Cultivation of cucumbers in the open field. varieties, seeds, care

Cucumbers belong to the family of pumpkin, grown almost everywhere. In the Kuban they grow well in a greenhouse or under the sun. If the cultivation of cucumbers in the open ground is the only way for you to get a good harvest, the success will depend on the fact, what seeds did you buy, what grade was chosen, as well as from the care of plants, agrotechnical cultivation, which has its own secrets. Planting cucumbers in the open ground can be carried on or on the trellis.

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Content:
  • Cucumber seed treatment before planting
  • Cucumber planting in open ground
  • Seed care
  • Watering cucumbers
  • How to collect your seeds of cucumbers
  • Varieties, hybrids of cucumbers for open ground
  • Fur Crusher F1
  • Nightingale F1
  • Golubchik F1
  • Levina F1
  • Spring F1
  • Phoenix-640
  • Competitor

According to scientists, cucumber does not have high nutritional value. But this is a very valuable dietary vegetable. After all, you probably noticed more than once that a salad with fresh or salted cucumber improves appetite. And doctors believe that metabolism improves with regular intake of food, which includes cucumber. If you eat cucumbers from your garden for 4 days - only cucumbers and nothing more, then you will completely renew all the blood in your body.


Cucumber juice can quickly reduce the acidity of the stomach. You can even bring down the temperature of the patient, giving him a fresh cucumber meal or drinking a cucumber juice, as he has diuretic properties. Cosmetologists willingly use it for the preparation of whitening, refreshing, rejuvenating masks.

Cucumber is a thermophilic plant. The most comfortable temperature in the daytime for him is 22-26 degrees, and at night it is desirable that it does not fall below 18-20 degrees. In cold weather, a decrease in temperature to 10 degrees, plant growth slows down, vegetation is suspended, and with prolonged cooling, the plant may die. Low air temperature is one of the most important reasons for failures when growing cucumbers in the open ground. This feature applies to all pumpkin thermophilic plants.

The best precursors of cucumbers are potatoes, tomatoes, onions, cabbage, peppers, peas. But after the legumes, although after them the soil is enriched with nitrogen, experts do not advise them to plant. The reason is that both these plants are affected by white rot.

I keep my seeds in the warmth in the winter, but so that they do not dry out, this can later affect the energy of germination.

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Cucumber seed treatment before planting

Before planting in the open ground, I heat the seeds: I put a plank over the battery, I put a paper open box with seeds from above, I hold them there for 5-6 hours. Only we must take into account that the temperature of the battery should not be above 60 ° C. Well reduces the thermal effect, put under the box newspaper of several layers or veneer. It is believed that such heating contributes to the formation of female flowers.

I decontaminate the warmed seeds - I treat it with a pink solution of potassium permanganate for 20-25 minutes, then put them in a fine strainer, washed with cold running water (under the tap). Now more often instead of potassium permanganate (disappeared from pharmacies) I use 2-3% hydrogen peroxide solution, which I preheat to a temperature of 38-40 degrees - withstand 7-8 minutes; or a solution of boric acid - ½ teaspoon powder + 1 glass of water - stand for 2-3 hours at a temperature of 25-30 degrees.Then also the seeds should be washed under running cold water.

After disinfection, the seeds are dried until flowability - so it is easier to sow.

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Cucumber planting in open ground

I plant cucumbers in the open ground after April 20 - depth, -2 cm. Deeper is not necessary - sprouts will be difficult to break through a thicker layer of earth. In the hole I put 4-5 seeds, if their seeds. But if the variety is new, the seed is small, then I put it one by one, so that later I do not break through, do not lose valuable seed material.

Of course, in the one-seed method, there is a loss of the wells (emptiness). The seeds of cucumbers have the shortest germination period (3-5 days), so there I do a repeated landing, only now sprouted seeds.

Cucumbers in the open ground planted both without support, and with a support (on the trellis or next to the stalk of corn). If this is an unsupported method, then I have rows at such a distance from each other so that when collecting fruits there is free space for movement - usually from 70 cm to 1 m. By the way, there are also bush forms, they do not weave, so the distance between such plants is 50-60 cm.

