In the wild, an amazing berry of blackberries grows.Curative properties are superior to raspberries, but on a large scale in Russia it is not grown. And in the garden area of the blackberry is becoming increasingly popular. Let's look at a detailed description and instructions for proper care, cultivation, reproduction and pruning blackberry bushes at home, which will be useful both to the past and to the beginner gardener..
Table of contents
- Technology of growing blackberries at home in the country
- Choosing a plantation
- The soil
- Preparatory work
- How to grow blackberries on a garden plot, tips for beginning gardeners
- Planting in the spring
- Methods of reproduction of blackberries in the suburbs, Siberia and the middle strip of Russia
- Upper sprouts
- Green cuttings
- What is the use of autumn pruning?
- How to properly cut a blackberry and form a bush in autumn
- Formation of erect bush
- Formation of a cluster of creeping varieties
- How to properly cut a blackberry and form a bush in autumn
Technology of growing blackberries at home in the country
Choosing a plantation
Blackberry reacts to spring frosts and low temperatures.The landing site should be chosen without access to cold winds. The best option can be the western and southern part of the house.
For the cultivation of upright varieties, light loams and heavy loams for climbing species are suitable.The plant in sandy soil feels well. Temporary flooding is detrimental to young shoots. To plant in the country's yielding blackberry bushes, it is undesirable to plant the crop on carbonate soils, as the plants will experience a deficiency of iron and magnesium.
We must not forget about the previous culture. Favorable for blackberries on the backyard are consideredbean grasses, table beet, carrots, cucumbers, zucchini.
The site is prepared for several years for planting, and is left under steam. Cleared of weeds and pathogens. Six months before planting, fall in the soil organic and mineral fertilizers. If the earth is saturated with nutrients, then organic matter can be excluded..
How to grow blackberries on a garden plot, tips for beginning gardeners
Planting in the spring
First of all, you need to determine the type of blackberry, paying attention to the climatic conditions of the place of growth: the suburbs, Siberia or the middle band of Russia. Planting material should be chosen with a developed root system, which is better to acquire in nurseries.Seedling should have 2 stems and developed kidney near the roots.
The distance between the planting material is 1 meter, in rows - 2 meters.This method is called a beltand is suitable for varieties with a high level of shoot formation.
In the bush type of plantinga scheme is used, x, (m), 2 seedlings are planted in each well and are acceptable for varieties with low stratification.
The planting material is lowered into the groove and the rootlets are carefully straightened. Above is filled with soil with fertilizer, the radical root is covered up to 3 cm below the soil. The upper layer of the bush is mulched, compacted and watered.Under each bush it is necessary to pour outfrom 3 to 6 literswater. The last step is pruning the seedling to 20 cm and removing the fruit stem.
Special knowledge to care for the blackberry, to grow a healthy bush is not necessary, it is enough to fulfill the following requirements:
- Weeding weeds.
- Top dressing.
- Annual pruning.
- Formation of bushes.
- Destroy the pests.
- Timely fight disease.
Methods of reproduction of blackberries in the suburbs, Siberia and the middle strip of Russia
In the garden, the blackberry reproduces vegetatively (by layers, offshoots, cuttings).Propagation of this culture can be a seed method. It is used to preserve varietal features of the culture.
- Prepare a groove, in the first decade of August, a depth of 15 cm. Put in her a healthy one-year escape and sprinkle with earth. Do not cut the branch from the uterine bush and leave the top on the surface.
- Cut off the top part of the shoot10 cmto stop growth.
- Place the prikopki with a heavy object, for example, a stone, a brick or a wire.
- Silence the soiland regularly sprinkle the place of the prikopki. Mulch (fallen leaves, sawdust) retains moisture and prevents the growth of weeds.
- Rooting will take place in 2 months.Shoots is cut off from the uterine bush, neatly excavated with pitchforks, and landed on a permanent place together with an earthen lump.
- This type of reproductionYou can transfer to September or the first ten days of October.
- The tip of the shoot tilt and prikopat in the ground. The tip is cut off.
- For a quick rooting in the stem, which will be in the ground,bark.
- Seedling from the bushand it is necessary to transplant in the spring.
- Young shoots from the root or offspring havebushes of 3 years of age.
- In the spring, when a stable warm weather is established (May, June),offspring are excavated with rootletsand a lump of earth. The height of the stem is 10-15 cm.
- Planting materialis selected from healthy and high-yielding shrubs.
- Seedlings can be planted on the diving beds for growing. Once the bush reaches the standard size, it is planted on a permanent place.
- Scions can betransplant in autumn(Aug. Sept). To do this, select the most developed shoots with a thickness of 8-10 cm and a root system of 15-20 cm.
- Before boardingcut the branch to 30-40 cm.
- Landingpit fill with mineral fertilizers.
