The system of water heating equipped with many homes. In practice, both after construction and the subsequent operation of municipal housing, pressure testing of heating systems is always done.
This is usually done by professional structures - Housing and communal services and similar organizations. Is it possible to pressurize the heating system with your own hands, for example, for the owner of a private house?
We will help you understand this question. The article describes in detail the range of activities that allow identifying the “weak points” of the heating network. Practical recommendations for testing and crimping the system in different ways are also given.
The content of the article:
- Tasks of pressure testing of heating in the house
How is a leak test performed?
- The subtleties of the test process
- Other important test points
- Pneumatic crimping method
- Checking steam and panel heating systems
- Heat test heating systems
- The act of holding the crimp
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Tasks of pressure testing of heating in the house
Regardless of the scheme heating system organization (centralized or decentralized), the requirements of SNiP provide for the technical preparation of such systems for commissioning.
This includes a whole list of works performed at the stage before the heating equipment is put into operation, as well as works that must be performed at the service stage.
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Pressure testing of the heating system is performed in order to ensure the reliability of the connections and the operability of the communications.
In the period of installation work, crimping the autonomous network is carried out twice. Previously, in order to identify defects in the installation, finally, to ensure normal operation
After flushing the system, especially in cases requiring disconnection of devices and replacement of valves, pressure testing is also performed.
The pressure parameters in the water heating system during testing should exceed working data by 0.1 MPa. The pressure value at the lowest point of the tested circuit in all cases must be at least 0.3 MPa
Before production of pressure testing of the pipeline it is necessary to disconnect a copper and a broad tank
If pressure testing is carried out hydraulically, all air must be released from the system.
The heating circuit is considered to be successfully passed a pressure test, if the readings of the pressure gauge in 5 minutes of observation do not fall by more than 0.02 MPa
Upon completion of the crimping, the systems are checked for real heat effect, the heaters are adjusted according to the needs of the homeowners.
Objectives of crimping heating
Stages of crimping when building a network
Pressure testing after flushing
Test pressure values
Rules of preparation for pressure testing
Testing collector system
Signs of a well-made crimp
Works after successful crimping
One of the main requirements for the commissioning and maintenance of a hot water heating circuit used in a private or municipal house is pressure testing. According to the rules and requirements for sanitary systems, all the elements of the heating system circuits are tested for durability.
In addition to pre-launch tests, hydraulic or pneumatic testing is traditionally performed:
- before each new heating season in order to identify places of depressurization and weakened areas;
- after repair operations and replacement of equipment, fittings, gaskets, etc. items.
In addition to the main task, which is to identify areas and points that can pass the coolant, pressure testing helps to free the circuit from insoluble particles that clog the pipeline.
Upon completion of installation, the heating system is double checked by crimping. The first time is performed to detect depressurization of connections and other defects. The second time opressovyvayut in order to ensure full performance of the circuit
Pressure testing is quite capable of doing the homeowner with his own hands. The process of testing with water or air pressure does not envisage any complicated actions, nor is there any need to acquire expensive technological tools and equipment.
To check the tightness of the system using the hydrostatic method, you will need:
- fill the circuit with coolant (water) with a temperature of 5-50 ° C;
- connect a water pump to the system - electric or manual;
- install measuring instruments in the heating circuit - pressure gauges with a boundary upper pressure twice as high as the working pressure.
Pressure testing of the heating circuit without water is also used - pneumatic testing of the system by air pressure (gauge method).
This option has its own characteristics and is often used to test individual components of a heating circuit, such as radiators, heating panels, heat exchangers, etc.
Pump for hydraulic testing - manual design. Such a tool can be considered the most optimal for use in the household when the time comes for the crimping of the heating system.
How is a leak test performed?
The initial stage is the filling of the heating circuit with water whose temperature is not lower than 5 ° C. Next begins the process of crimping - system pressure raise to test value (Pslave × 1,5).
Considering that a decentralized system of a private house is being tested, the working pressure here, as a rule, is no more than 0.1-0.2 MPa. Such pressure of the heat carrier is provided by the majority of modern heating boilers equipped with circulation pumps.
However, for circuits with centralized connection, the parameters are higher - up to 1.5 MPa.
Based on the value of the working pressure of the decentralized scheme, set the value of the test pressure of 0.2-0.3 MPa. Increase the pressure in the heating circuit to such values will help the pump for pressure testing.
You can use a small-capacity electric apparatus, but in a private sector, it is more expedient to use a hand pump.
The choice of such devices is extensive. For example, opressovochnye series pumps HA, RP, TR - inexpensive simple and convenient design, equipped with a control gauge. Their cost on the market from 4,000 to 9,000 rubles.
One of the designs of the electric pump for crimping. This is a compact convenient product, designed to create a test pressure of up to 50 atm at a feed rate of liquid medium up to 7 liters per minute. Can also pump technical oil.
