Dried or fresh, chopped or whole, beans are a favorite food for many. Planting beans does not cause difficulties for gardeners, it is easy to grow, and the range of plant sizes means that there is room for growing it in almost any garden. Useful properties of string beans are polyhedral. All its species belong to the family of legumes. It is no less remarkable culture than peas. The homeland of the string bean is Central and South America, where even now its wild thickets are found..
- Planting beans
- Diseases and pests of green beans
- Harvesting beans
- Useful properties of beans
Like peas, it is divided according to its purpose for cereals and vegetables. Grain is very widely distributed in world agriculture in many countries (Mexico, USA, Bulgaria, Hungary, etc.), is one of the main food crops. In our country, beans from the middle of the XVIII century began to grow in the beginning, as a decorative culture, and then as a vegetable. It is appreciated for its high nutritional, taste, medicinal, and useful properties.
If the grain beans for food are ripe, dry seeds, then the pods have unripe beans, unripe seeds in boiled form. It's about it will be discussed. It can easily be planted and grown on the site even beginner horticultural amateur.↑ to the contents ↑.
String beans are more demanding for soil fertility than vegetable peas. For its planting, fertile, sufficiently provided with humus, structural soils that do not condense after heavy rains are needed. On insufficiently fertile soils, the bean beans will be coarse. Soils are depleted, acidic, moist, with standing groundwater, above 1 m from the surface, are unfit for it..
In the non-chernozem zone of Russia, the best soils for green beans are sandy loam, light loamy. She loves sites with a slope to the south or south-west, protected from northern or northeasterly cold winds, well warmed by the sun, clean from weeds. On the territory of Central Russia, it grows well on light sandy loamy soils. And in the South of the Chernozem zone - on light or heavy chernozem-loamy soils.
The high intensity of light in the south makes it possible to place bean crops between rows of fruit trees or vineyards. Sometimes when planting it is used as a sealant for cabbage, potatoes, cucumbers.
An amateur grower may have observed that some vegetable plants, when grown with their root or leaf isolates, depress each other. So, it usually does not grow well together with rutabaga and peas, cucumber and tomato, tomato and turnip, spinach and radish. Beans are also inhibited by onions or celery, which is explained by the biological characteristics of these species, the specificity of growing, etc.
But with potatoes, it grows well. Some truck farmers, noticing such "good neighborly relations arrange a combined crop: a number of stringed bush beans, and then one row of potatoes or beets. The distance between the rows is 40-45 cm. When these plants are combined, from such a neighborhood, only a little bit of beetroot suffers, but the potato is less affected by the Colorado beetle.
The precursors for beans are the same as for peas: tilled (potatoes, vegetables, melons, melons), corn, etc. To avoid disease, pest damage, it is not sown in the same place before 4-5 years. The bean itself is a valuable precursor of all crops.
Soil cultivation is common for a particular zone. In the autumn the site is dug up. It is not recommended to sow a string bean according to spring plowing. In spring, the soil is harrowed by rakes: first to a depth of 10-15 cm, then before sowing - to the depth of sowing. Sour soils are calcareous (lime dose, kg / m 2). On soddy-podzolic, gray forest soils, leached chernozems, 2-4 kg / m 2 of manure are brought directly under beans in the fall. Phosphate-potassium fertilizers are best used for autumn plowing, nitrogen fertilizers for pre-sowing soil cultivation. Doses of mineral fertilizers are the same as for vegetable peas.
Plants of vegetable string beans develop well on moistened soil, but excess moisture is fatal, especially in the cold period. If the water covers the soil for 3-4 days, its crops die. Not suitable for planting low-lying areas, subject to the danger of frost. For vegetable beans, a loose, rapidly warming soil is needed, with a fine-grained texture. Before planting in spring, make 20-30 g / square. m potassium and 5-10 g / square. m nitrogen fertilizers (superphosphate is introduced in the fall at a rate of 20-30 g / sq. m).