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Seed care

The first thinning of cucumber shoots (if several seeds are sown) I spend, when 1-2 present leaflets appear, the next 3-4 leaves, removing weakened or ugly plants. Usually I leave one plant in the hole.

In vain, many believe that leaving one plant, not two, the crop will fall by half. Practice has verified that this is not so. Cucumber, although it has a poorly developed root system, sucks a lot of nutrients out of the earth. If two plants grow nearby, they fight each other for a place under the sun, each gets less power, and they shade each other.

It is very important, when making thinning, it is good to water the ground, not to pull out the plants, if another closely grows nearby. Such it is necessary to cut off at the ground. A cucumber has a weak root system. The roots of closely growing plants are intertwined with each other - you can inadvertently pull out both. In addition, pulling out excess plants, we thereby damage the roots of the main plant. It is a shock for a while. Vegetation is delayed until the damaged area where the sucking root hair has been cut off, will heal. Splinted hairs can not be restored. Should grow a new root, it should appear hairs, only then the plant nutrition is restored. That is, it takes five days, sometimes a week, and this is bad. Since we want to get fruits as early as possible, then any delay is undesirable.

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I strongly advise after thinning, even if you are sure that nothing has been damaged, spray cucumbers with a solution of natural growth stimulator HB-101 (1-2 drops + 1 liter of water). This will strengthen, revitalize your plants, stimulate their further growth, increase their resistance to strong winds, acid precipitation. Instruction from the manufacturer gives advice to carry out treatment with this drug at least once a week. Spraying will not be superfluous from the emergence of shoots and until the fruit ripens.

Very good results are obtained by sowing 4-5 varieties per bed. Especially it concerns sorts of a female type which at the beginning of flowering do not have man's flowers, can not bear fruit without varieties-pollinators.

I once read that the cucumber plant regulates the number of pawns, so many female flowers, which, as a rule, are many, fall off. But my observations do not confirm this. Perhaps because I always plant 5-7 varieties, and such as Phoenix-640, starting to bloom give mainly only male flowers.

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An important agrotechnical method of growing cucumbers in the open ground is the direction of the weaves "downwind". If this is not done, then the wind blowing from the side of the whip or directly to the point of growth can turn the whip, and the cucumber leaves all the time are drawn to the sun. In an inverted whip, the leaves will tend to take their usual position, and for this they need the extra energy that they take from the growth and formation of the pods. Of course, it is necessary to correct the direction of the whips in the direction of the wind at the very beginning of their formation. For example, in summer, the most frequent wind direction is in the southwest or west. So, as the lashes grow, I periodically guide the growing end so that it grows to the northeast.

A turned or inverted whip is a shock to the plant, a crisis. This should be taken into account when collecting fruits, if possible, not to injure the whip, leaves.

Destruction of weeds should be carried out as they grow. Those who assert that weeds protect cucumber plants from burning sun rays are not right. No, weeds are a favorable environment for the development of pests, fungal and bacterial diseases. In addition, weeds take some of the nutrients from the soil.

Loosening is usually combined with the weeding of weeds. While the cucumber plant is vertical, at loosening it is necessary to make a small hilling.

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I advise you to make summer planting of this vegetable, for example, after harvesting onions. The place has been freed, and it's still a long way to the cold, you can take it with cucumbers. My summer crop can not be worse than spring. Well-established in the summer planting such varieties as Stork, Nightingale, Rodnichok, Golubchik.

By this time, the spring plantings have already completed their vegetation, and the summer ones are gaining strength. The harvest is enough not only for food, but also for billets, and some can even be sold or shared with friends.

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Watering cucumbers

Cucumber is a moisture-loving plant, but it should be watered only with warm water. When watering with cold water, root rot, powdery mildew, and other diseases may appear. At me specially for such heat-loving plants there is a barrel with water on the sun. Water in the evening, the water by this time is well heated.

A good protection of cucumbers from diseases is abundant watering (1-2 times per season) on leaves from above or spraying milk-iodine solution - 1 liter of the present, from under the cow (not a magazine from the packages) milk + 5 drops of iodine + bucket water (10 L).

Cucumbers are very sensitive to water disturbance. If there is a lack or excess of moisture in the soil, the development of plants is disturbed: the fruits are deformed, the ovaries fall, the yield decreases. They are best watered less often, but abundantly, avoiding the drying of the soil.

