of such a family can sometimes reach, kg, and the number of onions sometimes amounts to 15 pieces. Sortovidov sorokozubki a lot, they all have differences in shape and color. There are violet, white, brown, golden or red bulbs.
Not only because of its useful properties, summer residents are planted in their plots, as well as for the production of early greens. Sorokozubka not only grows greens faster, but ripens faster, and the pulp has a delicate juicy taste.
Depending on the variety, it can be sweet, islet, semi-oestrus, in terms of maturation - early, middle or late. All these features should be taken into account, giving preference to the planted sub-species..
Today shallots are successfully cultivated in many countries: India, Greece, America, Asia and Europe, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Russia. It is widely used for making sauces, marinades, it is baked, caramelized, canned, dried with thin plates, etc. Only a month after planting, the greens can be cut and used for food, and after 2 months the bulbs become ripe.
It is a frost-resistant crop, you can plant sevots even in early spring or before the onset of winter. Sorokozubka perfectly preserved even at room temperature, almost does not germinate, and when cutting, most varieties do not cause lachrymation.↑ back to content ↑
Onion from shallots
It is easiest to purchase seed material in the corresponding store, but you can also collect it yourself. Often this involves some difficulties, since the sorcerer rarely lets out arrows. Experienced horticulturists have their own methods for obtaining shallots. The procedure is as follows:
- For planting, the best bulbs should initially be selected, which for a short time (3-4 months) were stored at a temperature of +3.. + 10 ° C.
- They need to be planted in the Kuban or in the February windows, or in late February / early March; in the middle zone of Russia - in late April / early May. It is the reaction of the onions to the cold (vernalization) that provokes the growth of the flower arrows, from which it will be possible later to obtain the seed material.
- Next to the sorbitol, no other varieties of onions should grow, in order to avoid over-dusting. This item is very important for those who want to collect their seeds.
Bow shallot, photo:
If you grow this culture through seedlings, then greenhouse, greenhouse or even room conditions will perfectly suit for these purposes. First, you need to prepare the soil and purchase cassettes for seedlings. The soil can be bought already ready or take sod land mixed with humus (:)..
In the container for seedlings or cassettes need to pour the soil, make small depressions or grooves, lay the seeds of the shallots (on, cm apart). Seeds can be mixed with pure river sand, they should be buried 2-3 cm into the ground. After this, the inoculum should be sprinkled with the same soil or peat, pour water at room temperature.
Seedlings should be kept in a room with a temperature of +23.. + 25 ° C. After the first shoots appear, the temperature should be lowered to +10.. +13 ° C - for 3-4 days. The subsequent temperature regime for seedlings should be about +15.. + 18 ° C during the day and +6.. + 10 ° C at night.
Seedling shallots seedling, photo:
Watering should be done carefully and regularly (as the soil dries up). Do not overmoist the soil - this is detrimental to sprouting.
After your sprout will grow and grow stronger, another stage begins - thinning out. It is necessary to leave the strongest specimens, which should be located at a distance of 2 Before the young plants are transferred to the beds, they can be fed a couple of times with a "cocktail" of urea (5 g), superphosphate (10 g), potassium chloride (2-3 g). A mixture of these fertilizers must be previously dissolved with 5 liters of water, water the seedlings.
Somewhere 10 days before planting a shallot in an open ground, a container with a young livestock should be moved to a cooler room with good ventilation. At this stage it is good to periodically take the plants out into the open air (balcony or on the street) - temper them. The volume of water in watering should be reduced. By this time, the onions usually already have three or four green feathers, by the beginning or the second week of May it can be transplanted into the open ground.
In order for you to grow a healthy and strong sorokozubka on the site, the planting of young livestock should be done in pre-fertilized soil.
Sorokozubka on the beds, photo:
The loose fertile soil with neutral acidity (6-7 pH) should prevail on the place allocated for the shrew. On the ground you need to make furrows, where the plants will be placed. If there is a desire, it is possible to dilute clay in water with cow manure. In this solution, it is necessary to dip the roots before embedding into the soil. The interval between onions should be about 5 cm. The beds themselves should be located at a distance of 20 cm from each other - these are the optimal parameters for a given crop. After planting the row spacing, it is better to loosen.
That he loves shallots:
- He prefers sunlit areas, no shadow.
- The soil should in no case be acidic!
- If you have a soil at the cottages lying close to the upper layers of the soil, then you can plant the sorbet only after ensuring reliable drainage.
- It is better not to grow shallots in the same place for more than 3 years in a row.
