The device's own water source on a country site will significantly increase the degree of comfort. Agree, to bring water in sufficient quantities to the country - a costly undertaking, especially since some sites are significantly removed from the city. You have decided on the construction of water intake, but do not know how to find water for the well?
We will help you deal with the subtleties of the search - the article presents various methods and techniques that are in demand among owners of country plots. Also selected video recommendations and colorful photos that clearly demonstrate the material presented.
Taking into account our recommendations, it will be easy for you to find water on site. And you can provide yourself with the usual living conditions and enough water for personal use and construction needs.
The content of the article:
- Aquifers and location in the ground
- Impact of depth on water quality
Observation when searching
- Observation # 1 - summer fogs
- Observation # 2 - Animal Behavior
- Observation # 3 - plant species
- Observation # 4 - help from friends and neighbors
Practical search techniques
- Method # 1 - using glass containers
- Method # 2 - Use of a hygroscopic material.
Almost scientific methods of biolocation
- No. 1 - Electrodes and aluminum wire
- No. 2 - willow vine at the heart of the search
- Water search by drilling
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Aquifers and location in the ground
Under the ground there is water, but it is not so easy to find. You can, of course, dig a hole at random in the hope of accidentally stumble upon an aquifer, but the result is likely to be disappointing.
Meanwhile, it happens that if you didn’t miss two meters, the desired goal would have been achieved. After all, the water in the ground is between the layers of soil, which it is not able to erode because of its impermeable composition, which is based on clay and rock.
Clay layers are interspersed with sandy layers, gravel and pebble deposits. They contain clean water. It is up to such an aquifer and it is necessary to get to those who decided to dig a well on their site.
Aquifers lie unevenly and their location is not so easy to find, but for those who are going to equip the well, such information is necessary
It should be noted that the aquifer is not the same in geometrical parameters throughout its length. Somewhere the sand layer becomes thinner, and in other places it becomes wider and deeper.
The waterproof layer is also not the same: in one place it is horizontal, and in another it can bend or even bend. In the places of curvature of the waterproof layer, the largest volumes of sand saturated with water are stored.
Impact of depth on water quality
If you dig a well in the place where the water is exactly located, the aquifer can be found even just some two or two and a half meters from the earth's surface. Knowledgeable people call this water layer a top layer and do not use for drinking.
Proximity to the surface is an unkind sign, because the water has accumulated due to the melting of snow, the infiltration of rain flows and the waters of nearby reservoirs. The quality of water in it leaves much to be desired, because there is a high probability of seepage of sewage and other dirt.
The deeper the aquifer is located, the less likely it is that all sorts of dirt on the surface of the soil will ruin the water.
In addition, the mirror of such water, as a rule, is unstable. A well with a top layer can dry out completely at the time of summer heat and be filled in the season of melting snow or autumn rains.
And this means that the water supply sources that feed on water pipes will also be empty, and summer residents will be left without water during the hot summer season, when it is especially needed. Under such circumstances, it is better to forget about harvest plans. After all, until late autumn, water in the well is not foreseen.
Therefore, we will seek water deeper. Experts believe that high-quality water is not too deep, just 15 meters from the soil level. In the sands, the water is clean and tasty. The sandy layer in which water is “stored” is a natural filter. Passing moisture through himself, he cleans it from the remnants of dirt and harmful elements.
If you are interested in building a personal water source at your summer cottage, you should compare the arguments in favor of the device. well or borehole, and also to learn about their shortcomings. We offer to get acquainted with the comparative review.
Observation when searching
The ability to notice and analyze the collected information has never been superfluous. It was in this way that our ancestors found water, who were not yet armed with the achievements of science and technology. What exactly the facts and phenomena of nature will help us in the search for water?
Observation # 1 - summer fogs
Fogs may appear on the site in the warm season. It happens this natural phenomenon or in the early morning, or closer to the evening. If you observe fog in your area, pay attention to its density: it will be the highest in the place where the water is closest to the soil surface.
If early in the morning you see fog in your garden, swirling or concentrated in one of its corners, then it is safe to say that there is water in your area
The cause of this fog is the evaporation of water, which is located underground. In one place, as usual fog, he will not stand. Moisture fumes may be swirling or moving very low above the ground.
Observation # 2 - Animal Behavior
Unlike people, animals perfectly know where exactly underground water is located. It is a pity that they can not tell us about it. Yes, they will not be able to tell, but please share your knowledge.
Observing the behavior of domestic and wild animals and birds, we can get all the necessary information:
- Dog. A dog is a friend of a man and it will surely help him in finding water for a well. In the heat, dogs are always looking for an opportunity to cool their bodies, so they dig holes where it is cooler. These are the places we are looking for.