Seeds for planting are selected, culling damaged or not varietal. Since vegetable string beans are a thermophilic crop, it is planted after the spring frosts have passed, at about the same time as cucumbers. Planting is started when the temperature of the soil at a depth of 10 cm is not lower than 8-10 ° C (the seeds begin to germinate at this temperature). Intimate germination occurs at 12-15 ° C, the optimum temperature is 20 ° C. At a temperature of 35 ° C, the seeds do not germinate.
For different zones, regions, the calendar time for planting is different. In the central regions of the Non-chernozem belt, the best sowing period is after May 20-25, for northern - early June. On small plots, they are sown 5-7 days earlier, since crops can be protected against frost. In Kuban, vegetable bean paddy is sown in the second half of April, in the Central Black Earth zone - in the second half of May..
On the vegetable gardens it is sown in row or nest way with a distance of 30-45 cm row from the row and 10-12 cm in the row. Depth of planting 2-3 cm on wet, 4-5 cm - on dry soils. On heavy clay soils with a close location of groundwater beans are sown on beds where the soil heats up more quickly. The ridges are laid with a width of 1 m.
In the square-socket method, the wells are preliminarily made, the seeds are sown according to the schemes 35 x 35, 40 x 40 cm, in each nest of 5-6 seeds. Two rows of three-row ribbons are spread along the beds, with distances between rows of 35-40 cm, in the row - 12-15 cm. Large seeds are sown 1-2 per well, and small seeds 3-4.
To accelerate the production of crops for 2-3 weeks, shrub forms of green beans are sown under film shelters, where the plants are, a month. The early products will be collected from their plot by those truck farmers who grow it with seedlings. In this case, the seeds are sown in peat bogs (8x8 cm) 3-4 weeks before planting in open ground or under film shelter.
After planting to tighten the moisture to the seeds (if the soil layer at the depth of the seeding is dry), the soil is slightly compacted, which ensures the appearance of amicable shoots. Under favorable conditions, they appear on the 5th-7th day, while immediately beginning to loosen the soil to a depth of 5-6 cm, and when the plants reach a height of 10-15 cm, they are slightly hilled.
Beans take cotyledons to the surface, shoots in the loop phase, breaking through the crust, break, so it is very important not to allow the formation of a crust. It will not be, if slightly moisten the soil.
When emergence occurs, deep loosening of rows is required to give air to the roots. This contributes to the vital activity of nitrogen-fixing nodule bacteria, growth, development of bean plants..
During the vegetation period 3-4 loosening, 1-2 feeding (the first nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers after emergence, the second with phosphorus-potassium ones - before budding) are carried out. On small plots, except for loosening, under dry weather conditions, the beans are watered cautiously, since excess moisture at the beginning of growth promotes the growth of the leaves to the detriment of flowering. Therefore, the plants are watered up to form 4-5 leaves, then watering is stopped, and renewed only at the beginning of flowering. During the flowering period, plantings of legumes are watered several times (in the evening or early in the morning). If the bean develops poorly, it is fed on the basis of 1 square. m - 2-3 grams of ammonium nitrate, potassium salt and 4-6 g superphosphate. To the crocheting or half-bred varieties put stakes or stamen (1 count for 2-4 plants) or tie up shoots to the trellis (support from the stakes with twisted between them rows of twine, wire or trellis grid)..
And one more obligatory method of taking care of plantings of green beans: the site where it grows, weed regularly - the weeds depress the growth of this plant, reduce the yield.↑ back to content ↑
Diseases and pests of green beans
This plant is affected by the same diseases and pests that peas, here the first concern of the vegetable grower is to seed only clean, uninfected seeds for sowing.
Bacteriosis, although it has limited distribution, is no less harmful in years with wet, warm summers than pea ascochitosis. The vegetable string bean is also affected by powdery mildew, rust, white rot, and other diseases. The main source of infection is contaminated seeds, so that the main thing in fighting disease is to obtain, preserve healthy seed material.
