The quality of installation by 90% determines the efficiency, continuity and service life of the split system. In an effort to save many, they refuse the services of a qualified installation team, relying on their own skills.
In order not to spoil expensive equipment and to realize the full potential of the device, before install the air conditioner, you should understand its design, study the installation technology and identify the main stages of work.
We will try to help you with these issues. The article provides a diagram of a household split device, describes the principle of its operation, and also contains detailed instructions describing each technological stage of installation of an air conditioner.
The experience of professionals allowed to highlight the typical mistakes of novice installers - these points should definitely be taken into account when mounting and connecting blocks.
The content of the article:
- Typical device and principle of operation
- Split system placement requirements
Phased installation technology
- Selection of components and tools
- Preparation of communication channels
- Mounting plate mounting
- Installing an external split unit
- Copper Tube and Cable Supply
- Vacuum refrigeration circuit
- Freon filling the highway
- Typical errors in the installation of air conditioning
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Typical device and principle of operation
Air conditioning - technically sophisticated equipment. Individual models vary according to the method of air supply, features of performance, power and other technical parameters. Detailed information about the types and choice of air conditioners, read in this article.
A typical climatic installation for a house is represented by a “bundle” of two elements - an outdoor and an indoor module.
In the outer casing (compressor unit) condensation is performed, and the inner part performs the tasks of the evaporator. The elements are assembled into a single air-conditioning system using wires and tubes with circulating freon.
To understand the principle of air cooling, it is necessary to understand the main components. split systems.
Components of the remote unit:
- Fan - provides blowing of internal elements, in particular, the condenser.
- Capacitor. In the radiator, the coolant is cooled by transferring heat to the outside airflow.
- Compressor - the heart of the refrigeration unit. The device is designed to compress and transfer freon along the contour.
- Control system. On inverter models, the board is located in the outer case; in other air conditioners, the electronics are part of the indoor unit.
In reversible split systems, a four-way valve is provided (position 5 in the figure below), which changes the freon supply vector depending on the operating mode: “heating” or “cooling”.
Additional elements: 6 - fittings for supplying copper piping, 7 - filter at the inlet to the compressor, 8 - cover protecting the points of fittings and cable supply
The device of the indoor unit is somewhat simpler.
Main working units and parts:
- Front cover with blinds. Plastic perforated panel for air supply to the inside of the room. Lattices regulate the direction of air masses.
- Air filter. Polymer mesh and filter elements hold dirt particles. The degree of purification depends on the type of filter: carbon - removal of foreign aromas, electrostatic - dust retention.
- Heat exchanger. Performs the role of an evaporator - here is the heating and evaporation of freon.
- Fan. Pumps air jets, redirecting them through the evaporator into the room. Perhaps several rotation speeds.
On the front side of the device there is an indicator panel to display the operating mode and current microclimate parameters.
A condensate drain pan is provided under the evaporator. From the reservoir, the liquid flows by gravity through the drain hose to the outside. Fittings for the supply of the copper route are located on the rear side of the unit
The principle of operation of the air conditioner is based on the transfer of heat from the room to the street. The system uses a unique property of the refrigerant - boiling at low temperature.
The order of operation in cooling mode:
- After the split-system is switched on, the gaseous substance is supplied to the compressor - here the freon is compressed, and its temperature increases.
- The heated gas enters the heat exchanger of the outdoor unit, where the condensation occurs - the conversion to a liquid state. The process is accompanied by freon cooling and heat transfer to the outside.
- The refrigerant flows to the internal heat exchanger. Following the capillary tube, the liquid is choked - the pressure of the material decreases.
In the evaporator, the reverse process is observed - the incoming freon is blown by heat from the room and releases cold from the liquid state to the gas form. The cooled air flows into the room.
In the process of transforming a refrigerant from a gas into a liquid, the appearance of condensate is inevitable. For normal operation of the air conditioning system, it is necessary to organize an unobstructed removal of moisture - install a drainage tube (+)
Split system placement requirements
Particularly noteworthy is the choice of location of air conditioning elements. A separate set of requirements and standards is devoted to the installation of the external unit, the internal case and the length of the pipe line of the system.