- Horse. Thirsty, the horse beats its hoof in the place where there is water under the ground.
- Harvest mouse. But mice love where it is dry. They will never make their nests near high humidity places. It is better to climb on a tree or on any building, towering above the soil level.
- Domestic bird. The hen does not rush where it is wet, and the geese, on the contrary, choose for their nests the places of intersection of underground aquifers.
Even the midges feel the proximity of water. If you look at her behavior at dusk, when the summer heat has already receded, then we will see columns of insects circling in the air just above those places where it is cooler than everything - where there is something under the ground that we need.
Dogs, like people, hardly endure heat and drought. They are trying to get to the coolest soil layers, which are just above the aquiferous vein.
In the place unwittingly indicated to us by representatives of the animal world, you can safely beat Abyssinian well for water extraction in the garden and for the care of the territory.
Observation # 3 - plant species
Who and know about the presence or absence of water in the area, if not plants? It is not surprising that they are used as indicators. If your site feels good blackberry, buckthorn, lingonberry, bearberry, bird cherry, wood lice and wild rosemary, then it makes sense to look for an aquifer - it is always present.
Plants do not always love excess water. If it is too much, then they can even get sick and stop bearing fruit.
Look closely at the birch: its modest growth and knotty trunk with curvature reveals the presence of a nearby watercourse. Conifers also prefer to grow where it is dry.
By the way, the presence of close groundwater - it is not always good for gardeners. After all, cherries and apples prefer moderate humidity: their overwetting can provoke tree diseases and fruit rotting.
Observation # 4 - help from friends and neighbors
If your site is part of a horticultural society or you have neighbors nearby, be sure to chat with them. As a rule, they have already solved the problems that you are fighting today. If there is an exploited well or well in their area, then you will have water too.
The neighbors should find out at what depth the water at their source, whether the level is stable in it. Thus, it is easiest and easiest to gather information and plan work on device well. For private owners, a survey of owners of adjacent areas is the only expedient way to obtain hydrogeological data.
You should always maintain friendly relations with your neighbors: it is they who will be the first to come to your aid, should that happen, they will protect your property from thieves
Try to find out not only the current state of the local water intake, but also the fluctuations of the water level throughout the year, as well as the composition of the water. Agree that it is not too pleasant to find your site in spring with flooded flood waters. Get vital information for you in a timely manner.
Practical search techniques
When the observation stage is over, and the neighbor said that he bought the site already with a well, it is time to practically search for water layers using standard or non-standard methods.
Method # 1 - using glass containers
Finding the right amount of glass jars of the same size is not a problem for those who occasionally do home canning. If you do not have cans, buy them, they will definitely need them sooner or later.
The contents of ordinary glass jars eloquently tell you exactly where the aquifer can be located: look for a tank with the highest concentration of condensate
Glass jars of the same size should be dug up to a depth of at least 5 cm throughout the entire area. The duration of the experiment - a day. The next morning, until the sun rises, you can dig out and turn over the dishes.
We are interested in those banks that have condensate. Its more in banks located above the aquifers.
Method # 2 - Use of a hygroscopic material.
It is known that salt is hygroscopic, that is, it is able to absorb moisture even from the air. The same properties and has red brick, crushed into powder. Silica gel is another material that is perfect for our purposes.
For the experiment we will need several clay pots, not coated with glaze. Choose a day when it has not been raining for a long time and we expect that it will not be expected in the next 24 hours.
You need such pots, which are not covered with glaze from inside and outside, because they “breathe” perfectly and are able to let in water vapor
Fall asleep material in pots and weigh the resulting "devices". It is better to number the pots, and write the data. We wrap each pot with non-woven material and bury it at a depth of half a meter into the ground in different places of the plot.
A day later we dig up the bookmarks and re-weigh. The heavier the pot has become, along with its contents, the closer to the site of its laying the aquifer is located.
Almost scientific methods of biolocation
Despite all the skepticism of professional drillers, dowsing is used to this day and gives good results. Consider two ways to do this water search.
No. 1 - Electrodes and aluminum wire
For this experiment, we will need two pieces of aluminum wire 40 cm long. Fold 10 cm on each piece at a right angle for the handles. For the remaining 25 cm you will need a hollow tube, for example, from an elderberry, with a core removed.
Insert the wire into the elder tube so that it can freely spin inside the channel. By the way, instead of elderberry, you can use viburnum, willow or hazel.
Usually those who are professionally engaged in biolocation use a rather complicated framework that we need for nothing, especially since the principle of work and the result will be the same
We take in each hand one tube so that their ends look in opposite directions. We go on the site in the direction from north to south. Elbows should be pressed to the body. The frame, not tightly clamped in fists, serves as an extension of the hand.
