In unheated rooms in winter it is impossible to live, and this one does not argue. Hot radiators in the cooler months - construction and the benefit of modern life. However, the bills are regularly charged by specialists of the Criminal Code of Heating, often exaggerated, is not it?
You have decided to find out how to put a counter on the heating in the apartment, to get a real chance not to pay too much, but do not know where to start?
We will help you to study in detail the issue - in the article shows how to install the meters and the interaction with the owner of the heat supply organization. Also, the basic types of counters and their features.
Material articles supplemented themed photo Video tips and helpful owners, who in court to prove its right to pay only for actually consumed heat.
The content of the article:
- goal setting counter for heating
- Monthly payments for someone else's living space
Types of wiring apartment heating system
- Option # 1 - vertical layout
- Option # 2 - horizontal cabling in high-rise building
Features of the basic types of counters
- Type # 1 - mechanical version of the flowmeter
- Type # 2 - ultrasonic heat meter
- Type 3 # - calculator and heat spreader
- The order of the legitimate heat meter installation
- When the installation is impossible or unprofitable?
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
goal setting counter for heating
Expensive to heat the house. But private homeowners even have the choice of the boiler equipment and fuel. Tenants of apartment buildings have no choice - central heating with tariffs, appointed by the management company.
However, there is a tool to reduce costs for heating the apartment - individual heat meter.
Water meter designed to measure the heat flow in the heating network or on the entrance section of the heating circuit
Installation of the device, which measures the heat consumption, the consumption records of its devices
Heat meter in a private building ensures considerable savings. Using readings, can be set at a temperature below 1º in the absence of occupants, reducing the consumption of approximately 6%
Meter heat consumption in the apartment will provide control services provided by the Criminal Code, will reveal the unreasonable energy consumption
Used in household heat meters for the construction and principle of operation similar to the water meter. They include: flow section, measuring cartridge, thermal converter and calculator
The heat consumption meter records the coolant flowing through the flow part of the instrument, and the temperature in the supply pipe or the return of the heating circuit
For a comfortable reading of the recorded instrument, heat meters are equipped with optical interface
For reading the measured data from the instrument device having the optical interface, remote access can be arranged
compact heat meter
The measuring device is installed
Heat meter in a private house
Flow meter heat in an apartment
The components of household energy meter
The main elements for the heat flow meter assembly
Convenient optical interface
Counter with remote access
When there is no high-quality heating, it happens that the house heating system malfunction forced to seek alternative sources of heat.
Or cause algid room radiators becomes the intention of management of housing department to save on heating costs obschedomovyh.
Then plumber fastens valve stop valve, reducing the flow of hot water in heating systems flats. Residents are cold and heated heatersIncreasing electricity bills. But the cost of heating of this has not diminished.
You also have to freeze in his apartment? We offer you to view information about wall insulation apartments, Discussed in our other article.
When the heat is too much, superheated air in the room is unpleasant, it is necessary to open the window to reduce the overall temperature level. But behind the seemingly simple methods cost money spent on "heating the street."
They can be saved by installing controls on radiators and heat meter - on the heating circuit of the apartment.
You may also be interested in information about the standards of comfortable temperature in the living room, as you can read in this article.
Winter ventilation of overheated rooms - the only thing that comes to mind is to reduce the uncomfortable temperature in the room
Yet there are hidden components of payments for heating. This is when the coolant from the boiler enters the backbone network with a heating temperature, but at the inlet of heating pipe in his house, a different temperature, the lower.
coolant delivery through pipes is accompanied by heat loss due to poor insulation, this is understandable. But these heat losses pays for the end user - the owners of apartments in high-rise buildings are not equipped with heat meters.
Monthly payments for someone else's living space
Each apartment house has to be equipped with heat meters - Article 13, paragraph 5 of the Federal Law №261-FZ of 23.11.2009 Mr..
Management Company comply with this provision and at the end of each month, removes heat consumption for high-rise building, located in its jurisdiction.
The sum of the heat energy is simply split between the apartments according to their living space. While this approach may not be valid.
On platezhek payment for heating leaving a lot of money. And half of them spent in vain
Data on the housing, available in the Criminal Code, based on the data sheet of each apartment. However, in these data sheets are often not taken into account the data of the residential redevelopment, increase heating area.
There is no information to increase the points of connection of heating radiators.
Meanwhile, apartments and redevelopment and expansion of the number of heaters consume more heat than others.
Since obschedomovoy thermal energy consumption divided by the passport of housing, tenants are "normal" apartments pay for heat consumed by the tenants 'improved' apartments.
