As the sudden shutdown of hot water in the apartment, and her lack of housing in the country has a negative impact on the quality of our lives. Installing the water heater will help to solve the communal question. But how to choose a water heater to the device later this did not create additional problems?
In the present article we detail types of water heaters and classification features, influencing the choice. The recommendations, which must be followed for safe operation of equipment. To help the buyer provides information about leading manufacturers in the segment.
The content of the article:
Types and classification features
- Specificity of storage water heaters
- Features instantaneous water heaters
- Safe operation of the equipment
- The criteria for comparison of water heaters
- Overview of manufacturers of aggregates storage type
- Manufacturers instantaneous water heaters
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Types and classification features
All household water heaters, based on the method of heating, is divided into 2 types: cumulative and instantaneous.
By type of fuel used for heating of these devices are operating from the mains and gas. They have different price, design, size and mode of operation.
The operating principle of all kinds of water heaters are divided into two main groups: flow and storage. They differ in size and specifics of
Water heaters often work in tandem with the heating boilers, use them for everything large country houses, commercial and industrial buildings that are not connected to the centralized Communications
Flow-type water heaters produced mainly in wall mounted. This compact equipment installed in apartments and small private houses
On the specifics of getting power all types of water heaters are divided into electric and gas. Power is easier to install, but expensive to operate
Floor heaters larger in volume, as designed not only for the treatment of water, but also to store it in a heated state
The number of species have storage and compact models. Release them for the wall, as well as for outdoor installation
The range of flow equipment has a mini-devices that are installed directly over a sink or kitchen sink
By functionality heaters are divided into single and dual circuit. The first warm water only to water, the latter - for heating water supply
Species on the basis of the action
Accumulative type paired with a boiler
Flow-through gas train
Electric wall-mounted unit
Outdoor option - boiler
Cumulative wall unit
Mini device for installation above sink
Turbofan gas equipment
Specificity of storage water heaters
Structure consisting of a tank with TAN in, gradually heating the entire volume of water located in the tank, called the storage water heater.
If we consider a more detailed diagram, then it contains the following elements:
- Housing. Under him are hidden all the internal parts of the appliance. For its production are used as expensive, and cheaper materials. Highest price models with aluminum body followed by stainless steel, and the cheapest option - plastic.
- Thermal insulation. It prevents heat loss. The thicker its layer, the longer the optimum water temperature is maintained inside the device more effectively performs the function of the thermos, and its operation is less expensive.
- Domestic water heater tank. It is made from a metal having a protective layer in the form of enameled coating or better - steklofarforovogo.
- The pipe for the selection of the heated water. Its layer in accordance with the laws of physics, is located above the cold layer. For this reason, the selection point is located at the top.
- Feeding tube. Through her, the cold water from the system enters the tank.
- Anode. The material from which it is made, contains a high percentage of magnesium. Designed to protect the heating element by means of attraction to her scale, it settles in PETN, and on its surface.
- Heater. Includes 2 items - heater and thermostat. Origin is open and closed, and is designed for heating water and another for the control of its temperature.
- Thermostat. It can automatically turn on and off the heater when the set temperature is reached.
- Sensor heating water. Electronic or dial. The latter shows the approximate temperature, and the first is more accurate, man the more expensive model.
- Cap. It protects the user from electric shock.
Electric water heaters - efficient appliances for the independent supply of hot water at home. They have a high efficiency, consume little electricity. thanks to a successful choice elektroboyler you will always have hot water supply.
Electric water heaters have a wide range of products, including models of different forms of design volumes. There are many additional features that make them operate leaner
In garages and cottages, where there is no water supply, using bulk water heaters, working from the mains. They are equipped with temperature limiter, indicator light, temperature control. They are suitable for installation in rooms where the temperature is not lower than one degree and not higher than 40.
Internal coating tank
Traditionally, the tank made of stainless steel is more reliable than conventional steel. This is true, no wonder that manufacturers give a 10 year warranty on them. You should know that these containers have a weak spot - the joint affected by corrosion. In many models, it is covered with a protective layer.
A good alternative to stainless steel acts enamel steel tank. The structure of enamel add additives to improve its properties. Models used In elite glass-ceramic coating is sprayed silver ions, titanium.
For the application of enamels used complex, expensive technology. Which of the following options for water heaters will be better, everyone decides for himself.