In the place where there is an aquifer, the wires turn around and converge to the middle. It is possible that the water may be to the right or to your left, then both tubes will “look” in this direction.
When you pass the aquifer, the pipes again turn in different directions. To make sure that you are not mistaken, walk again over the place where the tubes are closed. This time in the direction perpendicular to the previous one (from east to west). If the closure is repeated, the right place is found and it is here that the well should be dug.
No. 2 - willow vine at the heart of the search
We need a willow, on which there is a branch, as if split into two parts, forming an angle of 150 degrees between each other (approximately). This is actually a finished "frame" - the main tool that will be used by us. But the frame can not be exploited immediately. Be patient, let the wood dry first.
People engaged in dowsing in ancient times. We also should not abandon this method, especially since it is sufficiently effective.
The finished frame is taken at the ends of the branches so that the “beak”, located in the middle, looks upwards. With this vine and you need to slowly go around the whole area. Above the location of the aquifer, the vine "bite", that is, the middle part of the frame will be directed downwards.
Not every person knows how to properly handle the vine, so dowsing is the lot of the few. For those who are ready to experience themselves, we remind you that the most accurate values can be obtained using the frame:
- in the morning from 6 to 7 o'clock;
- after lunch from 4 to 5 o'clock;
- in the evening from 8 to 9 o'clock;
- at night from 12 to 1 o'clock.
Such studies bring results. Here only the water found may turn out to be upper course or underground communications passing under the site and collecting condensate.
Water search by drilling
The final result can be obtained by the method of exploration drilling. He will put an end to all your doubts. For drilling wells you will need a garden auger. Since we have already discussed the merits of water that is dangerously close to the earth’s surface, it will have to be drilled to a depth of at least 6 meters.
The only way to make sure that the place was found correctly, so much effort was spent searching for us, is to drill the soil and the underlying layers of soil to see what is there
Suppose an aquifer is found. But before you start digging a long-awaited well, you need to make sure that you find good quality water. To do this, send it to study the composition and degree of contamination in the sanitary epidemiological station. Also water for analysis will need to pass after the arrangement of water intake.
If the results you are satisfied with, we can assume that the search for a place under the well completed.
A photo of
For a simplified geological survey, a manual machine will be suitable, including a drill pipe with a screw and a set of rods to increase the depth
During drilling, it is necessary to periodically extract rock from the wellbore to determine its composition and the presence of groundwater.
When extracting clay rocks, the texture resembles clay with some sand content, drilling should continue. There is no water in sandy loam and loam.
When extracting sand saturated with water, approximately 1–2 m is being drilled. It is necessary to reach clayey soil, the underlying aquifer. The auger can not lift the aquifer, in this case, a wet tool without a blade can also be considered a sign of the opening of the aquifer
Manual drilling machine for up to 10 - 25 m
Drilling an exploratory well with a hammer
Layering of loam with sandy loam without water
Water saturated sand
The most expensive and, at the same time, the most reliable way is to drill holes and punch wells using professional equipment.
Using it, we will get the following information:
- soil thickness at the site;
- the quantity and quality of water detected;
- the depth of the aquifer;
- location of quicksand, boulders and slabs;
- the approximate amount that we need to build a well.
It’s not at all the fact that the place you are scouting will be conveniently located relative to the proposed buildings on your site, but sometimes the owners are lucky.
Finding the right place for digging a well five meters from your home. In this case, when building an independent water supply system with automatic water supply, the section of pipes laid in the ground will be minimal. So, it will require less investment.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Watch the video below, he will introduce you to biolocation methods. You will see the practical application of the biolocation method. Geologists do not recommend using this method, considering it pseudoscientific. If the method itself is controversial, then the ring manipulations that you see in this video are more than doubtful.
In our article, biolocation is mentioned solely in order to provide the most complete information about all the methods of water search that are actually used in practice.
The following video will present the principle of the study of soils and their state by drilling methods. In this video, works on reconnaissance digging with the help of a probe (zhelonka) are visually presented. This is a fairly time-consuming process that is difficult to perform alone, without using either a tripod or a gate.
In addition, there is a real risk of wellbore collapse if you do not use a casing to fix it.
If you are looking for water for a well, you need to have an idea of the aquifers, how they are located underground and the effect of the depth of water on its quality characteristics.
Be observant during the search. Follow the plants, natural phenomena and animals. Their behavior will help you determine if there is water in your area.
Not redundant will be the folk water search tools, as well as information received from neighbors. In addition, water is sought and the method of biolocation. The drilling method is considered to be the most effective, although time consuming. Armed with the information you receive, you can start searching. If there is water on your site, you will definitely find it.
Please write comments in the box below. Ask questions if they arise in the course of familiarization with the information provided by us. Tell us and site visitors about your own experience in determining a place for a well in a country plot.