If you see a white film or whitish dust on some leaves or pods, these are the first signs of a mealy meal dew - without regret, tear off the affected shoot, even if it has pods or flowers, throw it away from your site.
If you have early signs of the disease, dilute the powder of milk powder (1 part of milk powder - 9 parts of water). Spray this solution of bean sprouts from below and from above. Repeat this procedure twice a week. This neutralizes the disease in the early stages, will prevent further contamination of the vegetable bean crops. You can alternate spraying with weak solutions of apple cider vinegar or baking soda. Most likely, by such measures you can restrain the infection before it spreads to all the plants.
Reduce the risk of disease compliance with crop rotation (return to their original place no earlier than 3 years), removal sick plants throughout the vegetative period, destruction of post-harvest residues; autumn deep digging site.
Here are the main measures in combating diseases of vegetable beans.↑ back to content ↑
Cleaning vegetable beans on the shovel begins when the seeds have reached the size of wheat grain, about 10 days after the formation of the ovaries.
The scapular and semi-sugar bean varieties are removed a little later, as it quickly coarsens. If belated, then the blades of these varieties should be left to full ripeness (for grain). With 1 square. m receive from, to, kg of blades, or 100-150 g of seeds. The varieties of twisted or semi-harvested blades and grain are higher.
Green beans are harvested several times in 3-6 days in the Central Non-Chernozem Zone of Russia, 1-2 days later in the southern regions. The best time for picking beans is early morning. In the hot time of the day, the scapula quickly fade, they lose their appearance. If beans are stored at a temperature of 15-20 degrees C, they lose 30-50% of vitamin C within two days.
The collected products must necessarily be processed or sold on the day of collection. The biggest harvest of green beans is obtained at the second and third gatherings.
Video "Vegetable beans on 6 hectare" from the site "Garden World↑ back to content ↑
Useful properties of beans
Vegetable beans consist of varieties with sugar beans, which are used for food immature.
Sugar beans are without a parchment layer and fibers are the most valuable, they are called asparagus, as they are used in boiled form, like asparagus. Such beans are tender fleshy, with high taste qualities.
Beans of vegetable beans (paddles) in technical ripeness contain up to 6% protein, vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, K, PP), sugars, mineral calcium salts, iron, other substances necessary for the body rights. It also found physiologically active beneficial substances that contribute to the preservation of human health. Particularly important was the Lima (Lunar) bean. It is believed that the useful properties of beans of this variety are superior in importance to other varieties. So far, only from her all legumes have been found agglutinins - substances that accumulate in the blood of a person when infectious diseases, causing gluing, precipitation of pathogens, other cellular elements. In other words, these elements play a big role for the immunity (immunity) of a person to certain infectious diseases. Experiments are being conducted on the use of bean phytohemagglutinin against cancers.
Studies have shown that extracts from green beans reduce the level of sugar in the blood.
Decoction of bean leaves is used for rheumatism, as a diuretic for swelling that occurs with kidney disease, heart failure. Useful green beans for liver disease. The valves of the beans are included in the fees recommended for the treatment of gout, urolithiasis, cystitis. Broth from the leaflets of beans and leaves of blueberries (equally) is prescribed for pancreatic disease. Essence from the whole plant, collected after the ripening of the fruit, is applied by homeopathy.
Green pods - asparagus beans - can be especially useful because of the content of mineral silicon. Green beans are a good source of easily digestible silicon.
Green beans contain a wide range of carotenoids and flavonoids, which have antioxidant properties.
Most of the nutritional proteins, microelements contain beans no more than a centimeter in length. Moreover, they are the owners of the most harmonious taste..
When raw beans get into the body, substances that are harmful to our body and which can cause poisoning are released into the body during digestion. Therefore, it can not be eaten raw or undercooked.