The turkey, which we have already got used to consider as native, was once brought from America. Concerningthe bird is very capricious in breeding, as our climatic conditions are very different from the American continent. In modern poultry farming, the breeding of this bird is quite popular, but it has its own nuances. In this article we will talk about the incubation of turkey eggs at home - how long it will take to breed, temperature, humidity and other features..
Table of contents
- What incubators to use at home for the production of turkey
- Selection of turkeys
- How to choose turkey eggs
- Bookmark the eggs
- The incubation period: what should be the temperature
- Table of incubation: timing, temperature and humidity
- How does the chick develop during the incubation period?
- Appearance of turkeys to light: how many days before hatching
- The positive and negative sides of the incubator when breeding turkeys
- It's worth knowing
What incubators to use at home for the production of turkey
To breed a bird in a natural way, unfortunately, does not always work, and the number of livestock will be much less than in the incubator.
Incubators are divided into two types:
- With heatingfrom above;
- With heatingfrom below.
In natural conditionsthe bird hatchs eggs from above, in this connection, the embryo of the chick is located precisely in this part. If you take this into account, it means that the heaters are placed on top. But in this case there is a minus, this is that the warm air according to the laws of physics rises. This will lead to the fact that most of the precious heat is expelled through the vent.
If you go against the laws of nature and dobottom heating, then in this case the heat is used more sparingly.
In both of these cases there is a big minus,egg heating occurs unevenly, which is not very effective.
Some craftsmen, in order to bring the conditions in the incubator closer to natural, heaters are installed in the chamber, and the upper and lower parts are sheathed with metal, which holes are made. The height is calculated in accordance with the heater..
Selection of turkeys
In order for the livestock to bring not only a good offspring, but also give a lot of meat, it's worth taking a breed of turkeys seriously.
- North Caucasian bronze. This breed has been popular for a very long time among domestic breeders. In adult form, a bird can reach fifteen kilograms. Eggplant, about eighty eggs a year.
- Bronze broad-chested. It has great similarities with the North Caucasian turkey.
- White broad-chested. This breed is more suitable for high quality meat. Eggplant to one hundred and twenty eggs in twelve months.
How to choose turkey eggs
Before the eggs are sent to the incubator, they must passstrict and very careful selection for the following parameters:
- Correctthe form;
- Absence of anyimpregnations.
When looking through eggs:
- Yolkshould be in the center;
- It should not have clearcontours;
- Air chambershould be located at the blunt end.
Eggs should not be washed.The maximum shelf life is ten days. Storage humidity should be 80%. The temperature is 12 degrees, with a plus sign.Eggs are storedblunt edge up, every fourth day inverted..
Bookmark the eggs
- The incubator is preparedthe day before the laying of eggs.
- To maintain the correct humidity level,The tray that is on the bottom is filled with water.
- In an incubatortwo thermometers are installeda. Each of them should be above the egg by about two centimeters.
- To know the humidity, take the cloth and tie to the bottom of one thermometer while the second tip should be located in the tray with water.
- The eggs are marked on both sides, for example with one dagger, the other with a zero. These simple manipulations will help turn the eggs one hundred and eighty degrees. Use a simple pencil for markings.
- Eggs are very carefully placed in the incubator, so thatthe notes were all the same.
- Eggs are recommended to turn every three daysso that the chick does not stick to the shell.
- After twenty-five days, coups cease, so that the chicks can properly appear.
The incubation period: what should be the temperature
Incubation lasts about twenty-eight days. Within twelve hours after the eggs are placed in the incubator, do not disturb. The rest of the time, the eggs are turned every four hours.
The temperature is maintained according to the following principle(cm. incubation table):
- 1 - 8 day:simple thermometer - (+) 3, degrees; wet thermometer - up to (+) 30
- 9 - 21 day:the heat is reduced to (+) 3, degrees
- 22 - 25 day:(+) 37 degrees
- Day 26:begins the period of breeding turkey, in this case for five hours a simple thermometer should show (+) 3, degrees, and a humidity thermometer (+) 29
- During the period when the chicks begin to show activity in the appearance of the light, the temperature is brought to (+) 3, degrees. The intake of air is increased.
Table of incubation: timing, temperature and humidity
|1 - 7 days||38 ° С||65 %||6 times|
|8 - 14||38 ° С||50 %||6 times|
|15 - 25||3, ° С||65 %||4 times + cooling 15 minutes|
|26 - 28||3, ° С||70 %||no|
How does the chick develop during the incubation period?
With the correct flow of the processIn two weeks allantois. It is a respiratory organ that plays a very large role in the life of the embryo. This body helps to get the right amount of air.
On the twenty-fifth daythe final period of incubation begins. At this time, the work of fetal metabolism completely changes. They acquire their body temperature, therefore, in order not to harm the chick, daily cooling is used for about fifteen minutes.
Appearance of turkeys to light: how many days before hatching
Hooks on the shell can be noticed after twenty-five days, after the bookmark. Before this happens, experienced poultry farmers recommend the last time to use the ovoscope, that is, to enlighten the egg.
If the chick is developing properly, the egg from the inside should be dark to the air chamber. The boundaries are blurred and moving. As soon as the naklia has happened, the turns stop.
During the birth of turkeys, all eggs should be well warmed. Also in this period, oxygen must be well supplied, for this purpose, the ventilation is regulated.The nestling appears on about the twenty-seventh day.
To turkeys appeared evenly,on the day of their appearance, the temperature is increasedand bring it up to 37 degrees. When all the chicks hatch, the shell is harvested, it is cooked for about twenty minutes and is used as food for turkeys.
Turkeys require more careful care than simple chicks. Nine weeks they should be kept warm and used when feeding a feed with vitamins, which contains a large number of proteins.
Since babies do not have a mother, as they are, they will have to teach you to drink. For food, they tap their fingers on a plate with food, and to drink them they dip their beaks into a bowl with warm water.
In food, the chicks are given:
- Cookedeggfinely ground;
- Low-fatcottage cheese;
You can also add nettle and dandelion.After the fourteenth dayin the diet include meat giblets, which are cooked and crushed as much as possible.
The positive and negative sides of the incubator when breeding turkeys
The positive aspects of the incubator include:
- In the absence of a chicken, you candeduce turkey;
- You can take control of the wholechick appearance process;
- Good forlarge number of eggsc.
- Possibleturning off the light, which will adversely affect the process;
- Have tospend on the incubator.
It's worth knowing
- Turkeys hatch around10 hours;
- In a daychicks can be fed and given to drink;
- Newbornsnot worth itfirst time to bother them they need time to dry out;
- The incubation periodfor turkeys is 28 days;
- During the piercingit is necessary to check that the crack appeared from above;
- Watch for humidityand pour in enough water;
- It is not necessary oftentouch eggs during hatchingturkey, this will make the process more positive;
- You can not help chicksduring the birth process, so as not to harm;
- If you have broken the overturning process,chicks can be born with leg pathology,these individuals are euthanized;
- Hands must be clean. Take care that before you take an egg you do not touch them to the face, so that skin fat does not get on the shell, since it can cause irreparable harm.
- Make sure that the turkey chicks and chicks are after birth in different places, it will help to avoid infection. For adults, this rule does not apply.