Gasoline generator: choice, types and maintenance.
Many faced the problem of power failure. Someone wanted to make an illuminated garage, someone dreamed of electricity in a country house, and someone was very annoyed by frequent outages and swings in the electricity grid. With the purchase of a gasoline generator, these problems can be left in the past. The device does not take up much space. It is easy to maintain and is an autonomous source of electricity. It remains to determine which gasoline generator is best to choose.
- 1The device and application of a gasoline generator
2What you need to consider when choosing
- 2.1Video: which gasoline generator is best purchased for a dacha or a country house
- 2.2Table: Approximate values of power of household equipment
3Types and types of generators
- 3.1Generator engine types
- 3.2Table: Determining the mode of using the generator
4Connecting to the network
- 4.1Conditions necessary to connect the gasoline generator
- 4.2Photogallery: connection of the generator to the house network
- 4.3Video: how to connect a gasoline generator to the network
- 4.4Operation of the generator
- 4.5Video: how to use a gasoline generator
5Causes of malfunctions of the gasoline generator and their elimination
- 5.1Video: disassembly of gasoline generator
- 5.2Video: device assembly
The device and application of a gasoline generator
The gasoline generator is a mobile power plant designed for both main and backup power supply. The gas generator can provide continuous uninterrupted operation for 5-10 hours.
Such a gasoline power plant consists of an internal combustion engine and an electric generator. The engine in the gasoline generators can be two-stroke or four-stroke and, as a rule, with an air or liquid cooling system.
With frequent cases of power cuts or drops, such a generator will be irreplaceable. It will also be reasonable to install a gasoline station in places where there is no electricity. Such places include garages, gardens and others.
Generation of electric power in stations of this type occurs due to the drive into rotation of the shaft of the generator by the shaft of the internal combustion engine. Unlike diesel engines, gasoline power plants will ensure uninterrupted operation at low air temperatures. In addition, the gasoline generator will be much more compact than diesel. But if you need a large output power, it would be more expedient to use a device with a diesel engine.
What you need to consider when choosing
- The correct choice of gasoline generator directly depends on the consumers connected to it and their capacity. If the connected devices exceed the nominal power of the station, there will be an overload of the generator.
- If the connected consumers are three-phase, the gasoline generator should also be selected as three-phase. To this station, you can connect both three-phase and single-phase devices. It is worth remembering that most gasoline generators are limited by the permissible load for each phase up to 30 percent. Therefore users of three-phase stations should be connected evenly. If all connected devices have one phase, then their choice of station should be stopped on a single-phase generator.
- The gas generator should be chosen so that its power exceeds the power of all consumers connected to it. If the power of the station is not selected correctly, the network will be overloaded, which will cause the generator to stop completely. In addition, because of this, fuel consumption will increase. But the service life will be significantly reduced due to the operation of the station at the maximum level.
- For resistive consumers any generator with the required power will work, as these devices completely convert the consumed energy into heat and light. Such devices include electric stoves and incandescent lamps.
- Inductive devices are driven by an electric motor. They consume more energy, because a part of the power is lost due to the friction of the winding. Such consumers include pumps and compressors.
- The most sensitive consumers of current capacity are capacitive devices. To connect them use only asynchronous generators. Such consumers include discharge lamps and flash lamps.
After starting up the equipment, an intermediate current may briefly arise in the system, which can greatly exceed the power of the generator..
Video: which gasoline generator is best purchased for a dacha or a country house
Table: Approximate values of power of household equipment
|Fridge||, kW||Microwave||1 kW|
|TV||, 8 kW||Electric kettle||2 kW|
|Washer||, kW||A vacuum cleaner||, kW|
|Iron||1 kW||Incandescent lamp||, 4 kW|
|LCD Monitor||, 2, 6 kW||CRT monitor||, 7 kW|
Types and types of generators
According to the principle of the electric generator, the stations are synchronous and asynchronous.
- Synchronous generators - such plants have a lower quality of current. They are subjected to the accumulation of water and moisture due to the air cooling system. Nevertheless, synchronous installations are more resistant to short-term overloading of the system. This type of generator is suitable for connecting dacha equipment and construction sites.
- Asynchronous generators - such machines maintain the voltage in the network with particular accuracy. Their body is closed and protected from moisture and dust. They also do not need air cooling. Asynchronous generators are not subjected to short circuits, but are subject to overloads. Such stations are suitable for connecting computers, medical equipment, welding installations and other electrical equipment.
Generator engine types
By type of engine, generators are divided into gasoline and diesel. Diesel generators consume much less fuel and have a great motor resource, although gasoline stations are cheaper and affordable..
Diesel fuel does not require special storage conditions and is much cheaper than gasoline. But at low temperatures, the gasoline generator will work more efficiently. In addition, in cold air, diesel generators often experience start-up problems, so fuel must be preheated for them..