Electric pumps for crimping heating systems assembled by their own hands, it is irrational to use because of their high cost. These devices are usually designed for high operating pressures, which is also not necessary when checking the decentralized system of a private house.
The only benefit for a homeowner is that you don’t need to exert any extra physical effort. Therefore, for those who want to choose pumps MGF, RP, "Saturn" other. Price range 17,000 - 65,000 rubles.
The priority of choosing a hand pump should also be justified by its design features. This type of equipment ensures a smooth build-up of pressure, which is important both in terms of safety for the tester, and in terms of protecting the heating system from hydraulic shocks.
In small systems with heating boilers water hammer may damage some items. Therefore manual opressovochny The pump is optimal for testing small, self-made thermal networks.
The pipeline of the heating system is tested with a pressure exceeding the operating parameters by 0.1 MPa. The minimum pressure should not be less than 0.3 MPa. If within 5 minutes the pressure drop does not exceed 0.02 MPa, the system is considered to be workable and not in need of repair
The subtleties of the test process
Filling the system with water and subsequent pressure testing is permissible under the condition of positive temperature inside the premises. Heating boilers and expansion tanks during the test are disconnected from the system.
For control, it is necessary to use two pressure gauges installed at different points. During the testing of the heating system, it is not allowed to try to eliminate defects, turn valve stems, and tap joints.
Using pressure gauges, pressure generated in the circuit is monitored to check the tightness of the connections and the reliability of all elements. The testing process requires the inclusion of at least two control devices in the circuit.
During the process of pressure increase, care must be taken to removing air from the system. Special devices installed at various points in pipelines help to achieve this. air vent.
If the heating circuit is not equipped air vent device, you should increase the pressure to the worker and then open for a short time any tap located in the heating circuit at a level higher than the others.
After air removal, pressure build-up continues to the test value (at least 0.2 MPa). For small decentralized heating systems of private households, the test pressure is usually 0.2-0.3 MPa.
The fluid in the system under such pressure must be kept for a specified time. The minimum setting time is 5 minutes. If during this period there has been no drop in pressure by more than 0.01-0.02 MPa, in general, pressure testing of the heating system with its own hands can be considered successful.
After completing the crimping of the heating circuit with test pressure, its level is reduced to the working pressure and a visual inspection of all available circuit elements is carried out.
Other important test points
Similarly to the process described above, heating heating with a centralized circuit passes. True, the calculation of pressures should be made taking into account the operating parameters of just such a system. After crimping, pressure relief in the heating system to the operating level is performed and all accessible areas are carefully checked.
In this state, the heating circuit is inspected visually for possible leaks:
- pipelines and fittings are checked;
- installation sites of measuring devices;
- flange connections of circulating pumps;
- seals cranes heating boiler;
- valves of the expansion tank, etc.
Hydraulic test, the results of which did not reveal leaks in the weld zone, destruction or deformation of pipelines and equipment items, density violations in threaded connections, leaks in heating devices and on valves, is considered to have been passed.
A hydrostatic integrity and density test is considered check valves (valves, valves, valves), if after twisting the stem of the shut-off valve twice in the area of the stuffing box, the appearance of traces of water.
Pneumatic crimping method
Checking the tightness of the home heating network can be performed pneumatically. It is noteworthy that the manometric method allows testing of networks and equipment at low temperatures.
Typically, this test method is used to test the density of individual heating equipment. So, air under pressure is checked for tightness radiators, heat exchangers of boilers, expansion tanks.
Pressure testing by manometric method may be performed with a negative reading of the thermometer. Tests are carried out in two stages. First, the strength of the system is tested with an overpressure of 0.15 MPa. After elimination of defects, if they were detected by ear, the system is again filled with medium with a pressure of 0.10 MPa to check
The test process of air under pressure is performed by analogy with the technique of hydraulic crimping. An air compressor or a conventional automobile air pump is used as the source of the working medium.
Large pressures are not operated here. To check for density using the manometric method, a small pressure is sufficient (0.1-0.15 MPa).
If, under air pressure of 0.15 MPa, leaks are detected due to mounting defects, they release pressure and eliminate the drawbacks. Then the process repeats - the heating system is filled with air under a pressure of 0.1 MPa and remains in such conditions for at least 5 minutes.
Control of pressure testing in this case permits a pressure drop of no more than 0.01 MPa over a specified period of time. With this result, the system is considered complete and ready for operation.
Often there are cases of introduction of specific equipment into the heating system of a private enterprise. It is also not always possible to check the equipment by the hydrostatic method, when pressure is required for pressure testing.
For example, SNiP and GOST provide for tests of cast iron or steel radiators with water pressure of at least 0.9 MPa (9 ATI). However, to perform the same tests with the manometric method (pneumatic), a pressure of 0.1 MPa is sufficient (1 ATI).
Filling the heating system with air for pressure gauge. An ordinary air pump is used to inflate a car's tires.
