Electric water heater, like all earthly, is not eternal. Poor quality of the device itself, improper operation, errors in installation and annoying accidents can ruin the device. With minor breakdowns, repairing the boiler with your own hands is not difficult, but a number of faults can be fixed only at a service center.
We will talk about what violations in the work of water-heating equipment can be eliminated with his own hands. In the article presented by us, nuances of diagnostics are given, ways of restoring the operation of the unit are described in detail. There are useful recommendations for maintenance.
The content of the article:
- How does the boiler work?
- Types of heaters used for heating elements
- Vulnerable elements of the heater
- Cleaning and maintenance
- Elimination of common breakdowns
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How does the boiler work?
There are cumulative and flow type water heaters. The first consists of a large tank in which the heating element is installed. Water enters the device and is stored there at a certain temperature.
Via temperature sensorconnected to a thermostat, the temperature is maintained at a set level. To prevent the loss of thermal energy, the body of the storage tank is covered with a layer of insulation.
Before operating the boiler, it is necessary to study its device, technical characteristics and recommendations of the manufacturer in order to prevent breakdowns.
Flow models work differently. They also have a housing and a heating element, but the water inside is not stored. The device turns on at the moment when the flow of water begins to pass through its body.
The liquid quickly heats up to the desired temperature. These devices are more powerful than cumulative models, they consume more electricity. But their sizes are compact, and installation is a bit simpler.
And yet in everyday life often use the cumulative version of the water heater. Breakdowns of different types of devices are similar, and they are eliminated by approximately the same means.
To automate the operation of the water heater, use the thermostat. This item retrieves the current status using temperature sensor. It turns the heating element on and off based on the incoming information.
This helps not only to maintain the optimum temperature inside the drive, but also makes it possible to save energy. The device also prevents dangerous overheating of water, which can cause a serious accident.
If the boiler is in the area of connecting water pipes, it is most likely that the device is installed incorrectly, and the connections must be resealed.
Hot water is gradually withdrawn from the tank and replaced with cold water from the water supply system. At this moment, the heating element usually turns on. If the hot water in the boiler is not used for a long time, then it can cool. Too low temperature also gives the signal to turn on TENA.
With features of choice electric water heaters The article is devoted to the constructive differences and technical characteristics of the most popular equipment models among consumers.
Types of heaters used for heating elements
There are boilers with “dry” and “wet” TENG. In the first embodiment, the heating element is placed in a special flask, and in the second, it is in direct contact with water. Both models have certain advantages.
In terms of boiler repair, it is believed that “dry” Heating element it is much easier to replace than a “wet” one, since to do this you just need to remove it from the flask and put a new element there.
In the case of “wet” TENG you will first have to completely drain the water from the tank, and only then make a replacement. Usually, “dry” heating elements are less productive than the “wet” version, therefore, in a boiler, not one, but two such heating elements are most often installed.
“Dry” heaters are not as productive as “wet” ones, but replacing them is somewhat easier to do, because you do not need to drain water from the tank.
Due to the nature of the operation, “dry” Heating elements burn out more often and need to be replaced, therefore models with “wet” Heating elements more popular. It is worth noting that you can find modern boilers with very reliable "dry" Heating elements latest generation, but the cost of such devices may be too high.
But on the amount of scale formed during operation, the type TENA does not affect. But if the “wet” element accumulates scale immediately on the surface, then with a “dry” heating element, deposits accumulate on the protective flask.
Vulnerable elements of the heater
Even before installing the device, you should carefully study its technical data sheet and instruction manual. In these documents, the device’s device is usually fairly accurately reflected, the position of the main elements is described, recommendations on proper use are given, etc.
The storage tank of the boiler is usually made of stainless steel with a thickness of about two millimeters. Outside, a layer of heat insulator is applied to the container, which is covered with a housing made of metal or polymeric materials.
Many water heater failures are somehow connected to the tank, and they manifest themselves in the form of leaks. In order to properly respond and choose the right troubleshooting strategy, you should determine the location of the leak and identify its cause.
Not always the cause of a leakage is damage to the tank, more often its presence indicates that:
- leaky protective gasket;
- there were problems in the work of TENA;
- thermostat spoiled and / or thermal sensor.