In Europe, mainly used only enamelled tanks, considering them to be more secure in terms of ecology than stainless steel tanks and less allergenic
Coating with silver content disinfects water, prevents corrosion, does not form microcracks. Increased resistance to strong heating has a heat resistant coating of a titanium sputtering obtained by nitriding titanium at temperatures above 1 thousand. degrees C.
Most enamels used by manufacturers, tend to alienate the scale.
Immersion heater and steatite compared
The heating elements in the storage boilers are 2 types - immersion or "wet" and steatite or "dry". Aggregates are more reliable with the second type of heaters.
There is no contact with water heaters, as they are placed in a special flask filled with quartz sand or oil. Soapstone element has a greater service life, but also almost 2 times increase the cost of the water heater.
The "wet" copper heater - it is something like a boiler, he quickly covered with scum, lowering its thermal conductivity.
Facilitates combating salts settle on the surface of the heating element calcium "sacrificial" magnesium anode. It works on the principle of the galvanic interaction between conductors. More electronegative magnesium assumes oxygen ions, thereby preventing degradation of iron.
Magnesium anode does not protect the heating element from the scale in the truest sense. He just makes it easier to combat it, taking the brunt, leaving oxidized and destroyed, so is subject to periodic replacement
Scum settles on PETN consisting of salts of magnesium carbonate has a smaller stiffness and is characterized by a loose structure. Remove this precipitate can mechanically. Decreases resource electrode and the tank body, not only scum but also particulate matter, scarring their surfaces. These risks will save installation Prefilter.
The tank 1 may be either PETN or more up to 6 pieces. If there are already two heaters boiler can be operated in the heating mode economical - PowerProf. If the boiler has a capacity of 2 kW, a choice between the mode with economical consumption of approximately 800 watts, the average - 1.2 kW or maximum - all 2000 watts.
The design provides for the possibility of electric heating equipment replacing the heating elementWith which you can manage on their own, following the instructions exactly.
Advantages and disadvantages of storage type
Water heater or boiler has a significant advantage as a small power consumption. Its power consumption is within 0,9-6 kW.
Boiler works from a single-phase network, it is possible to connect the unit and in a city apartment and a country house. The main thing is to present the socket of 220-230 V. The water can be fed to several points.
Accumulative water heater is a structure of two concentric tanks, between which insulation is laid
Preparation of water in storage water heaters is slow, so the power consumption is usually small
Most electric storage water heaters can be operated from an ordinary wall outlet, do not require a connection to a three-phase network
Performance water heater depends on the power of the heating element and the volume of energy input
Apparatus accumulative type
Economic advantages drives
Wall-mounted storage device
Choice of drive performance
Boiler can store a large amount of water heated to 65-85 degrees C, warming it periodically. There is a large number of models with the ability to put tanks from 10 to 300 liters. When spending the hot water flows into the mixer, and if necessary, it is adjusted to the desired temperature by dilution with cold water.
Insulation layer leads to minimal heat loss. They generally do not exceed 0.5 ° C for 1 hr. In the models in which an insulation material is applied a polyurethane foam sandwiched between tank body and the anticorrosive coating layer, the temperature parameter is reduced only one day at 10 degrees.
The heat-insulating layer of foamed polyurethane environmentally friendly has low thermal conductivity. He has good moisture permeability and does not lose its properties during the operating period
inessential for connect the water heater It is the question of pressure in the water mains. There are units that work only on the urban network with a pressure of 6-7 bar, but there are those who will work even with the pressure of 1 atm.
This makes possible their application in cottages and country houses, where housing provide water from a well using the individual pumping station.
The disadvantages referred sometimes lengthy process of heating the water. In some cases to achieve a predetermined temperature of water it takes about 8 hours. It depends on the tank capacity and power of PETN. Unacceptable for individual users are relatively large dimensions, which make it impossible to install the unit in some areas.
To install the water heater, you can not always find a suitable place in the house because of its impressive size
On the life of the equipment affect the quality of water. At its high stiffness often have to change the heating elements do preventive use expensive materials. In order to improve the sanitary and technical indicators of water entering the water heater, install a filter.
Pressure and non-pressure storage
According to a method of connecting storage water heaters are divided further into 2 types: pressure and gravity. First used in the constant pressure water systems. The pressure in the water It may be a continuously high and stable low.
Non-pressure storage devices operate when connected to the pipelines, where the pressure is constant. Here, the water supply pump is introduced into the system, which executes manually or automatically in the event of a voltage drop.