- Consider the cultures that grew on the site before the landing of the sorcerer. It can be planted after potatoes, melons, tomatoes, cucumbers and all varieties of cabbage. If before that there grew garlic or beet, as well as sunflowers or corn, it is better to choose another place.
- Well next to shallot with a green salad, radish, strawberries, and if you plant a carrot next to you, the sorbet will smell the carrot fly with its smell. Carrots with their own scent will scare away the onion fly.
- It is undesirable to plant green peas or beans along with shallots, as well as spinach, parsley or dill, as their company negatively affects it.
Once the sorcerer is planted, further care for it consists in regular loosening of the soil, irrigation and weed removal. In May, the beds can be fertilized with nitrogen-containing top dressing or diluted manure. After 3-4 weeks, you can re-energize plants with potassium salt with ammonium nitrate. Already after 25 days you can cut the first greens, the bulbs themselves will ripen by the end of July. In the first year of life the sorbitol from the seeds forms small "nests" consisting of 3-4 small onion cubs. They are collected, dried and used as a seed for the next season..
Onions from shallows - care, planting, protection from diseases
And now let's look at the usual cultivation of a shallot - with the help of seedling (small onion bulbs). First of all, the seed must be healthy, attractive in appearance, without any damage or damage. In general, the larger the planted bulb, the more it will give greens and daughter small onions.
For prevention, to hedge against a disease of culture with powdery mildew, all planting material it is recommended to warm up for 6-7 hours at a temperature of + 40 ° C (for example, expand in the area of the battery heating). The plot of land should be dug, preferably, fertilized humus (about 5 kg per 1 m²). It is necessary to form beds, leaving between them a distance of 20-25 cm. After the earth warms up with the rays of the sun to + 5 ° C, it is possible to plant a sorbitol.
You will receive larger copies if the sowing is buried in a cool ground - confirmed by experienced truck farmers. Each onion should be placed in the soil about 3 or 4 cm.
The subsequent care consists in regular watering of the beds (but not overmoistening of the soil), especially during the vegetative phase. Weeding, weed removal, soil pumping - the procedures are mandatory and familiar to all truck farmers. When the first green sprouts appear, it can be fed with nitrogen fertilizers or manure.
At the stage of bulb formation, potash supplements, wood ash and poultry dung will not interfere. To get a large vegetable, the beds will have to be weeded out. By the last weeks of July you can harvest.
In general, this culture can be grown not only on beds, but also at home on a window sill, on a balcony or a loggia, it also grows great. If you decide to plant a sorceress at home, then it is better to do it in the last weeks of February. Thus, after 30 days you can already collect the first greens. By the way, the bulb can be "forced" to repeat its mission - to get it out of the ground, cut off half, and then plant it again. After 30 days you will again receive fresh fresh greens at home.
Onions at home, photo:
As mentioned above, a sorbitor is planted on the Kuban site or in February windows, or at the end of February / early March; in the middle zone of Russia - in late April / early May. And if an autumn planting is planned, it is preferable to do it in the middle-end of November (Kuban) or in the last weeks of October (the middle band of Russia).
This cold-resistant culture, but for planting under winter it is better to choose winter-hardy varieties: "Krepysh "Siberian yellow "Garant "Albik "SIR-7".
Podzimnaya landing gives a good result only in the southern regions of Russia, because in the middle band about half of the bulbs freeze. As for the northern regions, the losses can be significant, so you need to think about whether to take risks.
How to grow onions and save it from pests? The issue is topical, despite the fact that this species rarely gets sick. If you suddenly notice a deterioration in the appearance of the sorcerer, then check to see if your garden has an onion fly. This parasite is especially active in the heat and, judging by the name, very fond of onions. If this is a consequence of the onion fly, then immediately remove all the damaged plants, and treat the rest with an insecticide (Diazinon, Imidacloprid, Metomil, Tiametoxam). Very good for prevention of ground red pepper, chopped bitter wormwood, tobacco powder - natural "odorous" substances.
Sorokozubka can get peronosporozom (false powdery mildew), if the rainy weather drags on for a long time. To prevent this from happening, the soil in the beds should be treated with 1% Bordeaux fluid - this is quite effective prevention against this disease.↑ back to content ↑
Shallot onion - varieties
If we consider shallots by categories of maturity, then to early ripe can be attributed such varieties:
Emerald- has a slightly island taste, bulbs are round, weight about 16-22 g, the husks have a brownish-pink hue. Very yielding variety, in a cool room can be stored for a long time.
