Peking duck is one of the most common breeds in the world. Meat was bred by selection in the XVIII century in Beijing. It quickly spread throughout China and took a dominant position. After a while the bird was brought to America and Europe. Due to its high productivity and excellent meat qualities, the Peking duck has supplanted many native breeds and today it is bred at home..
Table of contents
- Breed description
- Conditions of maintenance and cultivation
- Characteristics of the breed
- Breeding and feeding
- Diseases and Care
- Goiter diseases
- Pasteurellosis or cholera
- Advantages and disadvantages of the Beijing breed of ducks
Torsohas an elongated and uplifted appearance.Body typepowerful, the chest is wide, the back is long, the tail is raised. A large, high head is on a thick curved neck, a convex frontal part. Low thicklegsare located closer to the tail part and have an orange-red color.Wingsstrong, fit tightly to the trunk, stand out by their power and large scope. Dark blue, large, shiny
Peking duck is characterized byrestless temperament, which is explained by its rapidly excitable nervous system. The bird often screams that it gives little trouble to some breeders. To avoid noise for ducks create favorable and quiet conditions of existence, if all external stimuli are eliminated, the bird behavescalm and quiet..
Conditions of maintenance and cultivation
The cultivation of Peking ducks, both in industrial and in personal plots, is rathersimple and profitablea business. Knowing the basic nuances and respectingcontent requirementsand feeding can achieve success in record time.
On an industrial basisthe bird is kept in specially equipped premises.Poultry are equippedartificial lighting, heating, automatic feed and water. The microclimate is monitored, and all sanitary and hygienic standards are observed.
In household plotsPeking ducks build poultry houses or adapt existing premises. The bird house should be made ofbricks, without cracks and holes. If possible, the room is insulated, which reduces the cost of heating in the winter. Heat should not go through the roof or the floor, if the windows are old, then they must be sealed. Are not allowed rooms with earthen or wooden floors. Floors are made of concrete.Good Flooringnot only will keep heat, but also will not allow penetration into the shed of rats, which are capable of inflicting irreparable harm on the bird.
Lazis done in the south side, the hole should be well closed by the door and is at a height of 5-8 cm from the floor. The height is 30-40 cm, and the width is 40 cm. If the duck is contained on the litter, the climb is increased by 20-40 cm. To obtain high productivity birds need normal lighting. Artificial lighting is set at a rate of 1 square meter of floor 5 watts. Reflectors are hung on bulbs. Concerningnatural lighting, then for 1 sq. km. m of the floor should go 100 cm2 of windows. In winter, due to lack of light, the egg production decreases, so the daylight is extended to 12 hours per day due toartificial lighting.
In each house must bejacks, they are made from plywood or tes.Parameters of the normal socket:40х50, height of 50 cm. At the entrance to the nest, a threshold of 8-10 cm is made. Sockets are located on the side walls of the house in darkened places so that the duck is not disturbed by other birds.
Feeders are made of wood, the thickness of which is 2-2.5 cm. Since birds often scatter feed, the top is fixed on top so that the duck can not climb inside.Feeder length for adult birds- 110 cm, and for the young 100. Width for adults is 23 cm, for young animals is 14.5 cm. Feeders are made with several compartments, so that you can give out mineral fodder. It is recommended to use vacuum drinkers for both young and adult individuals.
In the summer, the Peking duck is expedientto keep on the heightsand drive into the room only for the night. On the ramp, as in the poultry house,feeders, and if there is no access to the reservoir, thendrinkers. Summer content allows you to cut costs of funds from grass and reduce labor costs per unit of output.
In the housedrafts are not allowed. In winter, the temperature should not drop below 5 ° C.Optimal temperaturein the poultry house 16 ° С, at a humidity of 60-70%. Due to the downy cover ducks carry frosts and keep the heat at the expense of their own body. Low temperatures are poorly tolerated if the bird has dirty plumage. Cleanliness of ducks directly depends on the condition of the house, which must be regularly cleaned and ventilated. Asdeep beddingand use sawdust, straw, shavings and flax truffle. Deep litter maintains a normal climate in the poultry house, absorbs moisture well and releases heat, due to the decomposition of organic substances. In a year on 1 head goes 20 kg of litter.Placement rateon 1 square. m: 2-3 adults or 6-8 young animals.
In addition to the outdoor content of Peking ducks can also be grown in cages.Cells are placedin the poultry house in several tiers, the floor is made of racks or net so that the legs of the bird do not fall through the holes. With this content, the ducks eat well, move little and grow rapidly, which makes it possible to obtainprofitmuch faster..
Characteristics of the breed
Live weight of drake- 3.6-4.2 kg,ducks- 3.4-3.9 kg. At 2 months old, the young weighs 2.2-2.6 kg. Ducks begin to lay eggs in 23 weeks, laying duration 42 days, hatchability - 85-88%.Eggplant- 100-140 eggs per year. Eggs are large - 85-90 g.Shell Thickness 8 mm. High egg laying persists for 2-3 years. Daily need for feed per head is 340 g. Slaughter yield - 67%.Body temperature4, ° C, ducks breathe with a frequency of 30-34 respiratory movements per minute. For 1 drake, 5 ducks are fixed, i.e. the family consists of 6 individuals..