This type is considered obsolete, but it is advisable to use this unit as a rustic shelter is not full plumbing. It does not matter if the wiring in the house of the old - for the operation of the device does not need a large capacity.
Mixing different water temperature in the tank is slow. The fact that the water enters the tank at a low speed may fall below a critical value as a result of heating elements come from the system.
Modern pressure water heater provides hot water all good water intake point in the house. The larger tank capacity, the more water can be spent at the same time
Depending on the method of attaching storage heaters come in horizontal and vertical. Also distinguish aggregates from the wall of the tank up to 200 liters, floor with a capacity of 200-1000 liters, recessed different capacity. It is not very significant differences, but they need to consider when choosing.
Determining the volume
It is important to purchase a water heater with a tank so that he could freely provide hot water for all the residents in the house. To facilitate the selection, you can use a table that lists the average consumption of hot water for various needs. When multiplied by the number of people residing in the house, to obtain the necessary volume of the tank.
Based on these data, for a family of 3 persons suitable water heater with a tank from 10 to 15 liters when water is needed only for washing hands. To take a shower, you need a tank with a capacity of not less than 30 liters
When you first turn on the boiler for a long time to heat. At its subsequent use for a long time to wait until the water heats up, do not have to. The more powerful heater, the faster the flow from the tap hot water.
you can learn the approximate time of heating of water from the table based on the power of the heating elements. This will help you make the right choice
If there are problems with the wiring, in order to avoid network congestion, it is advisable to set the timer. It will turn on and off the water heater at a certain time. The cost of such an auxiliary device is small.
Details that must be considered to choose a water heaterIt is set out in our recommended paper.
Features instantaneous water heaters
This type of equipment performs the heating water supplied through a special bottom flask and attached to a mixer equipped with a heating element. Water using such unit is warmed up to 40 degrees C.
The main difference - instantaneous heating water at the time of use. The need in the tank is no longer, therefore, the device dimensions are decreased.
The cold water entering the water-heater, must pass through special device for equalizing pressure, flow rate and air saturation. Further it passes through the heat exchanger where it is heated and goes to yield
The water temperature can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the pressure. The device is relatively inexpensive costs, saves energy, it is not necessary to look for a special place for its installation. Range electric models flow type huge, allowing you to make the best choice.
The main disadvantage - high power. Up to 8 kW, you can do the usual socket with a voltage of 220 V. The other is connected to separate power lines with 3-phase power supply. For taking a shower installation require instantaneous water heater capacity of at least 8 kW, or even higher.
Instantaneous water heater operates only when the flow of water therethrough. The volume of heated water from the heat exchanger area depends
Since the problem of instantaneous water heater does not include the storage of hot water, the dimensions of it are small, which is very attractive for the owners of small spaces
Protochnikov weighty disadvantage is the formation of scale on the inner walls of the tubes, whereby the performance sharply falls
The main advantage of the flow of equipment recognize its ability to work as much hot water is needed
The specifics of the flow-through type
Small dimensions protochnikov
Disadvantages of devices flow action
The advantage of flow models
If the electric quality, then as an option, you can connect several devices ranging from 3 to 8 kW. In the houses of the old type of connection of such devices is problematic. It is better to use the storage heater without creating a heavy load on the electricity network.
Instantaneous water heaters, as well as storage, divided into 2 types: non-pressure and pressure. Devices of the second type of cut into the pipes of hot and cold water, then warm water will flow from any tap in the house.
An excellent solution for owners of apartments that are not connected to the centralized hot water supply networks, is flow device on the crane. He quickly prepare sanitary water for the sinks in kitchens and bathrooms. Turn on and off appliances automatically in response to fluid pressure.
Deciding to purchase flow-through water heater, decide for what purpose you need it. Based on this, select the device on the required performance and capacity
Non-pressure flow devices have a maximum capacity of 8 kW. They can provide hot water only 1 point at a time. If you want to hot water flowed from every tap, then install water heater have on each of them.
Although these models are less pressure, but for a large house or apartment to buy them is not necessary, and for the cottages, which live only in the summer, they are like well.
Less portable flow water heating equipment is to work only at one point. But the amount of water heats up quickly without the inclusion of the core network. The temperature is controlled by increasing or decreasing the pressure
Criteria for selection of the gas flow heaters present next article, With the content which we encourage you to read.
Safe operation of the equipment
The main element in ensuring the safe operation of the storage water heater is a thermocouple. It automatically turns off the heating element after heating the water to a predetermined temperature. Thermocouple consists of two conductors having a different resistance.