Outdoor unit. When choosing an external unit, you should consider the strength of the walls of the house. High-power models of air conditioners weigh up to 50-60 kg, standard household - 10-15 kg. In this case, the wall and fasteners used must have a double margin of safety as a minimum.
- the installation of heavy equipment on aerated concrete walls is extremely undesirable;
- the unit is mounted on a ventilated facade through a damping seal - the material reduces the noise vibration of the device;
- the support brackets should be attached directly to the wall, not the decorative lining or insulation.
The location of the external case is selected taking into account the following recommendations:
- The unit must be in the zone of free air circulation.
- An important condition - access to equipment for maintenance and repair.
- In the operating mode of the split system, hot air comes out of the compressor unit, so the unit is placed so that warm vapors do not fall into the windows of neighbors on the lower floors.
The outer element must not be placed in a closed space, inside a glazed loggia or balcony. The minimum distance from each wall of the device to a different dense surface is 30 cm.
The photo suggested acceptable ways of placing the outer case in a high-rise building. Preferred - option number 2. When installing the unit on the balcony partition, the vibration and noise of the device is amplified - an unpleasant hum and noise is possible
When arranging the air conditioning system for an apartment on the first floor, the height of the outdoor unit is at least 2 m from the ground.
Indoor unit. The installation space must comply with technological standards, ensure comfortable use of air conditioning and not particularly stand out against the background of the interior.
- A cooled air flow should not go directly to a person. It is better to avoid targeting to the zone of frequent stay - on a sofa, bed or workplace. Models with a versatile distribution of air rush jet along the walls.
- On the way out stream should not be obstacles and objects. Invalid installation of the evaporative unit in a niche - cooling efficiency decreases.
- Block-hair dryer can not be placed above the sockets and electrical appliances - if the drainage system malfunctions, moisture can cause a short circuit, breakdown of the instruments.
During installation it is necessary to control that the air intake openings do not overlap - installation should not be allowed close to the wall or ceiling.
Minimum distances: from the ceiling to the hair dryer - 10-20 cm, to the side walls - 30-50 cm. With limited space on top of the device does not have enough air for processing. Barrier from the bottom provokes "absorption" of cold exhausted air and freezing of the evaporator (+)
Track length. An important aspect of the health of the system is the Freon Mainline metric - the distance between two blocks. The length of the route is indicated in the equipment manual. The optimal parameter is 6 m, permissible distances: vertically - 7 m, horizontally - 15 m.
Removing blocks for maximum distance is not recommended for several reasons:
- the high cost of the copper pipeline;
- when lengthening the freon line increases the load on the compressor - its power "weakens" and wear increases;
- the greater the length of the route, the greater the labor costs for its construction.
Very often, installers in an effort to reduce work time, they insistently suggest cutting the freon line. However, excessive shortening of the route affects the operation of the device.
If the pipeline length is less than 5-6 m, the transmission of vibrations from the outdoor unit to the internal one is possible. As a result, the work of the split system is accompanied by an unpleasant rattling.
Phased installation technology
Before you install a two-unit air conditioner, you should prepare the necessary tools and draw up a plan of work. The general scheme of actions is as follows: drilling of strobe and holes, mounting of a panel of a hairdryer unit and fixing an outdoor module, supplying communications, evacuating and starting a split system.
Selection of components and tools
Different manufacturers supply fully equipped air conditioners with mounting kit. The provision of missing fasteners is the lot of the installer company.
Standard split-system equipment: 1 - internal hairdryer unit, 2 - outdoor unit, 3 - mounting frame, 4 - nuts for tube extension, 5 - plastic drainage outlet, 6 - control panel
For self-installation will need:
- copper tubes with a diameter of ¼ inch (the liquid phase of freon), 3/8 inch (gaseous refrigerant) - the footage is selected in accordance with the length of the freon track plus 1 m of stock;
- pipe coupling nuts;
- thermal insulation sleeves made of expanded polymer;
- reinforced adhesive tape;
- anchor screws (diameter 10-12 mm, length - 150-300 mm) and brackets.