Good results are obtained if you arrange a shower from a watering can or a sprayer. Cucumbers love these refreshing watering, only it is necessary to conduct them with the calculation, that at night the plants leave with completely dry leaves. The remaining drops on the leaves create favorable conditions for the development of fungal or bacterial diseases.

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How to collect your seeds of cucumbers

Now about your own seeds. When planting several varieties of cucumbers, even if there are no plantings around for a kilometer, it is not recommended to collect seeds anyway because of the pollination. All pumpkin, highly perepylyaetsya. If you still want to have your own seeds, then if it's not a hybrid (there is no F1 designation), you have to do it.

On the best plants to break the male flower (yellow unopened bud), cut the corolla (yellow petals), and place the anther on the stigma of the female flower pestle ("anoint it"). Then the female bud together with the anthers of the male flower should be wrapped with a thin layer of cotton wool or a piece of gauze bandage so that the bees can not reach the stigma and bring the pollen from other plants. Attach the label to the peduncle of the pollinated flower.

Pollination is carried out in the early morning (up to 8 hours), when the male and female buds have not yet been uncovered. If the plant does not have male flowers, then they can be taken from other plants, but of course this variety.

This is very laborious work. Own varietal seeds of the family of pumpkin can be proud, if, of course, there is confidence that the pollination is done correctly, no perepylyleniya.

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Varieties, hybrids of cucumbers for open ground

Varieties or hybrids should be chosen such that bitterness is genetically absent. Fortunately, now the seed producers put information about this on the bags. Such varieties, even at high summer temperatures, will not be bitter.

And now briefly about those varieties and hybrids of cucumbers that I grow in the open ground.

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Fur Crusher F1

Hybrid selection of the Crimean experimental station for open ground. I advise you to try. Very yielding. Each node has 4-5 fruits. Early ripening, bee-dusted. Cucumber ellipsoid, coarse-lumpy, 11-12 cm long, weighing 80-110 g. The taste qualities of fresh and canned fruits are excellent, that is, the variety belongs to the universal. Fruits will be collected until September. Resistant to powdery mildew, bacteriosis, medium-resistant to downy mildew. Not bad copes with peronosprozom. Bitterness is not present.

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Nightingale F1

Hybrid selection of the Crimean experimental station for open ground. Can be grown under a film. Early ripening, bee-dusted, begins to bear fruit after 44-50 days. The shape of the cucumber is oval-cylindrical, I would say elegant. Color - bright green. Beautiful. The length of the fruit is 8-11 cm, weight 70-95 g. Large knobby. The taste qualities of fresh, canned, pickled cucumbers are excellent. Without bitterness. Resistant to real and false powdery mildew, angular patchiness, tobacco mosaic virus.

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Golubchik F1

Early-ripening bee-dusted hybrid of the Crimean experimental station. Suitable for growing outdoors and greenhouses. This is an improved Nightingale, repeats all of its qualities, properties, but even better. Resistant to mealy and downy mildew.

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Levina F1

Hybrid breeding of the Crimean experimental station. Cucumber of the XXI century! Zernens such as cornichon, without bitterness. The taste qualities of fresh, canned, salted fruit are excellent. It is resistant to powdery mildew and false, to mushroom and bacterial diseases.

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Spring F1

The selection hybrid of the Pridnestrovie Institute for open ground and spring film greenhouses, bee-dusted, medium-ripening, fruit bearing begins after 50-55 days. A reliable variety. I never failed. Zelenians cylindrical, 9-10 cm long, weighing 80-100 g. High taste qualities, without bitterness. Salt. It is resistant to anthracnose, to bacteriosis, olive spotting.

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Phoenix-640

The selection of the Crimean experimental station for open ground. Bee-polluted, mid-ripening. The most resistant variety to downy mildew. Zelenets about 10 cm long. Fruits grow rapidly, become puzatenkimi, but on taste it does not affect in any way. It has excellent taste and salty qualities. Reliable, proven grade. Every year I plant it.

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Competitor

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The selection of the Crimean experimental station for open ground. Early ripening, bee-dusted, fruit begins in 45-50 days. Salt. Fruits 10-14 cm long, the peduncle very long - 5-7 cm. Valued for resistance to downy mildew.

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