Table: Determining the mode of using the generator
|engine's type||Motor Resource||advantages||Operating mode|
|Petrol engines with air
cooling, 3000 rpm
|1000-2000 m / h||Lowest cost
the ratio watt / ruble.
Low noise level
|Reserve or emergency source of power supply, when operating up to 100 operating hours per year. Or as a permanent source for a period of up to 2 months.|
|Diesel engines with air
cooling, 3000 rpm
|2500-3000 m / h||Twice more resource than
Low response to load drop. Reliable launch.
|Emergency power supply for operation in places without gasoline or for emergency work.|
|Diesel engines with liquid
cooling, 3000 rpm
|7000-10000 m / h||Rapid engine warm-up
before connecting the load.
|Reserve power supply, when operating up to 1000 hours of work per year. Or as a permanent source for a period of up to 6-9 months.|
|Diesel engines with liquid
cooling, 1500 rpm
|15000-20000 mph||High service life. Economical.
Low noise and vibration.
|Reserve and permanent source of supply for a long time (about 10 and 2 years respectively).|
Connecting to the network
Self-connection of a gasoline generator to the grid will be a difficult task if there is no initial knowledge and experience in this matter. In general, connecting such a station to the house network should not cause any special problems, but without any skills, it will be better to call specialists. Before installation, it is necessary to study the installation passport and all technical parameters.
Conditions necessary to connect the gasoline generator
- To accommodate the generator it is necessary to choose a special ventilated room with soundproofing.
- To the electrical distribution house of the house you need to connect all the necessary wires of the station.
- To the network, you need to connect a changeover switch for the three operating modes. This will make the generator operation more convenient.
Having fulfilled these requirements, you can proceed to the launch of the equipment.
Photogallery: connection of the generator to the house network
Video: how to connect a gasoline generator to the network
Operation of the generator
When operating the gasoline generator it is required to strictly control the time of its operation. You can not allow the station to work above the established rate. Before each start-up of the unit, it is necessary to check the oil and fuel levels in the tank. If necessary, replenish the levels to the permissible level. It is possible to replenish the oil and fuel only when the cooling unit is stopped. Fuel and oil to the generator should be selected so that it meets the technical requirements of the device.
Periodically, it is necessary to replace the filters and spark plugs. When the gas generator generates its own service life, major repairs must be carried out.
It is forbidden to adapt the device from one operating voltage to another. If the generator is designed to connect the appropriate equipment with one voltage to it, devices that work from another voltage should not be attempted to connect. When connecting a generator of complex household appliances to a network, a voltage regulator should be installed.
Video: how to use a gasoline generator
Causes of malfunctions of the gasoline generator and their elimination
Often there is a problem that the generator does not start or stall. This can occur due to a loss of spark, fuel supply and gas distribution faults or due to breakage of mechanical parts.
- The spark may disappear if the ignition coil, the candle cap, or the candle itself is burnt. You need to take a new candle, lean it against the ground and spin the engine. If there is no spark, replace the candle cap. If the spark does not appear, you need to check the lock and the ignition coil.
- Problems with fuel supply arise when the fuel system and its elements are clogged up or because of poor-quality fuel. To adjust the fuel system, you need to clean the carburetor and fuel injection needles.
- If the valve's thermal gaps are too large, the gas distribution mechanism will malfunction, forming a deposit. This will prevent the starting of the generator and its high-quality work. In this case, you need to adjust the thermal gaps of the valves with a special feeler gauge.
- Often the gasoline generator can smoke. This means that the oil from the crankcase of the engine enters the combustion chamber of the cylinder. This is due to the wear of the piston or cylinder. To fix this problem, you need to replace the cylinder and piston.
- There may be a problem that the engine of the gasoline generator works stably, but the unit does not produce an electric current. This happens if the winding of the excitation of the generator is burnt, the wiring closes, there are problems in the stator and rotor, or the diodes are faulty. If the inverter card is faulty, the gas generator can produce too small or too large a current value.
- Due to the wear of the crankshaft gear components, the generator motor can make knocking. Also, if the oil level in the crankcase is not controlled in a timely manner, a wedge of the engine may occur due to the formation of carbon deposits on the cranks and in the combustion chambers.
It is worth remembering that periodically it is necessary to replace the oil-removal and sealing rings of the piston..
In order to perform repair work on your own, you need to know how to properly disassemble the generator.
Video: disassembly of gasoline generator
When self-disassembling the gasoline station, you must observe the sequence of removal of parts. If any parts of the systems can not be removed, it is recommended to use special keys.
Assembly of the generator after repair is also important to produce correctly..
It is worth remembering that when disassembling on many gaskets, a break may occur. When assembling the engine, check the integrity of all gaskets and replace the damaged ones..
Video: device assembly
Thus, when choosing a gasoline generator it is necessary to take into account not only its parameters and characteristics, but also the type of devices that will be connected to it. With proper operation and periodic troubleshooting, such a station will last a long time..