Breeding and feeding
When feeding the Peking duck, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the structure of this breed. Beijing ducks have acceleratedmetabolism. A small intestine promotes rapid assimilation of food (for 4 hours). Given these nuances, the bird must be constantly provided with food, which, in turn, contributes to quick weight gain..
Beijing ducks are goodgrow on ground feedand feed. The ratio of feed to water is 1k4. One adult per day accounts for an average of 1 liter of water per day. Birds are sensitive to changes in food and violations of feeding regimes.
Feedingoccurs 3 times a day. In the morning and in the day, wet forages are given, and in the evening grain crops, in accordance with the norms and rations of feeding.Mashankaprepared immediately before feeding and given fresh, in no case can not feed sour foods. During feeding, the bird should be freeaccess to water. On average, a duck per day should receive 80 g of oats, 75 g of barley, 60 g of bran, 40 g of fodder beet, 15 grams lentils or peas, 40 g of greens, 11 g of animal feed, 4 g of bone meal, 9 g of chalk and 1 g table salt.
Feeding of the chicks begins after the plumage has dried.In the early daysgive a crushed boiled egg, you can with the addition of cottage cheese.After a few daysin the diet is introduced starter feed and finely chopped greens. Feed the kids need at least 5 times a day. As a mineral fertilizer, a milled egg shell is suitable.Youngshould be provided with vitamin supplementation.
Diseases and Care
In spite of the fact that the Peking ducks belong to the persistent breeds of birds, they are still subject to somediseases.
Whenberiberibirds become sluggish, appetite disappears, coordination of movement is disturbed, growth is slowed, wings are sagging, eyes become inflamed, convulsions appear and liquid from nostrils will secrete. Lack of vitamin D can lead to rickets. A balanced diet is the only way to combat avitaminosis and if a bird has symptoms of disease, it means that there is a lack of an element in the feed.
The cause of the disease may besticky feed, ingestion of foreign objects or large food. If the bird is not immediately helped, then the ailment can go to the chronic stage and the goiter will cease to shrink. When blocking the goiter it is necessary to try to clean it yourself, keeping the duck by the legs upside down. If the problem is serious, it is highly recommended that you callvet, who will perform a dissection of goiter.
Infection, leading to lethargy, reduced egg production, poor appetite and a bloody foamy stool. It is transferred through food and equipment for feeding. The first diseased individual must be isolated from the common herd. To prevent coccidiosis, coccidin and sulfadimezine are added to the water.Infected poultry housedisinfect with a 3% formalin solution and a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
This disease most often affects the ducklings and can lead to a largethe fall of the young. When aspergillosis ducks hard to breathe, wheezing appears, a liquid is released from the beak, birds convulsively swallow air, appetite decreases, growth slows down, paralysis of legs or wings is possible. To eliminate the disease, all remains of the food and litter are thrown away, the inventory and poultry house are disinfected. The feed is addednystatin, and in water solution, 5%copper sulphate.
Pasteurellosis or cholera
This disease, although infrequent, but very serious. Ittransmittedthrough air, food and inventory. When cholera is a disease in ducks, apathy occurs, body temperature rises, thirst develops and appetite disappears, foamy secretions, a liquid stool with blood come from the nose. Infected birds are killed, the place of their stay is disinfected.Healthy but contact birdswith infected individuals, enter biomycin, and give sulfadimezin..
Advantages and disadvantages of the Beijing breed of ducks
- Goodadaptto cold weather.
- Uncomprehending infeeding.
- With content there is no acute need forwater bodies.
- Ducks are not prone toincubating.
- Sick andfall to their feetin dampness.
Peking duck- this is one of the best and unpretentious meat breeds. It is distinguished by a highproductivityand goodmeat qualities. Ideal for industrial and domestic breeding, and due to precocity, the profit period is reduced by several times compared to other breeds.
Beijing duck is the best option if you want to breed meat.Gutted Carcassweighs 2-2.5 kg. Young meat is very tasty and not hard. A normal percentage of fat, it's just a little and, at the same time, the meat is not dry. It is better to bring out in an incubator, since there is little use for a hen. Out of 10 eggs, on average, 8 healthy and viable chicks hatch. ATthe stern of the Peking ducksLimit should not be, but also to give a lot of food is also not necessary, because they like to throw it.Watershould be constantly, and if there is a possibility, it is better to let out on a pond. If you plant for yourself, then by autumn you can get a full duck ready for slaughter.
White beautiful Peking ducks have become a favorite breed of many farmers. Theydo not require special expensesfor maintenance and feeding. Ducks a year give120 eggs, which are perfectly incubated. They grow very quickly, and at 2 monthsWeight of ducksalready reaches 3 kg. Food is consumed moderately, and if you buy modern feeders, then its consumption will be much reduced. Birds well toleratelow temperatures, and in the warmed-up house it is necessary to heat only at strong frosts. In general, it is very profitable to grow Peking ducks, and most importantly, that quickly and with minimal costs of money and care..