Cabbage Peking not so long ago appeared on the shelves of vegetable stores. Almost immediately became popular. Especially like kochannye forms. But in the gardens you do not often see it. But all work should be carried out according to the rules, sowing terms. It is important. Then on your site will be flaunted Peking cabbage - growing and grooming, a photo of the crop is proof of this. Attractive Peking is that it is easy to plant, grow, and the rapid build-up of mass, yield is an additional plus to the positive qualities of this vegetable..
- Cabbage Peking - growing from seeds
- Cultivation of Peking cabbage in a greenhouse and open ground
Like any representative of the cabbage family, Peking is a long-day plant. To blossom, bear fruit, she needs at least a 13-hour light-day. That is, for reproduction (flowering and subsequent obtaining of seeds) cabbage needs a long light day. But if the duration of the light-day is less than 12 hours, then the seed arrow will not form, but the growth of the leaf, the ovary will be active.
Consequently, for the cultivation of this vegetable culture for the sake of leaves, cabbage a limited short light period is required, the air temperature is about +15.. + 20 ° C. When the light day is shortened, the plant does not let the shooter (does not work on the ovary of the seeds) - it just does not have time to do it, since there is not enough time. All forces are activated on the formation of leaves - and this is what we need, since the main thing for a Peking is the leaves, a leaf socket that forms a head.
That is, if the Peking cabbage is grown not for the sake of seeds, but for the sake of leaves, it needs a short light day - that's why it is sown in early spring, when the light day is shorter, when the temperature is low, there is no heat..
Cabbage Peking - growing from seeds
Pechenka is cold-resistant enough, so the sprouting of germs can be observed at +3.. + 5 ° C. The most optimal temperature regime for activating the vital forces of the plant is approximately + 23 ° C. After the appearance of leaves, the temperature can be lowered to + 15..17 ° C in the daytime, up to + 14 ° C at night.
Seasonal, climatic features of the region determine the conditions for planting Peking cabbage on seedlings. This can be as open beds in the suburban area, and a greenhouse.
First of all, decide on the cabbage variety. If you want to get a quick result, then choose varieties that quickly ripen, for example - Khibinskaya, Asten, Lenok. Only after 50 days from the time of puncturing the first shoots, a full-leaf leaf rosette is formed, and after 60 days (from the moment of emergence) an elongated half-open head appears.
When to sow Peking cabbage for seedlings? In early spring, usually the first of March, cabbage seeds are sown under the film, and in the last days of March and early April (dates indicated for the Kuban) - open ground.
Thus, in early May, it is already possible to harvest the first crop if the pekinka was grown in greenhouse conditions.
Plants prefer loose, organic-rich soils of medium mechanical composition with a high arable horizon. On light soils quickly dry out, and on heavy soil they get sick with a whale. Organic fertilizers are applied to the previous culture. To the increased acidity of the soil is not very sensitive, but the saline soil is not well tolerated. The optimum pH of the soil solution is . If the soil is saline, before sowing it is necessary to smell sawdust or straw. A sustained rapid growth requires a large amount of nutrients, especially nitrogen.
The best predecessors of the Peking cabbage are cultures, which after themselves leave the soil with enough nutrients, pure from weeds, which do not share common pathogens (cucumbers, zucchini, onions, tomatoes, beans).
Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 3-4 ° C. Adult plants withstand short-term frosts to -5-7 ° C. Optimum temperature for plants varies: 18-20 ° C - at an early stage, 15-16 ° C - in the phase of formation of heads, 10-13 ° C - at the end of this phase. To form a dense head, a temperature of 15-16 ° C is required. Lower temperatures promote a transition to flowering, higher temperatures result in the formation of narrow leaves. Long-term chills Peking cabbage does not tolerate - can form arrows. The same happens in a strong heat.
Sowing seeds is done like this:.
- seeds are poured with a small amount of hot water (about 50 ° C) for 15-20 minutes;
- After the specified time, the seeds are cooled with cold water, dried;
- dry seeds are mixed with small wood sawdust (tyrosa);
- the soil for sowing must be moistened, the seeds are sown in rows at a distance of 35-40 cm;
- sowing is done nesting - for 3-5 seeds, 30-40 cm apart;
- seeds are buried approximately 2-3 cm;
- after the shoots have ascended, thinning is done: first two of the largest sprouts are left, and then one is the most powerful one.
To get a generous autumn harvest of the peking, a second seeding is performed starting from the last days of August - until September 15-17 (terms for the Kuban).
