Any peppers, sweet or Bulgarian, sharp or semi-ostrich - heat-loving plants. Therefore, take your time with the planting of seedlings in film greenhouses. Air temperature below 10 ° C will delay the development of plants for 10-15 days. That is, pepper will not die, but its development will stop. How to plant pepper seedlings? An important point - the planting of pepper sprouts should be done at a time when it is possible to ensure its protection from recurrent short-term frosts.
- Preparation of beds
- How to plant pepper seedlings correctly
- Protection of pepper seedlings from frosts
- Seed dressings
- Fighting pest pests in the greenhouse
Preparation of beds
In the greenhouse, I usually do 80 cm wide so that you can make two or even three rows (depending on the variety). Row width - 30-40 cm.
How should we prepare the soil of the garden before planting pepper seedlings?
It is necessary to dig it or loosen it on the day of planting the seedlings. Experts do not advise doing this in advance. Abundantly water the soil so that it is well saturated with moisture. Depending on the acidity of the soil, dolomite flour should be added if the soil is acidic, as well as mineral fertilizers, compost and other nutrients.
Very good for pepper seedlings, if a warm bed was formed, that is, at a depth of 20-30 cm Autumn was laid manure or dry grass, branches, plant remains to ensure that the soil was warm.
But in any case, pepper does not like sour soils, so it will never be superfluous to make dolomite flour. It is paid at the rate of 100-150 g per 1 square. meter beds. This, by the way, is a very good fertilizer, it is very evenly dispersed over the soil surface. Dolomite flour absorbs moisture well (like salt), so keep it in a sealed container.
Then we add complex fertilizers to the bed - nitrofosku or nitroammofosku, you can Kemir Universal (something one of the listed) - 50-70 g per 1 sq. Km. meter. And if you have compost or rotted (!) Manure - for pepper is fertilizer number 1, then you can make them. Pepper is very responsive, like no other culture, to the introduction of organic. Try to evenly distribute all fertilizers on the surface of the earth. Then gently rake the soil with scattered dolomite flour and fertilizers.
If you have a compost or a few over-ripe manure, you can put it directly into the wells.
Now proceed to marking our beds. From what kind of pepper we will plant - low or tall - it depends how thickly we will plant the seedlings and what kind of plant beds to plant. For example, a low-growing variety of Winnie the Pooh advise you to plant closer to the side wall of the greenhouse. There will be more light for him and tall plants will not overshadow him. A medium-sized variety - Tenderness, Fidelity, Medal - after stunted, away from the side wall.
So, let's mark the beginning of our garden for three rows of plants. I remind you - the width of the garden is 80 cm. Dig holes in the spade bayonet. In each hole, we bring in a good handful of overgrown manure or compost. Then it is good to mix the soil with compost or manure in the hole. Remember that pepper is a light-loving plant, thickened plantings will not add to you harvest, on the contrary - plants will grow very poorly.↑ back to content ↑
How to plant pepper seedlings correctly
Each well is watered with water with potassium permanganate and proceed to planting.
Plants grown in 500-gram seedlings have a well-developed root system. Seedlings of pepper at landing do not deepen, after all at picks, we have already sunk it to seven-leaf leaves..
Short-ripened low-growing varieties, for example, Winnie the Pooh, are planted at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other in three rows.
Then we will plant medium-sized varieties, such as Tenderness, Swallow. To do this, mark our garden in two rows. The holes are also digging deep into the spade bayonet, and the distance between them is 25-35 cm. Of course, here we also add organic substances - compost, manure or their mixture. By the way, you can add a little (handful) of wood ash. Ash is generally an ideal fertilizer not only for pepper, but also for many garden crops. Do not forget before planting seedlings well to shed holes well pink solution of potassium permanganate. It's not bad if the solution is warm, even hot..
The depth of planting of medium-sized varieties is the same as those of undersized ones. That is, we do not deepen the seedlings, but try to plant them to the depth of the pot. The moment of planting seedlings is stress for plants, but if we did everything right, you will not notice any signs of wilting.
