Private houses that are not equipped with a basement are becoming rarer and rarer. These premises are reserved for the storage of canned preparations, recreation areas or sports leisure rooms. Regardless of the purpose, a staircase to the basement is required to descend to the lower level. Reliability and convenience are the main requirements for the construction.
The basement can be adapted for various needs - conservation storage, as a recreation room or a gym. Regardless of the chosen functionality, it needs the installation of a flight of stairs, which will ensure a safe and comfortable descent into the equipped room.
The content of the article:
Types of structures
- Marching stairs
- Screw descents
Choosing a material
- Reinforced concrete monolithic structures
- Stationary stairs made of wood
- Descent from steel
- Combined use of materials
- Which option is suitable for a novice builder
- Calculation of the ladder structure
- Manufacture of a monolithic reinforced concrete staircase with bottom formwork
- Reinforcement and formwork installation
- Pouring concrete
Types of structures
A private house, garage or cellar - These are objects adapted for arranging the basement. To make the descent and ascent into it comfortable, a ladder is mounted between the base of the floor and the lower level of the basement pit. In this case, the choice of design is partially influenced by the functional significance of the basement.
A good option for arranging a safe and comfortable descent. However, its installation requires a spacious room. Under these requirements, rest rooms or sports activities may be suitable. If the focus is on comfort, try the two-flight model, setting it at a higher angle of inclination.
You also need to decide what to choose as a turning intermediate zone: turntable or winder steps? If the movement on the stairs involves the transfer of furniture or household appliances, then it is better to stop at the option with a platform. Here it is convenient to stop for a break or in order to change the grip to a more comfortable one.
In cases where the staircase to the basement is only a path for ascent and descent, only the design of the room or the personal beliefs of the owner of the home can influence the final choice.
Winder steps have one disadvantage: they limit the safety of movement for older users. As a rule, trapezoidal steps are used in corners, which reduce the comfort of movement. If you stumble, it's easy to break your leg.
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A good solution for descending into the cellar. This model assumes a stronger angle of inclination, which affects the decrease in driving comfort. The ladder is installed in a permanent place or used as a mobile structure for descending into the basement.
The originality of the design is in the stops, representing the cut of the end parts of the guides of the flight of stairs. The cut determines the angle of inclination of the stairs to the basement. The smaller it is, the steeper the climb, and vice versa.
If the basement allows you to install the stairs in a permanent place, do not forget to fix it to the wall and floor. To do this, use anchors or bolts. A good option is metal models. A wooden staircase is not so good, as it periodically requires restoration or a complete replacement of marches.
The ladder to the basement is made of wood. The model does not involve daily excavation and is installed in a permanent place.
High ceiling height but limited perimeter area? Examine the spiral staircase to the basement. It represents a vertical structure with a pillar installed in the center and steps attached to it.
A round cellar and a spiral staircase set in the center of the room are an example of a perfect combination. Climbing upstairs, you can grab a couple of cans of pickles. So that the place under the turns of the steps is not empty, place boxes with root crops there.
As a material, metal, wood, or a combination of both can be chosen. To increase the safety of the structure, it is necessary to install a railing.
Attention! A steep climb with a constant turn in a person with an above average age can cause dizziness. The railing will make it easier to climb, protecting it from falling.
Choosing a material
The choice of material for the stairs to the basement must be approached very carefully. At the same time, take into account the humidity of the room, the expected load on the steps, the cost of construction and the complexity of installation.
For high humidity conditions, discard metal and wood. Concrete and brick are suitable, but such stairs to the basement do not look very beautiful - they load the room.
A staircase to a brick basement is a structure that takes up a lot of free space. For proper installation, you need to lay out the cabinet. Will it be hollow or monolithic to decide the owner of the house. But from a practical point of view, the first option is better.
The left space under the stairs, allocate for a small storage room for storing household utensils. However, you will have to install a concrete floor. Or even simpler: immediately mount a concrete flight of stairs.
Stairs to the basement, built entirely of brick, including steps, are less durable than other alternatives. Over time, the corners of the brick on the steps break, forming ugly crevices. Of course, termination is possible, but it will turn into an annual routine. Therefore, when choosing a brick staircase to the basement, opt for a combined model: brick + concrete.
Combined model for descending into the basement. Made from hollow brick and concrete mix. Even a person with minimal experience will cope with such a task.
If you lose sight of the minor flaws of the brick stairs to the basement, then such a structure is very good. At least this is a fairly strong structure that preserves it for a long period. Even in conditions of high humidity, a brick can last for decades.
Reinforced concrete monolithic structures
This building, perhaps, can be called the most reliable. It is not subject to rotting, perfectly tolerates conditions of high humidity, and is resistant to mechanical damage. The list of pluses can be continued indefinitely, such a staircase to the basement, once installed, is unlikely to be repaired or changed due to a breakdown.
Reinforced concrete flights of stairs are well suited for large rooms, where their installation will not be too cramped. Installation of a reinforced concrete flight of stairs requires the involvement of construction equipment. Therefore, it will be more practical to mount the structure at the stage of building a private house. Otherwise, you will have to spend a lot of time and effort.