Belozerets94 - has a pronounced pungent taste, but without bitterness. It shows itself well in the southern regions, as it relates to drought tolerant varieties. Bulb weight can reach 30 g.
Cascade- forms wide egg-shaped bulbs, one nest usually consists of 5 or 6 onions, 30-35 g each. The husk is a pinkish hue, the flesh is juicy, with a sharp taste. Also differs in good longevity.
Vitamin- forms nests of 8-10 bulbs, each weighing up to 30 g. After 3 weeks after planting, you can already cut off the green feather. The husk has a golden hue, the pulp has a juicy, spicy taste.
Sprint- the nest consists of 5 to 10 onions, each of which can reach 40 g. Very productive varietal, resistant to false flour dew (peronosporosis). It is zoned for the North Caucasus.
Family- forms a nest of 2-4 onions, each weighing 15-25 g. Under a purple hull hides a snow-white vegetable. Very resistant to diseases, practically not affected by them.
SIR-7- high-yielding variety with a sharp piquant taste. In the nest grows from 4 to 7 onions, each weighing 25-30 g. It has a long shelf life.↑ back to content ↑
Grades of medium-ripe
Seryozhka- one of the most productive varieties, forms rounded golden onions, each weighing from 20 to 40 g. In the nest matures 5-10 pieces. Characterized by excellent longevity, resistant to rot.
Sophocles- Again, a very fruitful variety, forms reddish-brown onions with juicy semi-oily pulp of pale violet hue. In a nest, 4-7 bulbs ripen, each weighing 25-50 g. Can be stored for a long time, resistant to rot and thrips.
Ural-40- elongated oval bulbs weigh from 50 to 100 g each, in the nest is formed 3-5 pieces. It grows in any region, it is distinguished by good cautiousness.
Chapaevsky- has round or flatish rounded bulbs with a semi-acute taste. The husk is purple, with a pinkish hue, resistant to peronosporosis, very light, yielding variety. Excellent for Chernozem (Central Black Earth region).
Albic- forms elongated onions weighing 20-30 g each. The nest is maturing 4-8 pieces, a high-yielding variety, which can be planted under the winter.
Russian Purple- can have both a semi-acute and sweet taste. The color of the husks is violet-brownish, the inside of the vegetable is pinkish, juicy. Forms round onions (sometimes flat), from 25 to 40 g each. The nest is large, can have up to 15 bulbs, high-yielding variety.
The Kuban yellowD-322- characterized by a semi-pointed taste, has a yellowish-brown husk and a white, slightly greenish shade of a purified vegetable. The variety is resistant to heat and drought, each onion weighs 25-30 g, in the nest is formed 3 or 4 pieces. Optimum for cultivation in the south of Russia and for the Lower Volga region.↑ back to content ↑
Grades of late ripening
Siberian amber- with an island taste, grows well in any region, forms round or flat onions with a bronze hue of husk. The nest ripens 5-7 bulbs, each weighing 25-30 g.
Vonskiy- very resistant to diseases and attacks of pests, grows in any conditions, even unfavorable. Each bulb weighs 30-60 g, in the nest matures 3-4 pieces. The husk of this variety is red, the vegetable itself is white, with a slightly purple hue, juicy, has a semi-spicy spicy taste.
Bargalinsky (or Marneuli)- onions of this variety have an oval, elongated form, each weighing from 50 to 90 g, in the nest 4-7 bulbs ripen. The husks are yellowish-pink in color, the peeled vegetable is white. It reproduces well by seed method, it is distinguished by high yield.
Mighty- forms from 4 to 7 onions in a nest, each of them weighs 25-55 g. The husk is pinkish in color, the core is reddish, with a semi-sharp taste. The variety is resistant to decay, it is distinguished by a good looseness.
It is clear that it is not possible to describe all sorts of shallots onions, I mentioned the main qualities of the most popular representatives of this culture. Virtually all varieties are kept well and long without loss of taste, as well as appearance.
A pledge of long-term storage is proper harvesting. When the mature bulbous nests are removed from the ground, they are disassembled into separate fragments (onions) and dried there, on the beds. If the weather is good, then they stay there for a few days, after which they leave for drying under some canopy (in the fresh air). After drying, the onion is placed in wooden or cardboard containers and transferred to a dry basement.
He has a lot of positive qualities, moreover, it can be eaten by people with gastrointestinal diseases, in which the usual bulb is prohibited for consumption.
Sit down and you'll have a shallot on your dacha, the cultivation of which, as you can see, does not present any difficulties. This onion aristocrat, delicate, with a delicate taste, without a pronounced onion odor..