Individual heat meter on a horizontal flat heating circuit wirings
The simple way out of the situation with the payment of another heat - individual meters for heating circuits apartments.
Savings on thermal energy costs, consumption of which is determined by the heat meter, amount to over 30% of the former on heating payments linked to the size of housing (normative).
Types of wiring apartment heating system
In high-rise apartment equipped with either a vertical or horizontal wiring of the heating system. In apartment buildings built before the beginning of the XXI century, the heating system bred vertically.
Option # 1 - vertical layout
Vertical loop thermal system performed single-tube, at least two-pipe. But always with a consistent run of coolants on Backboard levels - from the bottom up, then from top to bottom.
Especially vertical heating wiring circulated Khrushchevki.
The contour of one-pipe thermal system covers several floors and apartments. Therefore mortise heat meter it will not put
In heating with a vertical wiring, there are serious shortcomings:
- The uneven distribution of heat. Heat transfer fluid is pumped by a vertically oriented inner lining contour that does not provide uniform heating of rooms on different levels. Those. in the apartments of the lower floors will be much warmer than areas closer to the roof of high-rise buildings;
- Difficult adjustment of the degree of heating heating batteries. The need to equip each bypass battery;
- balancing the heating problem. The balance of the single-circuit heating vertical wiring configuration is achieved with stop valves and temperature regulators. But at the slightest change of pressure or temperature in the system has to perform a new adjustment;
- Difficulties with individual account heat flow. Vertical risers in heating rooms apartment for more than one, so the conventional heat meters will not apply. They need a few - on each radiator, which is expensive. Although vertical wiring for heating other tool available thermal energy metering - heat spreader.
The construction scheme vertically oriented heating pipe cheaper horizontal cabling - required less pipes.
The savings in the era of the mass of typical building Russian urban areas in the XX century was considered to be justified.
Option # 2 - horizontal cabling in high-rise building
When the horizontal wiring of the heating system also has a vertical riser feed distributing coolant on the floors.
A second riser tube serving as the return line is disposed in a vertical shaft technical near the feed riser.
From both the distribution risers in the apartment appear horizontal pipes of two circuits - flow and return. The return line collects chilled water, transporting it to the thermal station or boiler.
In the horizontal heating circuit is simple - one coolant pipe enters the apartment, on the other outputs.
The advantages horizontal cabling heating pipes include:
- the possibility of temperature control in each apartmentAs well as in the whole line (requires mixing knots);
- repair or preventive maintenance on a separate circuit heating without full shutdown of the heating system. Shut-off valve allows the apartment block circuit at any time;
- quick start heating on all floors. For comparison, even in a well-balanced one-pipe system, the vertical wiring delivery of coolant to all the radiators will take at least 30-50 seconds;
- Installation of heat meter apartment on the circuit. When heating the horizontal layout counter its thermal machinery - simple task.
The disadvantage in the horizontal heating circuit - its increased cost. The need for mounting the return pipe parallel-flow pipe increases the price of the apartment heating at 15-20%.
Features of the basic types of counters
Group of individual thermal energy metering devices designed to operate in heating systems with 15-20 mm diameter tube channel and the coolant volume in the range 0.6-2.5 cubic meter per hour.
Calculations consumed thermal energy heat counters and the heat distributors operate independently, with data output to the electronic board.
The horizontal layout of heating pipes heat meter allows you to set discreetly in the communications niche or mine
Computing device module determines the amount of heat for a predetermined period of time (hour, day or month), maintaining and accumulating this information in the memory device within 12-36 months.
The most convenient installation of a non-volatile counter for heating (ie, with an additional power source - battery).
Depending on the model, the values of its heat meter measurements are displayed as kilowatts per hour, megawatts per hour, or gigajoules Gcal. For managers and other utilities are required readings for heat in Gcal.
To be converted into Gcal is necessary to apply appropriate conversion formula. For example, for a kilowatt hour - multiply by factor 0.0008598.
Each meter is a complex of several devices. In its kit may include temperature sensors, calculators volume consumed thermal energy and pressure transducers, flow and coolant resistance.
The exact equipment heat meter set by the manufacturer for the specific model.
The installation of a heat meter is convenient to carry out the final stage of the apartment heating system installation
Depending on the principle of heat energy consumption, heat meters are equipped with ultrasonic or mechanical (tachometric) meter.
Also available models with flow devices of other types (for example, a vortex or electromagnetic), but they are poorly distributed. Heat meters are designed to collect data on consumption of heat exclusively on the horizontal wiring the heating circuit.