Attention! Installation of reinforced concrete stairs in the basement requires complex technological calculations. The slightest flaw will cause the collapse of the flight of stairs, which increases the risk of traumatic situations.
Stationary stairs made of wood
For many years, wooden stairs have been the most popular in the improvement of basements and cellars. At the same time, wood is a material that does not tolerate contact with moisture. Therefore, when choosing a type of wood for the manufacture of stairs to the basement, one should give preference to resinous, moisture-resistant species.
This category includes all coniferous trees. But when looking for strong and durable varieties, you won’t find a better option like larch. The high density of the material prevents the free penetration of moisture into the structure of the material. Therefore, the probability of rotting such a breed is much lower than that of the same pine.
The cost of larch wood is high, and not every ordinary buyer can afford to assemble stairs to the basement from such material. In addition, regardless of the chosen wood, it needs mandatory treatment with antiseptics and additional water-repellent coatings. And this, in turn, further increases costs.
A good option for going down to the basement. However, the material requires pre-treatment and placement in a dry room.
As a recommendation, two options can be advised:
- Make an attached model that will go down. As a rule, such a solution can be seen when equipping cellars. In this case, the ladder will serve you for decades. However, if we consider that only women and children are living in the house, then the regular procedure for lowering and raising the ladder will cause a lot of inconvenience. Even if a man lives in the house, this does not guarantee that he will always be around. Therefore, the main part of the owners stops at choosing another option.
- Stationary flight of stairs. In this case, you will have to take care of all the ways to protect the wood from decay and premature aging by soaking it with antiseptics and covering it with paints and varnishes.
Regardless of the installation method chosen, wood needs regular maintenance. In the best case, once every two or three years, you will have to clean the surface and lay the secondary layer of paints and varnishes. However, if the basement has ideal humidity conditions, then this need is no longer necessary.
Descent from steel
The staircase to the basement made of metal captivates with its reliability. Therefore, owners of private houses prefer this type of material. The most popular is black steel.
A channel or profile pipes are chosen as guides, and reinforced rod and metal plates are taken for steps. If handrails are needed, it is more convenient to make them from a profile pipe with a small cross section.
The advantage of metal is that stairs from it can be mounted on a site with any area: limited or spacious. To do this, it will be enough to change the angle of inclination and, possibly, the step between the steps.
The only difficulty is the presence of welding skills. If they are not there, then it is better not to undertake independent work, since it will not work to implement the work without errors. An even and tight seam is the key to the reliability of a flight of stairs.
Another disadvantage is the high metal prices. To purchase the necessary material for assembling a metal staircase to the basement, you will have to pay a lot of money.
A massive, reliable structure requires the skill of working with welding and the purchase of expensive material.
If a metal staircase is intended for a rest room, then stainless steel can be recommended for its manufacture. Such models, as a rule, are sold already in finished form. The owner will only have to assemble and fix in a permanent place.
The cost of a stainless steel staircase is even higher, but a one-time purchase will save your nerves and effort invested in self-assembly of the structure.
Combined use of materials
Alas, the stairs to the basement, made of the same material, do not always look beautiful. If you want to get an aesthetically correct folded model, then it is recommended to use a combination of several decorative materials for assembly.
The combination of a wooden staircase to the basement with inclusions of several types of wood looks very good. Contrasting rocks of dark and light tones will help to make a very beautiful flight of stairs. For example, the main part is made of light wood, and places such as balusters and the top of the steps are made of dark varieties.
A good design option is metal + wood. Massive metal staircase to the basement with steps and railings made of light woods. As a rule, these are coniferous varieties: larch, pine.
If you want to get an expensive-looking model for going down to the basement, try to consider the option of brick or concrete plus natural stone cladding. There are many design options
Firstly, there are several assembly methods for making a flight of stairs. This is a hollow structure with a small utility room under the span, the installation of a reinforced concrete march on concrete pillars or a monolithic model.
Combined model for descending into the basement made of metal and wood. In the event of a breakdown of one of the steps, it can easily be replaced with a new one.
Secondly, a large number of natural stone species allows you to choose the most attractive and create an individual design design. The final result will depend on the imagination of the master.
Which option is suitable for a novice builder
If a novice master does not have the necessary experience to assemble staircase structures, then we can recommend that you first try assembling models from one material. The simplest option is an attached wooden ladder. This option does not require much knowledge in the design of objects; even a teenager can cope with the task.
A more complex option is a metal ladder to the basement. This is where welding skills and knowledge of how to correctly carry out calculations come in handy. The structure is suitable for equipping premises that do not require the installation of aesthetically well-folded flights of stairs, for example, for a cellar.
The assembly consists in installing two guides, mounting mortgages and fixing horizontal plates under the steps. In this case, the main thing is not to make mistakes in the calculations and fix the parts in the right places.
Another option is a concrete structure. This type of material allows you to create flights of stairs of different levels of complexity: from monolithic to assembled from separate parts. If the imagination of the master works as it should, then you can make a very beautiful design with support pillars and balusters.