Hybrids and large-berry blackberries do not give offspring. Therefore, this method of reproduction is unacceptable for them..
- Early spring or late autumnfruiting bush is excavated with root.
- Is divided into pieces, leaving 60 cm of the root system. The stem must have a thickness, cm, length - 10 cm.
- The petiole is planted in a permanent place, or on the diving beds, and a year later to use as a planting material.
- Are prepared bedsand with a step between cuttings of 20 cm, rows - 80, planting planting material is planted and poured regularly, until complete rooting.
- Weeding is carried out in the summerfrom weeds and loosening of the soil.
- By autumn, the cuttings will have several shootsand a developed root system.
- Cuttings in winter can be stored in a cool place. The branches are placed in moist sand. In the spring, you need a transplant into the open ground.
- In July, from a green shoot cut off a twigon the third part from the top.
- The stalk must consist of a stem, kidneys and one leaflet.
- Process a branchstimulant for rooting, for example, with rootstock or zirconium.
- Then,prepare cups with soil(peat and vermiculite in equal parts, expanded clay) and plant cuttings.
- Capacities to hideplastic bag.
- Root systemis formed after one month.
- The plant is plantedto a permanent place.
- Reproduction can be combined withtrimming shoots.
- The most suitable varieties: Black Satin, Thornless Logan.
- Prepare easy soil, wet sand or peat crumb.
- Seeds withstand 3 hours for swelling in water. Then drain excess liquid and place in a damp cloth for 3 days.
- Swollen grain seedfill the prepared substrate with8 mm.
- Soil to compactand pour.
- Place containersin a cool place with a temperature5 degrees Cfor 2 months.
- During this timemonitor the soil moisture. It should not be wet or dry.
- Further,bring the container into a warm room(20 ° C)for germination.
- The presence of three leaveson shoots serve as a signal for picking.
Perhaps you will be interested in these publications:
- Detailed description of the blackberry variety of Thornfree
- Blackberry variety Black Satin is a hybrid of the Darrow variety with Thornfrey
- Description of red currant varieties Sugar
- Proper cultivation of the binge blackberry
- Winter-resistant varieties of pears for cultivation in Siberia
What is the use of autumn pruning?
Bushes of blackberry fruit only once. If the first year is spent on its full cultivation to lignified stems, then in the second year of life it blooms and fructifies. Her fruit cycle ends on this.Therefore, from biennial copies, it is necessary to get rid and properly form a bush. As:
- young siblingsnot enough to receive nutrients from the soil, and wasted on old specimens;
- do not ripen young shoots, the berries become smaller;
- there is a thickening of the planting. There is no access to the sun in the middle of the bush. Hence frost resistance decreases. Harvesting is complicated. Berries lose their sugar content.
Young specimens should also be pruned to stimulate flowering for the next season.Pruning in autumn helps strengthen the bush, normalizes the load on it, improves aging.
How to properly cut a blackberry and form a bush in autumn
Algorithm of actions:
- Once the crop is harvested, you should inspect the plantation andbegin to prune two-year-old blackberry bushes,to form a strong bush. Hemp must be removed. This will make it possible to avoid purulent processes during hibernation;
- Young specimens with thin and short stems are removed, that is, unformed and not fully ripe bushes;
- destroying branches,damaged by diseases and pests;
- remainingYoung growth is shortened to the fourth part. Cut above the kidney;
- for a uniform load on the bush,should be left6-8 shoots. Given that the plant will winter, perhaps, their freezing, leave two shoots more than 8-10, and in the spring inspect the plant. To make the berries large and have a good harvest, you need 5-6 live shoots.Frozen branches are removed.
Formation of erect bush
- Trellis is prepared, length, m. with a wire in several rows. The distance between them is 30-50 cm.
- Young bushes grow attached to the bottom rowand evenly distributed from the center of the plant, parallel to the ground.
- Fruit-bearingbranches are centered.
- In autumn, after harvesting,the central part is cut to the root,and the young are circumcised and sheltered for the winter.
Formation of a cluster of creeping varieties
- Sweeping varieties have long shoots.Using trellises allows you to increase the yield, since the branches remain with the maximum length. On the trellis they are located fan-shaped in different directions from the fruiting stems on the three lower wires.
- In the spring, the stems are cut up to a meter.
- During the growing season, new shoots appear, they are also tied to the wire horizontally in both directions in the form of a fan. Only next year they will bear fruit. This method facilitates periodic pruning and harvesting.
- The branches on the wire can be placed in both directions without a central fastening. Fruit-bearing stems in one direction, young shoots in another. Each year, the harvest of berries will alternate between left and right.
Selected place and proper care for the blackberry: top dressing, watering, pruning, processing will allow to receive high yields and to please the seven medical berries..