A separate group of heat meters - calculators and heat distributors do not require tapping into the heating circuit. These devices are used to calculate the cost of heat radiators in all circuits of the heating circuit.
Type # 1 - mechanical version of the flowmeter
The simplest type of design, therefore the cheapest (about 9000-10000 rub.) - a device with two-wire temperature sensors, water meter and the electronic calculator unit.
The main operating element of the counter is an item (impeller, propeller or turbine) rotating while passing through the coolant device. The number of rotations determines the amount of coolant passing through the meter.
The procedure for heat meter installation is simple in appearance, but on the quality of the work depends on the effectiveness of the device
Contact thermometer embedded in the pipe flow and return heating circuit apartments. The first thermometer is placed in the counter in the special slot.
The second set on the return pipe, in particular ball valve design (jack) or tee, thermometer equipped with a sleeve.
Pros mechanical heat meters:
- cost about 8,000 rubles .;
- the design is simple and reliable;
- It does not require an external power supply;
It attracts sufficiently correct performance and stability permissibility mounted in a horizontal or vertical position.
Disadvantages of thermal counters mechanical type:
- term job security no more than 4-5 years - every 4 years the implementation of verification is required;
- high wear of rotating parts - however, all of the mechanical meters are repaired for little money;
- pressurization - rotating element enhances the pressure in the heating circuit;
- susceptibility to waterhammer;
- high demand matches the actual coolant flow in the heating system to the nominal flow rate, set by the manufacturer.
Required insertion into the loop of magnetic mesh strainer prior thermal mechanical counter. The instrument is extremely sensitive to the content of mechanical suspensions in the amount of coolant!
Type # 2 - ultrasonic heat meter
Flow rate of these devices is determined by means of an ultrasonic signal emitted by the emitter and received by the receiver.
Both elements of the thermal ultrasonic meter mounted on a horizontal heating tube is set a certain distance between them.
The signal from the transducer follows the coolant flow and reach the receiver through a time period which depends on the movement speed of the coolant in the heating circuit. Based on time data set coolant flow rate.
It has no rotating elements. Therefore, the lifetime of the heat meter long, and the warmth of data - accurate
10 embodiment is issued over ultrasonic flowmeters - frequency, Doppler, correlation, etc.. In addition to performing basic tasks, ultrasonic heat meter may have a function of adjusting the coolant inflow.
Advantages of ultrasonic heat meters for the apartments:
- low price in the base - from 8000 rubles. (Domestic models);
- data on the heat load caused by the LCD screen with a single click, which is convenient;
- device operation does not cause increase in hydraulic pressure in the heating system;
By compelling advantages include long life - more than 10 years (verification required every 4 years) and powered by a built-in battery.
The main disadvantage of ultrasonic heat meters is the sensitivity to the composition of the coolant. When the content therein air bubbles and dirt particles (scum, scale and so forth.) Readings will be incorrect, and in the direction of increasing heat.
For ultrasonic flowmeters have one rule setting - the pipe section before and after the device has to be direct (the required total length of straight section - over a meter). Then the meter will provide the correct data on heat consumption.
Type 3 # - calculator and heat spreader
These devices perform measurements of the relative thermal energy expense. These constructions - heat adapter and two temperature sensor.
Every three minutes, the temperature measurement sensors carried on the surface of the heating radiator and the atmosphere in the room, determining the difference. The consumption of heat collected data are summarized and displayed on the device screen.
Such heat meter does not need to hide - it looks perfect in a modern interior room
Heat calculators are programmed to work on a certain type of the heating radiator in the time of installation on it.
You may also be interested in information about the kinds of radiators and their characteristics, considered in our other article.
All the necessary factors and power radiator figures are entered in the counter memory, which allows it to display the data on heat consumption in kilowatt-hours.
Figures indicating the heat spreaders are shown in arbitrary units. For their translation in kilowatt-hour readings must be multiplied by the value on the nameplate capacity of the heating radiator and the coefficient corresponding to the type radiators.
rate figures provided by the manufacturer of the counter based on the results of laboratory tests.
Heat spreader similar to the heat calculator. They are characterized by the inability of the heat spreader considered as kilowatts per hour. Generally, the heat spreader is arranged easier calculator
Calculators and heat spreaders are arranged for measuring thermal energy in a heating radiator. Those. in the apartment where records are maintained heating appliances such should be as many meters as there are radiators.
Both types of counters is effective regardless of the scheme flats heating and working characteristics of the coolant used in the heating circuit.