To protect the storage water heater in the piping circuit is included or embedded in the case safety valve, the presence of which significantly reduces the number of breakdowns and the occurrence of emergency situations.
Sometimes a leak occurs in the area of the entrance to the boiler body of hot and cold water pipes. Most often this is a consequence of improper installation, which appears immediately after the device is commissioned or shortly thereafter. It is necessary to take care in advance about the proper sealing of all connections.
In high-quality boilers, they usually install not one, but two or three thermostats. The first one regulates the level of water temperature in the device, the second one is needed to monitor the state of the first one, and the third device allows you to check the good condition of the heating element.
The design of these elements may vary. Rod and capillary devices are popular, the electronic version of the thermostat is considered very convenient to use. But the principle of operation of such devices is almost the same; in the event of a breakdown, the device must simply be replaced with a similar model.
However, such a malfunction will not be critical for the operation of the boiler. If a Heating element ok, the device will still heat the water. But the lack of control over the heating temperature can lead to incorrect operation of the device. The result may be a breakdown of the heating element or other problems.
Cleaning and maintenance
Compliance with the manufacturer's recommendations can save the owner of the boiler from many problems. For example, in the instructions it is usually recommended to regularly carry out maintenance of the boiler, which is reduced to the procedure of external inspection and cleaning.
The generally recommended maintenance periods vary depending on the type of heating element and the nature of its operation. For “wet” TENA it is recommended to clean it annually, and for “dry” - at least once every two years.
If the device is used at increased loads, for example, at work or in a public place, then maintenance should be done every six months, regardless of the type TENA.
During operation, scale and debris accumulates inside the boiler; regularly clean the device to remove these contaminants.
The procedure for maintenance may affect warranty service. Sometimes the manufacturer indicates in the documents that the procedure should be carried out not by the owner of the device, but by the repairmen certified by the manufacturer. In this case, it is better to follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
Self-service is not too difficult. To do this, turn off the boiler from the power supply and plumbing, and then drain the water inside. After that, the housing is opened, unscrewing the mounting bolts, and removed Heating element. The heater and the inner surface of the tank are cleaned of scale and dirt.
Replace the protective gasket and magnesium anode. Then the device is reassembled and connected to the electricity and water mains. One of the common causes of damage to the boiler tank is the so-called electrical corrosion. It gradually destroys the surface of the drive, which leads to a leak.
To prevent this problem, many manufacturers install near TENG magnesium anode. This element is not eternal, the task of the device owner is to replace it with a new element in a timely manner. Unfortunately, some people forget about it, as a result of which their boiler may turn out to be completely spoiled.
The magnesium anode gradually wears out, it is recommended to replace it with a new element every year or two, depending on the model of the heating element.
Do not forget about such an important protective element as grounding. Its absence not only creates a risk of injury during operation of the device, but also is capable of increasing or provoking electrocorrosion.
Elimination of common breakdowns
The surface of the tank consists of several layers: the tank itself, the insulation, the outer shell, etc. This allows you to save heat and save electricity, but makes it difficult to repair the device.
The fact is that if the integrity of the inner tank or the outer casing is damaged, it also has a destructive effect on the condition of the insulating material.
To remove the protective cover from the boiler, it is necessary to find and unscrew the fixing bolts. If they are hidden under the decorative stickers, you need to carefully peel off the protection and save it
The cause of damage to the tank may be careless handling of the device during installation and / or operation. If you drop a heavy object on the case or accidentally hit it, a chip, a crack or other similar damage may form on the surface.
It’s almost impossible to repair such a breakdown on your own, you’ll either have to contact a service center, or just buy and install a new boiler. Of course, you can seal the hole inside or outside, but this method will only solve the problem for a while.
Provide sufficient protection for the insulating material is unlikely to succeed at home. It will gradually break down, as a result, the boiler will retain heat much worse, and corrosion processes will develop. If the boiler began to leak, it does not necessarily mean that the tank has deteriorated.
When replacing the protective gasket, you must carefully remove the worn element and install exactly the same new one. Tighten fasteners gradually to avoid skewing the gasket.
First you need to accurately establish the location of the leak. If water is leaking at the place where the gasket is installed, you may simply need to replace this element. Above has been described the procedure for maintenance of the device, during which such an operation is performed.