If a thermocouple for some reason ceased to function, the safety valve comes into operation. It is set at the input, it is composed of a valve spring being in a relaxed state at a system pressure to 7 atm.
Once the pressure reaches a critical value, the spring is compressed under its influence and opens the drain hole. Part of the hot water flows, the pressure inside the tank decreases.
When choosing a water heater should pay attention to its protection class, especially when often the water off. The best choice in this case will be closed type water heaters with an IP 24 protection class, IP 25.
The instantaneous water heater is responsible for the safety of the pressure sensor. He turns off the heating elements automatically when the pressure drop in the water at the time of closing the valve.
For information on how to correctly use a water heater, you can read here. Compliance with the rules of operation significantly extends the service life of equipment.
The criteria for comparison of water heaters
Manufacturers are constantly upgrading their products, produce improved models. Comfort in the house will depend on how well you will be able to choose a water heater. To a large extent determined by the reliability of the equipment, which company produced it.
An important issue facing the customer, is suited to your water heater in all respects. To make a correct choice, you need to know the main evaluation criteria.
To objectively evaluate the advantages of the model water heater, you need to compare the following parameters:
- Volume. Tank capacity may be different. The greatest demand for units with an average volume of storage - 30-100 l.
- Power. In qualitative models is far from small.
- Type heating element. It can be in the form of a spiral or PETN.
- Presence of "sacrificial" anode.
- Electrical class.
- Popularity producer.
Last but not least there is also the unit price, but in the pursuit of cheapness do not forget about quality. Excessive saving can result in many problems during the operation.
Overview of manufacturers of aggregates storage type
For manufacturers, it has long earned the trust of consumers, primarily include company Ariston. Water heaters at quite affordable price, feature a stylish design, has an impressive list of advanced features, high degree of safety.
Against electric shock in case of breakdown of the tank protects cutoff mechanism, there is a special valve which is triggered by elevated pressure.
The new model of water heater Ariston VELIS PLUS INOX attracts elegant design. It is equipped with two tanks of stainless steel with individual heating elements, touch screen.
The leading place occupies and European manufacturer Thermex, in particular in high demand model ID 50 V. It has compact size, good design, low power. There is a return and safety valves. There is this model a serious drawback - the tank is exposed to corrosion, since he has a weak anti-corrosion coating.
Bosch name of the company in many brings to mind the concept of reliability. Its products have always led the table heaters ranking in the world market. Devices of this manufacturer are durable, comfortable settings, optimum power and appropriate price, high quality warranted.
There are 3 categories of products Bosch:: Basic, Comfort, Top, each distinguished by a high performance and cost.
Products of Czech firm-manufacturer Drazice storage water heaters also have positive feedback. They are intended for heating water to 95 degrees C in large quantities - at least 90 liters at a time. Models have a good protection against corrosion, low heat loss.
DRAZICE company has released a new line of water heaters OKHE SMART. Their main feature - the presence of "smart" thermostat
The Swedish company Electrolux also produces water heaters with excellent performance. Particularly popular model CENTURIO EWH 80, equipped with a spacious tank of stainless steel (80 L), the tubular heater. It is distinguished by excellent thermal insulation and stylish design.
No, this model only anode protects the tank and the heater from corrosion. Chose the Electrolux models, it is necessary to make sure that they are not collected in China.
Manufacturers instantaneous water heaters
For owners of small apartments are a good choice heaters, manufactured by AEG, but with the condition that there is a new wiring. All parts of the device, to which possibly entering water spray tank have a corrosion-resistant coating material has shockproof characteristics.
For individual consumers drawback is the large power consumption and high cost.
Electric instantaneous water heaters AEG fit even in limited space. On its front panel has a temperature regulator
Electrolux, except nakopitelnyh water heaters, manufactures and flow models. Their advantage is security, intuitive interface, ease of installation. Based on some reviews, the heating elements do not differ durability.
Polaris Mercury attracts streamlined shape, which allows to install the device in any location. The water heats quickly. Some inexpensive models have little efficiency, the limit for them - 40 degrees C.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Video author gives an objective assessment of the instantaneous and storage water heaters. Talks about the pros and cons of each, based on our own experience:
Professional advice on choosing a water heater, depending on the material of the tank, you will hear when watching this video:
It is difficult to make a choice in this variety of water heaters. But the guide should serve their own needs and the reliability of the electrical wiring. If you want a truly reliable, high-quality equipment, do not skimp on price.
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