Convector modules require pressure testing with a water pressure of at least 1.5 MPa (15 kg / cm2). At the same time, if you resort to tests of a pneumatic nature, press the convector module to confirm its quality assurance is allowed by air under pressure of 0.15 MPa.
The test procedure for such devices is as follows:
- filling devices with air at a specified pressure;
- immersion of devices in a container with water;
- check for leaks within 5 minutes.
Some technological elements of the heating circuit have a design that is permissible to check the integrity of the pneumatic method. You can learn about this from the device maintenance guidelines.
Usually instructions on the methods of crimping are given in the operating instructions with which any heating equipment is completed.
It must be emphasized: the pneumatic (gauge) method is good for checking for density. However, it is recommended to check the strength of the heating system, including those made by hand, by hydraulic method. Also, hydrostatic crimping is preferred for panel heating systems.
The installation of heating pipelines on the principle of panel systems assumes that the pipeline is monolithic in the panel of walls or floors. High-quality crimping is required here to ensure future reliability.
Checking steam and panel heating systems
Hydrostatic pressure testing of systems of panel heating is performed at the installation stage under the condition of full access to the units and devices through installation windows. Conditions for pressure testing, including with their own hands, imply a rise in pressure inside the system to a level of 1 MPa.
The test is carried out at least 15 minutes. During this period of time there should not be a decrease in pressure of more than 0.01 MPa.
If the heating circuit is built with the combination of heating panels with other heating devices, the test pressure value is set equal to the parameters of other heating devices.
Pressure testing of the heating panel systems is carried out by manometric method under air pressure of 0.1 MPa. Exposure time 5 minutes. Allowable pressure drop is not more than 0.01 MPa.
Individual test conditions apply to pipelines and steam system equipment. If steam heating is designed for a working pressure of 0.07 MPa, the value of the test pressure by hydraulic method will be 0.25 MPa.
At operating pressures greater than 0.07 MPa, pressure testing is carried out under a pressure P slave + 0.1 MPa, but not less than 0.3 MPa. The exposure time for steam systems is 5 minutes. Permissible pressure difference in minus not more than 0.02 MPa. After completion of the test, the circuit is additionally checked under the operating steam pressure.
If during pressure testing, it is difficult to hear the leakage of the medium from the heating system using a manometric method, it is possible to lather the connecting nodes and places of probable weakening of the pipeline
Heat test heating systems
In addition to hydraulic and pneumatic testing of heating systems in the residential sector, thermal testing is also envisaged. The essence of this procedure is to check the uniform distribution of the coolant, testing the heating and thermal efficiency of each individual heating device.
The process is carried out in conditions of positive ambient temperatures. Heat carrier temperature is not lower than 60 ° С.
If heat testing is possible only during the cold season (for example, due to the absence of coolant), such a test is performed immediately after the system starts up in operating mode. They are tested at the temperature of water, which should correspond to the temperature schedule of heating, but not below 50ºС.
The coolant pressure should correspond to the worker. The heat test time is at least 7 hours. During this period of time, the uniformity of heating of all available heating devices is periodically checked.
Before filling the selected gate for the heating device with a solution, in addition to hydraulic or pneumatic crimping, thermal tests are mandatory performed
The act of holding the crimp
When testing the strength of the heating system is carried out by professional organizations in residential buildings with a centralized scheme, a statement of the work performed is necessarily drawn up. This document describes the test conditions, and gives an opinion on the quality of the heating network and equipment.
However, the act of carrying out pressure testing is necessary for the person responsible for the operation of centralized heating systems.
For a private enterprise with decentralized heating, especially self-made, the responsible person by default is the owner himself. Naturally, performing work aimed at checking the integrity and reliability of home heating, the owner is unlikely to write an act of the tests conducted to himself.
According to the results of pressure testing by municipal services and housing associations, an act is drawn up. The owner of a private house also does not hurt to fix the readings of the gauges during the performance test of the system
It will not be superfluous to save for the future the conditions and parameters under which the pressure test was carried out:
- test pressure values;
- holding time;
- temperature of the liquid medium;
- pressure difference at the beginning and end of the holding period.
These data will be useful for comparison with indicators of the next check. By numbers one can to some extent judge the general condition of the heating system. Information is desirable to record and store in a specially made for this purpose home magazine. Or choose a more modern version - an electronic journal.
Despite the relatively small operating parameters of the decentralized heating system of a private dwelling, pressure testing is recommended to be carried out according to all the laws of testing such systems. Such an approach will provide protection against unexpected impulses, will allow timely identification of potential defects.
Detailed information about the crimping of metal-plastic pipelines is set out in this article.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video about testing the heating system using pneumatic test method:
The process of hydraulic pressure testing of heating in the municipal house:
Periodic maintenance helps to keep the heating system in proper condition. And the reliability of the equipment is a guarantee of stable heating of housing during the cold period.
Do you have practical skills for crimping the heating system? Share your knowledge with our readers, and ask questions about the topic of the article in the comments below.