However, this type of material, like brick, requires an investment of effort. Therefore, beginners try to bypass it.
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Calculation of the ladder structure
Drawings and schematic sketches form the basis. Without their compilation, it is very difficult to obtain a high-quality product that meets all safety requirements. Therefore, if there is no experience in this matter, hire professional workers or contact a knowledgeable friend.
Schematic representation of the descent into the basement from the side of the street.
For correct calculations, you always need to keep in mind the following parameters:
- the width of the stairs - for comfortable movement of one or two people, a span of 90 cm to 1 meter is enough;
- riser - lifting the foot above 20 cm in a person of average height causes unnecessary stress;
- step width - comfortable can be considered from 25 to 30 cm;
- flight of stairs - from 2 meters.
Attention! All indicators are averaged and require refinement, taking into account the individualities of the residents of the house: foot size, height and age category.
For the angle of inclination, standard values \u200b\u200band used in the arrangement of buildings are accepted - this is 45O. However, this is only a recommendation, and dimensions can be changed at the request of the master. For example, if the ladder is installed in the cellar and involves the periodic lifting of heavy loads, then for comfortable movement along the steps it is necessary to reduce the angle of inclination to 30O.
The choice of the angle of inclination of the flight of stairs also determines the types of staircase structures. So for attached models, this figure is higher and can reach up to 75O. But too gentle slopes are not as comfortable for walking as it might seem at first glance. Fatigue sets in much faster than climbing steep stairs.
To determine the number of steps per flight of stairs, it is necessary to measure the height from the base of the floor in the basement to the floor of the first floor. The resulting data is divided by the estimated riser height and rounded up to a whole number. Then the height of the basement is divided by the resulting number of steps, as a result of which it is possible to find out the exact size of the riser.
Determine the length of the future flight of stairs. To do this, the value determined for the step width is multiplied by the quantity. In this case, the dimensions of the basement and the visually comfortable location of the building inside the room should be taken into account.
Attention! If the capacity of the basement does not allow the installation of a full-fledged one-flight span, you can mount a staircase with several levels and an intermediate platform.
Manufacture of a monolithic reinforced concrete staircase with bottom formwork
Before proceeding with the construction of a reinforced concrete staircase, it is necessary to prepare a reliable and strong foundation. It can be a reinforced, concrete-filled floor or foundation.
A rotary spiral staircase to the basement requires complex calculations. Without knowledge of drawing arithmetic, you should not take on this project.
Do-it-yourself concrete stairs to the cellar can be made according to one of the scenarios described below. In total, there are two ways to assemble a concrete flight of stairs to the basement with your own hands:
- Installation of ready-made monolithic descents with further pouring of steps. The necessary elements are purchased at the factory of finished reinforced concrete products. After fixing in place, pouring work is carried out.
- Self-pouring of concrete spans using formwork.
Regardless of which method was chosen, it involves a laborious process that requires considerable effort.
Reinforcement and formwork installation
Immediately you need to make a reservation that the procedure for pouring a concrete staircase is different from foundation work. To do this, it is necessary to go through several stages of formwork assembly and reinforcement of the flight of stairs:
- Preliminary marking of stops. According to the drawing drawn up earlier, appropriate marks are applied to the supporting wall and the base of the floor, indicating the location of the future staircase to the basement.
- Installation of the lower support formwork. It is a support for future concrete pouring, so it must be reliable. When assembling the formwork, only strong materials are used.
- Assembly of the reinforcing frame. First of all, it is required to draw up a schematic sketch of the location of the main rods and lintels. Further assembly takes place on the basis of the lower formwork.
- Frame binding. For strapping, you need pieces of knitting wire.
- In order for the reinforcing frame to be completely immersed in concrete, it is necessary to lift it onto purchased or self-made clamps.
- Hammer metal rods into the wall if the installation of the stairs is carried out in close proximity and does not imply a technical clearance.
- Reinforcement is made in two rows. With contour repetition of the outlines of future steps.
- If necessary, reliable vertical posts are installed under the formwork base.
The simplest option for descending into the basement, which does not require pouring, is only the installation of a finished staircase.
The preparatory work has been completed, it's time to move on to concreting the flight of stairs.
- There is one very important nuance in pouring concrete - the liquid mixture is poured at a time. Otherwise, cracking cannot be avoided.
- In order not to be inside the basement without the opportunity to get out at the end of the work, the pouring procedure begins from the lower steps.
- In places intended for the installation of railings, metal or wooden mortgages are laid in concrete. In the second case, the parts are treated with a bituminous solution.
- To avoid the formation of air pockets, it is recommended to use a vibrator during work or perform this task mechanically: using a trowel or reinforced rod.
After a day, the formwork can be disassembled. Then it remains to level the surface and you can proceed to decorating, if such is provided for by the work plan.
A staircase in a garage, cellar or private house to the basement involves several construction options. Differences may lie in the design options, types of material used and other equally significant nuances. Regardless of the chosen type of staircase to the basement, experience and endurance are required to obtain a quality structure.