One of the most obvious and common boiler breakdowns is a malfunction. TENA. If the water inside has ceased to heat up, this problem most likely has arisen.
If you need to replace the heating element, you should choose the element that is exactly the same in size and characteristics so that the boiler works correctly
Of course, before proceeding with the dismantling and disassembling of the device to replace the heater, you should make sure that the power supply in the house is available and that the electricity flows unhindered to the boiler. For such a test, you should use a tester, attaching it to the contact points.
For verification, it is recommended to perform the following operations:
- The measuring scale of the tester should be set to a mark between 220 and 250 V.
- To fix the value of the voltage at the terminals of the device connected to the mains.
- If the voltage is absent, you can confidently ascertain the failure of the heater.
- If voltage is present, check must continue.
- Disconnect the water heater from the power supply.
- After that, detach the thermostat from TENA and remove the insulation from the contacts of the heating element.
- Now you need to use a tester to measure the voltage on uninsulated contacts.
- The lack of reaction leads to the conclusion of a malfunction. TENAIts presence indicates that the device is in good condition.
Heating element It works properly, but the water does not heat up? Probably faulty thermostat. To check this version, you should set the tester to maximum, and then check the voltage dimensions at the input and output of the device.
Lack of response will show that you need to make a replacement. The presence of voltage does not give a clear signal that the thermostat is intact, the test should continue.
Broken thermostat with temperature sensor, you just need to replace the new similar device. During the diagnosis, you must carefully handle the bulb temperature sensor
Now you need to set the tester to the minimum value, and take measurements on the contacts of the thermostat for some time. If you can not fix the sensors, you need to ask someone for help.
It should be heated edge temperature sensor (for example, using a lighter), and follow the work thermal switch. If the heat caused it to open, you can consider the device in good condition. The lack of response indicates that a replacement must be made.
The good condition of the thermostat is diagnosed using an electric tester, measuring the voltage at the contacts of the device, as well as checking the operation of the sensor and the relay
If Heating element, and the thermostat are working normally, it is possible that there is no heating due to incorrect settings of the device. Simple adjustment will help fix the problem. Another possible scenario in such a situation is the failure of the control board. In this case, you will have to ask for help from a specialized center.
The breakdown of the electronic control card is difficult to fix with your own hands, you will need the help of qualified specialists who will help you choose the right replacement and properly configure the device
Replacement TENA, gasket or any other element of the boiler should be carried out to a new part that in all respects corresponds to a faulty one. Therefore, it is better to dismantle the old item and take it with you to the store.
It does not hurt to study the labeling of the product or its characteristics set forth in the technical passport of the boiler so that the serviceable element matches the broken one not only externally.
Disassembly of the boiler for repairs perform in the following order:
- Turn off the power and water supply.
- Drain the water inside.
- Unscrew the fasteners from the protective cover.
- Remove the cover.
- Dismantle Heating element.
- Take out the thermostat and thermal sensor.
It is usually more convenient to work with mounted models if you first remove them from the wall. The cover can be bottom, side and even on the front panel - it all depends on the model. Be especially careful when handling thermal sensor.
If the flasks of the device are accidentally broken, they cannot be repaired. Most likely, you will have to completely replace the entire thermostat.
Scale deposits on the surface of the heating element can be very significant, so care must be taken when removing it from the body.
Caution does not interfere with the seizure of the heating element. If on the surface TENA or the flask that protects it has accumulated too much scale; it may be difficult to remove it from the tank. Abrupt movements and excessive force can cause permanent damage.
Faced with a problem that you can not solve yourself, be sure to contact the service center. Only a specialist can make accurate diagnostics, correctly perform repairs or install a new part.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The experience of professionals and amateurs is the best advisor in doing their own repairs. Perhaps helpful videos will help you identify a breakdown and fix it.
The option of eliminating a boiler leak with cold welding is presented in this video:
The procedure for cleaning the boiler is presented here:
This video clearly demonstrates the procedure for checking the electrical components of the boiler using a tester:
Independent repair of a boiler comes down mainly to the replacement of damaged items. Timely maintenance, proper installation and compliance with the rules of operation will prevent a lot of damage and extend the life of the device.
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