A power outlet is required to power the units. Optimally, if it is connected to a separate cable VVGng 3 * 2.5 mm from a separate electrical panel. It is desirable that the cable is protected circuit breaker.
Arsenal of the air conditioner installer: 1 - Example-stripping for chamfering from pipes, 2 - spring tube bender, 3 - rolling, 4 - vacuum pump for pumping air from the circuit, 5 - gauge manifold for tracking system pressure
In addition to the tools listed above, you will need: a perforator and drills of various sizes, screwdrivers, wrenches, nippers, crimper and wire strippers.
Preparation of communication channels
First of all, it should be noted the place for the installation of the dryer, the path of the freon circuit and the location of the through hole.
Wall shaving is best done at the stage of rough work for major repairs. You can simplify the task and use a plastic box installed over the wall to place the contour.
For the output of tubes and cables, a hole with a diameter of 50 mm is drilled with a slight bias towards the street - this will ensure free drainage of condensate. Under the wires you need to make a wall or use camouflage linings.
Insert the sleeve (plastic pipe) into the “window” through passage, reducing the risk of damage to the communications.
Mounting plate mounting
The basis for the installation of the dryer is mounted horizontally, so that the liquid from the drainage tank does not pour out into the room, but is led out through the drainage channel to the street.
In addition, the skewed air conditioner looks ugly.
The position of the inner case is controlled at the stage of installation of the perforated mounting plate and in the process of hanging the hair dryer on the wall
Fastening the mounting plate:
- From the back of the internal case to remove the steel panel, having unbent a latch.
- Attach to the wall, align horizontally.
- Mark places under fasteners, drill holes, install dowels.
- Fasten the panel.
On the mounting plate there are many pre-made holes. To fix the base under the block, it is enough to use six of them - more convenient in a particular case.
Installing an external split unit
The installation of a street block on the front wall is associated with risky work at height. Autographic installation is permissible only on the lower floors of high-rise buildings or in private single-storey houses.
Even in these situations, it is necessary to enlist the help of an assistant and observe safety precautions — work with insurance. To mount an outdoor unit at a height, you must invite an industrial climber.
The rigidity of the installation of a split-complex is achieved with the help of L-shaped brackets. Before installation, check the fasteners for quality and compliance with the weight of the compressor
- The integrity of the paint layer. Coating material - powder paint without scratches, chips. Enamel will not withstand mechanical stress, and damage sites are susceptible to corrosion - over time, fasteners lose strength.
- Holes for oval shaped anchors. Drilling additional openings is unacceptable, as the calculated margin of safety is reduced and the paint is peeled off.
The carrying capacity of the support is indicated on the body of the brackets. The distance between the two "beams" is calculated so that the openings in the supports coincide with the holes for fixing on the external module.
- Fix the brackets using long anchors, screws with a diameter of 10-12 mm. For each support - at least three fasteners.
- Under the legs of the split-block lay rubber gaskets - vibration isolators.
- Lower the module onto the brackets.
Pass the anchor through the seal, the holes in the supports, legs of the block and tighten them tightly. The diameter of the mounting bolts - 8-10 mm.
Copper Tube and Cable Supply
Next, measure the length of communications from the indoor module to the terminals and valves on the outdoor unit. Cut the desired length of wire and strip it.
To process separate conductors with a streamer and perform crimping with a creamer using NVI tips. Follow up: skip the wire from the back of the hairdryer and fix the wires in the terminals
Preparation and installation of the freon highway:
- Cut and strip two identical pipe lengths. Remove particles of chips and wipe the ends.
- Throw a flare nut on the tube and flush.
- Bend the pipes coming from the internal module and fasten them with the nuts on the nipple. Tighten the nuts.
- Wear a heat-insulating cover.
- If necessary, lengthen the drainage outlet.
- Assemble cables and tubes, wrap tape. Put the plugs on the copper tubes, place the drainage channel at the bottom of the bundle.
- Drag the communication “knot” through the hole in the wall.
- Hang the hair dryer on the mounting plate.
- Using a pipe bender to give the road the desired shape, avoiding sharp corners.
