Today we will talk about three varieties of plums:Morning, Yakhontovaya and Malakhovskaya. These varieties, like others, are characterized by different forms of rootlets, leaves, appearance of fruits and many other factors. A detailed description can be found below..
Table of contents
- History of selection of varieties
- Description of varieties, advantages and disadvantages
- Favorable landing regions
- Planting seedlings and further care for the plum
- Plum Reproduction
- Diseases and pests
History of selection of varieties
History of the Morningbegins at the All-Russian Selection and Technology Institute of Horticulture and Nursery, through the crossing of the Redmond and Redcloud Ullens. In its turn,Yahotovaya is selected by selectionEurasia-21 and Smolinka. Between 1971 and 2007, there wasPlodded Malakhovskaya plum in the Michurinsky Gardenamong a number of others..
Description of varieties, advantages and disadvantages
Each gardener will be interested in the advantages and disadvantages of the variety before planting.
- The advantages of the morning include self-propensity(do not form ovaries after pollination with pollen of flowers of their own variety), regular fruiting, rapid maturation, resistance to pests and diseases.The disadvantages are much smaller:susceptibility to colds.
- Yakhontova benefits from cold resistance, which makes it much easier to bear winter (it takes minus twenty-eight or thirty degrees of frost), than it is given, for example, Utru, has a large yield and quality of the fruit itself, fructifies regularly on annual growth, bouquet branches and shportsev, large fruits, the stone easily lags behind the fetus.No shortcomings detected.
- Malakhovskaya blue, like the previous grade, owns good frost resistance, has high-quality fruits, which regularly abundantly pleases the tree of its owners.Disadvantages of the variety are absent.
Favorable landing regions
A favorable region for planting Morning is the Central. Proceeding from the aforesaid in areas such as Siberia, cultivation of this variety is impossible. In the rest it is approximately the same, which will be discussed later. For two other varietiesuniversal landing zone, which can not be called a plus..
Planting seedlings and further care for the plum
Saplings are planted in early spring. Planted in a pit fifty-sixty centimeters deep and about eighty-ninety-centimeter in diameter. Place for planting should be in direct sunlight.The most readily available fertilizer for this variety will be manure. We take him fifteen kilograms. Not by any means fresh! Previously, it must be "processed" at the stake. Here we add a half kilogram of double superphosphate or one kilogram of ordinary, one hundred grams of potassium chloride or one kilogram of wood ash.
The soil must be loose and damp. To get the crown, the owners mustregularly prune your trees. This includes the removal of dead, frozen and branches, blocking the growth of others. The same thing is advised to do with the roots of other plants that are in the neighborhood of the tree.
Do not forget about watering, Morning loves moisture, especially in the summer period. Low trees up to two meters in height need three or four buckets weekly, and large trees require five or six buckets. Winter is the most unfavorable time for a variety. You can help the trees if you cover them with earth and shake off the snow from the branches, pritapyvaya it at the roots.
Also put in early spring.The landing site should be well lit, the groundwater table must be lower than 1.5 meters from the soil surface. It is necessary to dig a hole eighty-ninety centimeters wide and fifty-sixty centimeters deep (as for the previous grade). After that, a seedling is placed and filled with a mixture of sod land with organic and mineral fertilizers.The ratio should be as follows:fifteen kilograms of overgrown manure (or compost), one kilogram of potassium chloride (or one kilogram of wood ash). Fall asleep all this, do not forget to shake the seedling and trample the earth at the roots. Root neck, according to the recommendations, must be at a level of three to five centimeters above the soil level. Around our seedling we dig a hole and water it..
For irrigation, one or two buckets of water will suffice. To ensure that the soil retains moisture, it is treated with a solution of peat or humus. Is ourA young tree should be tied to a wooden cola, which we carefully install next to, from the north side, so that the wind does not break the young plant.
Every year you need to fertilize the ground with ureain the proportion of twenty grams per square meter, and after the plum begins to bear fruit, add ten to fifteen kilograms of overgrown manure (compost), twenty-five grams of urea, two hundred grams of woody ash. Urea and nitrogen fertilizers should be used in the spring, and phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, respectively, in the fall.
Sometimes use slaked lime in a percentage of four to eight hundred grams per square meter.Taking care of the plum, they create approximately the following proportions:twenty-five to forty centimeters trunk and crown, consisting of five to seven branches, placed most beautifully and naturally.
Periodically, it is necessary to prune the branches, removing extra forks, changing the direction of growth to obtain the desired result in the form of a crown. It is important to note thatafter three to four years after entering into the fruiting, a branch is removed from the first upper well developed lateral branch to produce a crown in the form of a bowl. This is needed to enrich the tree with enough sunlight. When cutting, all knots are removed.
For planting this varietydig a pit sixty by sixty by sixty centimeters. There we pour one kilogram of superphosphate, a glass of slaked lime, two buckets of humus (three to four years of debate), mixing is prohibited.
Seedling is planted so that the package in which our seedling was, was equal to the level of land on the site. Just like, and Yakhontovuyu bind the seedling to the cola.For care advise to handle hom, Bordeaux mixture, chorus, fast, alatar, kinimix, inta-vir, feed three years after planting with a fern, azofa, uniflor and others. Every year we treat two hundred to four hundred grams of hydrated lime, cut the trees every year..
The process of reproduction in plums occurs in several ways:
- by planting seeds(for obtaining seedlings);
- vaccination: shoots for grafting are bought or cut;
- root shoots: in autumn we chop the root and plant separately;
- root cuttings: dig out the roots at a distance of one and a half meters, in April they are planted under a film, watered, and next winter planted in the garden.
Diseases and pests
Let's start with Morning. The variety is resistant to fruit rot, klyasterosporiosis. This variety is moresusceptible to attack by pests such as aphids and moth. It is recommended to conduct a digging of the soil under the crowns before the buds are opened, cut and burn the branches affected by the pests. If the same thing happened to the fruits - you need to destroy them, and then treat the trees with a one-percent Bordeaux liquid or nitrafenom.
Jahontovoy dangerous moniliolysis, clystosporiosis. Of the pest of aphids, moth, sawfly. The recommendations are the same. In case you find "burnt" flowers - destroy the escape. I advise you to use Iskra Bio and Inta-vir.
From all the information that has been given here, we can draw a concise conclusion.Of all three varieties, it is difficult to choose the most ideal in all aspects:Morning badly tolerates the cold, Yakhontovaya and Malakhovskaya are subject to various pests. It all depends on your preferences for the characteristics of the fruit, price and others, which we did not mention here. Do not forget about the timing of planting. When choosing a variety, consider the specifics of your region as well, because it can become decisive in the end. I wish you success and a generous harvest..