Seedlings of Peking cabbage can also be grown on a windowsill.
For this, the seeds are buried at -1 cm in the soil. After there are 2 or 3 leaves, the strongest ones are left of them, and the others are picked off. After 3-4 weeks, the plant can be transplanted into the open ground (25 × 35 cm).
Before planting, the plants are watered, sick and weak. Three days before planting, the plants are treated with insecticides (Confidor, Aktara) against the cabbage fly, cruciferous flea. When planting, ensure that the root collar is not below the soil level, otherwise the plants will rot..
It is necessary to transplant the seedlings neatly, since the roots of the pekinki are quite fragile. After disembarkation, all the bushes are watered closer to the roots.
To quickly formed heads, you can shorten the light day by artificial means - with the onset of the evening, cover the seedlings with some suitable covering material (for example, lutrasilom).↑ back to content ↑
Cultivation of Peking cabbage in a greenhouse and open ground.
In greenhouse conditions, seedlings of seedlings are planted in early April. To make up the soil, it is preliminarily carried in the compost bucket for every 2 m². If in the greenhouse you sow seeds directly into the ground, then the first shoots can be expected after 3 or 4 days. For the best development of plants, pre-mix the seeds with sand, and moisten the soil well.
Greenhouse cultivation of Peking cabbage provides a shallow penetration of seeds into the soil. The depth of sowing should be about 1 cm, the ryadochki should be located about 10 cm apart, and between the bushes should be - somewhere 4-5 cm.
If Peking cabbage is planted on an open stretch of land, then the site itself should be well illuminated, be relatively windless (if possible). The soil under the cabbage must be sufficiently moist, saturated with humus. It will be very good if the source of moisture (irrigation system) will be close to the beds with Peking cabbage.
As already mentioned, Peking is a cold-hardy plant, therefore, it tolerates lowering temperatures quite comfortably. At 4 ° C, the seeds germinate without problems, and a temperature of + 15..22 ° C provides optimal conditions for the harmonious development of the vegetable culture. Thus, the cultivation of Peking cabbage in the open ground should begin in early May (and seeds for this seedling should be planted by the end of March).
It is not necessary to plant the bushes very close to each other, 12-16 pieces per 1 m2 will be enough.
With regard to the seedless way of planting, it is usually done three times for the entire season:
- end of March-beginning of April;
- 14 days after the first seeding;
- in the first days of September.
The rate of maturation of cabbage will depend on these time parameters. Since Peking is an early ripening vegetable culture, the formation of the rosette can be observed after 40-50 days, and the appearance of full-fledged heads - 60-80 days after sowing seeds in the soil. The subsequent care for cabbage will consist in the timely moistening of the soil, loosening, the removal of weeds from the beds.
At this stage, it is highly discouraged to use any additives or fertilizers. Pechenka is very "fond" of accumulating nitrates, all kinds of chemical compounds, so to save your health, better give up the excipients.
Peking cabbage, the cultivation and care of which is based on three rules:
- correct lighting,
- temperature regime,
She will be grateful to you for one very valuable agro-technique - modern covering material (non-woven fabric) will protect young seedlings from sudden temperature changes. Do not forget that young shoots react very badly to the cold, in contrast to the already formed plants. Covering material can also protect the pekinku from the scorching sun, heat, and in the rainy period - from excessive moisture.
Leaf varieties are removed at a height of 10-15 cm, in the phase of 5-7 leaves.
Headed forms - with the formation of dense heads, when their mass with an open socket reaches 300 g. Coating leaves are removed, heads are put in boxes.
Harvest can be removed all at once, and can be divided into two methods, pulling the plants together with the roots. If you pull out through one, then the remaining heads will grow very quickly.
Early ripening hybrids of Peking cabbage are harvested until the temperature of the air drops sharply. Cultivation of late-ripe varieties or hybrids in the autumn allows to prolong the period of vegetation until the onset of permanent frosts.
Frozen in the open ground cabbage (-3-5 ° C) after thawing at a positive temperature do not lose presentation and taste, are characterized by a high content of ascorbic acid (50 mg% or more), sugars (4-5%). Thanks to this feature, Peking cabbage can be harvested at the end of November.
With the onset of cold weather, it is possible to cover the remaining cabbage on the bed with earth, humus or shelter. And early in the spring you will get the greens of Peking cabbage for salad.
Let your harvest be abundant, and the process of cultivation and care - cognitive and positive..