- Bring the pipes to the valves - with a larger diameter to the gas, smaller - liquid. If necessary, trim the excess.
- Wear thermal insulation and flare tubes.
Before you connect and test the air conditioner, you need to check the tightness of the highway. Perform pressure testing of pipes and monitor pressure stability in the system with a pressure gauge.
Vacuum refrigeration circuit
Mandatory stage - creating a vacuum in the system. The procedure allows to eliminate air and moisture from the highway. For work the pump and a manometric collector is used.
Remove the gas and liquid valve plugs and the service port from the valves on the external unit. Connect the blue hose from the pressure gauge to the gas valve port. Connect the yellow hose to the central manifold fitting, connect the other end to the vacuum pump.
System vacuuming procedure:
- Shut off the valves on the pressure gauge.
- Start the vacuum pump, open the pressure gauge valve - after a minute, the device will show a zero value.
- Continue vacuuming to remove moisture from the system. Opening hours - 15-30 minutes.
- Close the valve and turn off the pump.
Increasing the pressure after turning off the pump indicates the presence of leaks and leakage of the circuit.
Freon filling the highway
Finishing stage - refrigerant start up and test the air conditioner. In the circuit must circulate a certain amount of freon to maintain the pressure set by the manufacturer.
When the pipeline is lengthened, refueling with this substance is required.
Downloading is done without disconnecting the blue hose and service port valve. If this requirement is neglected, air will enter the system
After refueling, disconnect the hose from the “gas” valve. It is necessary to observe precautionary measures - to put on glasses, gloves and not to bend a face to the unscrewed fitting. To minimize the loss of freon must act quickly.
You must be prepared for the fact that the unscrewing of the nozzle is accompanied by hissing, oil and freon. An ignorant person can suddenly pull up his hand and release the refrigerant. In addition, there is a risk of thermal burn.
Before the first start of the split-system, check the joints of the route for leaks (wash), tighten the service port plugs and valves. Now you can connect the air conditioner to the outlet and test its performance.
Typical errors in the installation of air conditioning
Failure to comply with installation requirements is a frequent cause of failures in the operation of split systems and an unreasonable increase in electricity bills. We give a list of popular shortcomings.
№1. Mounting in the wrong place. Requirements for the placement of split-blocks were discussed above. Inexperienced masters make standard mistakes: installation over a heating device or in the zone of direct exposure to sunlight.
№2. Poor rolling.
The presence of roughness, grooves and burrs interferes with the normal circulation of freon and impairs the fit to the fittings. As a result, freon (+) leakage may be observed.
№3. The mismatch of the refrigerant volume of the route. The amount of freon is directly proportional to the contour footage. If the line was increased / decreased, and its volume was not corrected, the air conditioner does not work correctly, and eventually fails.
№4. Lack of thermal insulation. The hole in the wall for laying the pipeline must be filled with foam. If this is not done, the temperature drops will provoke the appearance of condensate - the settling of moisture on the concrete will lead to the formation of a fungus.
№5. Copper pipes.
In places of bends throughput is reduced. As a result, the load on the compressor increases, and the device produces a normal resource ahead of time.
№6. Loose cable connection. Errors in the arrangement of electrical wiring are fraught with not only the breakdown of the climatic equipment, but also a fire or a shock.
№7. The use of substandard materials. Fragile brackets can not cope with the imposed load, especially in winter when there is snow accumulation on the split-block. Preventive measures: the choice of a reliable support and installation of a protective visor on the street block.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
A detailed video will help to understand the technological nuances of the installation of air conditioning in the apartment.
The briefing lists the necessary tools, displays the process of installing split-units, organizing cable channels, connecting communications and putting the air conditioner into operation:
The main difficulty in installing an air conditioner is the installation of a heavyweight unit on the facade of a high-rise building. It is better to use the services of an industrial climber. The remaining actions do not require special skills, the main thing is to comply with the installation technology and recommendations of the manufacturer of the split.
Do you have a personal experience installing an air conditioner? Want to share your knowledge or warn readers against possible installation and connection errors? Please leave comments and participate in discussions - the form for reviews is below.