Pros valves and heat calculators:
- cost about 2000-2500 rubles. - ie, their installation is advantageous in small apartments, equipped with five heating radiators or less (but more than 2);
- long life without verification - 10 years;
- simple and quick installation on the radiator housing or close to it;
- Data transmission with multiple heat meters by radio to a single controller, summing them (radio availability depends on model);
A convincing argument in favor of the installation of such devices - the complete independence of the measurement results of coolant quality.
Cons apartment calculators and heat spreaders:
- the relative measurement error amounts to 7-12% (maximum error inherent heat spreader), which is higher than the "mortise" heat meters;
- energy consumption data are correct, if calculated from measurements of multiple devices within the boundaries of the apartment. One computer is not able to correctly determine the heat consumption of the atmosphere from one radiator. Needed summary of several devices;
- effective work only on the factory models radiators. Those. any modification of the original equipment of the radiator with heat measurements such heat meters are not allowed.
Mounting set for mounting a calculator or heat spreader is selected for the radiator type in which the caliper body is installed.
Makeshift ways to install the meter will degrade the quality of data collection. If specialized mounting kit not rational to fix the device near the battery it serves.
The order of the legitimate heat meter installation
The sequence of actions aimed at the installation of the instrument of individual metering of heat in the apartment, consists of several stages.
Let us examine them in more detail:
- written appeal homes in managing organization for the installation of a heat meter resolution. The letter should be attached copies of title documents for housing, technical passport of an apartment.
- Obtaining technical conditions for the installation of heat meter in the thermal energy supplier (as a rule, the management company).
- Project preparation individual heat metering and the installation of the technical documentation. Performed organization with a legitimate right provision of design services.
- Coordination of project documentation with heat supply companies.
Acquire heat meter to produce an agreed draft of heat should not be, because may be denied for various reasons.
Having all the project documentation, it remains to choose the heat meter - ultrasonic, mechanical, or outdoor installation, for example, heat calculator.
The device is obliged to save up to 50% on heating costs - it should establish a pro. And with the guarantee
The purchased model must be obtained from the seller checks (trade and cash), manual, warranty card and a copy of a valid certificate of quality.
The company that performs the installation of heat meter must have a license for this type of work.
Before choosing a contractor need to evaluate data on the candidates (the register, certificates, approvals SRO), professionalism installers (special equipment, the list of installation work, the presence of mounting kit), a guarantee of performance work.
It is important to the quality of the thermostat mounted on the radiators. That will allow it to manage the battery heating, and therefore the cost of heat
Note that in addition to the heat meter will need additional equipment and accessories: bypass, radiator thermostats, Pipe filters, tees and so forth.
Sealing the heat meter or the heat spreader after the installation work - is necessary.
Seals put representatives of heat-supply plant.
When the installation is impossible or unprofitable?
The installation of individual heat meter will be denied by the management company, if there is no high-rise building obschedomovogo heat meter. To calculate the ratio of the ODN is necessary to know the heat demand of the house.
Payments for heat meters in the following situations will be higher than without it:
- heat pipe administered in a multistory building is made obsolete by the scheme - through elevator;
- apartment is in the end of the house, on the last or first floor;
- There are cracks in window frames, door in a box;
- loggia (balcony) is glassed - in such a situation can help warming balcony;
- Purge the entrance to the room (broken windows, door ajar driveway), etc.
It should be noted that not only set obschedomovoy and room counters to minimize heat energy costs. Necessary to modernize the building's heating system - replacement of elevator assembly on AITP or AGC.
ITP system allows fine regulation of heating the entire apartment buildings. And that means - charges for heating will decrease.
Only in such a power system high-rises turn achieve comfort in the apartments with minimum payments for heating.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Setting the heat meter - a requirement of Russian legislation. But for apartments in high-rise buildings, this rule does not apply.
Reasons for individual heat meters can be a problem addressed in this video:
Petersburger established in 2013 on the radiators to heat their calculators apartment and found a 30% overpayment for heating.
But HBC-3 is in no hurry to compensate for its costs. Watch the video:
Legislation requires equipping heating systems in apartment buildings house counter, but only by the general (for the whole house).
And managers of house apartment farmbenefit individual meters in one case - if the house is new or renovated (insulated) by modern standards.
You have set yourself counter for heating or possess valuable information on this issue, which could be helpful to others for our readers?
Perhaps your experience will help to solve a difficult situation or inspire an active struggle with the heat supply company. Share your story or ask a question on this subject - leave your comments below this article.