If you transplant seedlings in hot weather, then plants should be shaded, for example, a newspaper. In general, planting should be done best in the early morning or in the afternoon, towards evening.
When planting seedlings of tall varieties, we mark the bed also in two rows, but between the plants we will leave a distance of at least 40-50 cm. We try to make holes for these varieties deeper, because we need more food for these varieties and hybrids. Compost and overripe manure for them will require significantly more - 1/3 buckets per well.↑ back to content ↑
Protection of pepper seedlings from frosts
How to protect the planted seedlings from frost? I usually set the arcs and cover the seedlings with a spunbond or lutrasil - a light covering material. By the way, the arc can and should not be installed, because the material is light enough, it will not break the plants, besides the seedlings are in the greenhouse, which means there will be no wind here.
Thus, we will protect our seedlings not only from frosts, but from short-term cooling. And we already know that the pepper feels very uncomfortable when the air temperature is below + 10 ° С..
What top dressing of pepper plants after planting should be done? It can be mineral and organic top dressing.
The first fertilization of pepper seedlings is carried out not earlier, weeks after landing it in a greenhouse.
Mineral dressing(per 10 l of water):
- ammonium nitrate 10-15 g,
- superphosphate double -30-40 g,
- potassium sulphate - 10-15 g,
- Calcium nitrate - 20 g.
Organic top dressing: infusion of mullein in water (1 part Mullein soak in 4 parts water for 5-7 days, then add 4 more water, mix and use for fertilizing).
Alternate mineral and organic top dressing with an interval of 10-15 days.
Often you can see that at a certain stage of development the leaves of the seedling begin to turn yellow. Flowers and ovaries may fall off. One of the reasons is the lack of potassium and magnesium. The lack of these elements is well compensated for foliar top dressing during flowering and tying fruit with an ash solution and a solution of English salt (sold in pharmacies as a laxative).
Preparation of the ash solution - 100 g of ash per 10 liters of water.
Top dressing with magnesium - 1 teaspoon of English salt for 250 ml of water.↑ back to content ↑
Fighting pest pests in the greenhouse
Peach aphid, spider mite, whitefly- the main most common pests on the pepper plants in the greenhouse. The crop losses from them can reach 30%.
Aphids reproduce with incredible rapidity. During the week its number increases by 30-40 times. The aphid colonies are located on shoots, leaves, flowers, causing leaf stiffness, delay growth, fruits are often formed underdeveloped.
Ordinary spider mite is the most dangerous and widespread pest of many greenhouse crops. It often infects peppers. Even semi-sharp and sharp varieties. Ticks populate the underside of leaves more often, braiding them with a noticeable spider web, sucking out the juice of plants. On leaves, harm from a spider mite is manifested in the form of light spots, which eventually become brown and wither.
Ants are the first mulberry peddlers. They feed on sweetish secretions of aphids, protect colonies of aphids from entomophages, scaring off these useful insects. One effective way to deal with ants is to decompose baits, eating which ants stop multiplying and perishing.
The recipe for bait to kill ants:
- boric acid or borax - 1 teaspoonful,
- powdered sugar - 1 teaspoon,
- boiled chicken yolk - 1 pc.,
All mix, knead, divide into small balls (1cm) and arrange them in a greenhouse.
Of course, you know such chemical preparations as Carbophos (30 g per 10 liters of water), Aktellik (25-30 g per 10 l water), Hostakvik (10-15 g per 10 liters of water), Decis (10-15 g per 10 liters of water), which has a very strong effect on aphid.
To combat the spider mite, the following drugs are effective: Carbophos (30 g per 10 liters of water), Acrex (10-15 g per 10 liters of water), Keltan (15-20 g per 10 liters of water), Arrivo (25-30 g per 10 liters of water).
With whitefly, it is best to fight with Appload (5-10 g per 10 liters of water)..
The material was added on March 29, 2016.