The laying of communication cables released by a separate document. Collection relating to the topic. At first glance, it seems the rules of communication cabling contradict definitions. As you get you start to understand that the road type is crucial. According to these aspects of the chosen brand, defining methodologies installation on the ground. Let's see how is the laying of communication cables.
Contrasting the grid, the communication cable is often underground. Traditionally used lane highway drainage. The cable runs along the road, under the ground, on poles. Priority is given greater significance highway. If you have the choice to use the federal highway or local, the first is used. Line length is required to be a minimum. In some cases, may be laying communication cables in the ground smoothing sharp edges, straight between the individual sections of the highway. Only in Siberia, the Far East, the Far North, to access the Internet in a private home, the residents are forced to deviate from the rules strictly.
Not all road network developed. Lead line of undeveloped terrain. Allowed to lay cable to the railways. Seeking to communicate are on opposite sides of the web with high-voltage line. If feasible, the power line passes near a railroad track. Finally, many people are interested in what is meant by the term tap road. FIELD beginning of cuvette reserve (lies outside berm).
Bookmark, if possible, conducted trenchless method. Seen as a major steppes old cable pulled the Urals, then rent and share? A similar method is laid only in the reverse direction. Bulldozer engaged in decent size, carrying a bay connected cable. Using a special harrow vein lies immediately below the ground. After the technology is still Bole less smooth seam. The use of mechanized labor in laying strictly rationed. BCH 116 look about it (for fiber-optic lines issued a separate regulation, RM 13-2):
- The volume of earthworks performed appliances - not less than 80%.
- Cabling mechanized 87%.
- Feeding line in cable ducts - at least 65%.
A situation where the commander of the unit gives good Kazakhs dig a cable pass (then share) in the root of the irreversible. The route is laid mainly appliances without manpower. If it is impossible to use the road drainage is allowed priplesti roadside ditch. The cable runs underground. Labor used mechanized. Laying a trench connection cable is only used when the terrain does not allow to use the technique, or for short distances.
A distinctive feature of the communication lines is the presence of regeneration points. Weakened signal again increases, reaching a specified level. Otherwise it is impossible laying optical cable for long distances. The modem will simply be unable to detect the signal. special measures for the link cable laying is taken corresponding mark are being taken to optimize the network. Allowing to reduce losses by reducing the number of regenerators route. Let us discuss what are the link structure.
The overall organization of communication lines
Cable lines can be divided:
- Trunk normally laid between the first class units (large settlements adjacent regions).
- Intra lying within a relatively small region (region).
- Trunk wiring capacity is not inferior to the first category, will serve as a bridge between the larger segments.
- Local cable networks are laid in a single city (laying private home connection cable).
Inside the city network (backbone-called internal) reaches the subscriber enclosure. The switchboard on the area. If you take the telephone line, a dozen homes can be a steel cabinet, inside wiring located in the building. Each building is equipped with another shield of more modest dimensions. Areas between the houses are referred to as distribution. On the porch is a subscriber wiring. Not cable, the usual cord lead of two copper wires.
At the signal chain can be divided:
- Lines first class I voltage greater than 360 volts.
- Second class II line voltage to 360 volts.
- Subscriber line voltage ranges 15 - 30 volts.
Laying, installation of communication cables are:
- Directly in the ground.
- In various underground communications, underground.
It differs little from the grid. According to the classification scale line (the first table) provides guidance laying fixed lines mark. There are cables of two types - electric and optical.
It consists of the usual copper veins. Aluminum communication is rarely used due to high losses.
- Main (primary) line formed by a coaxial cable in aluminum shells MRA-4, a lead - KM-8/6 (for reconstruction), coaxial compact aluminum - KMTA-4.
- Connecting trunk lines are built similar products, except supplied with lead sheath. Sometimes it is allowed to use communication cables ISS 4x4.
- On the intra-zone networks use ICB-4, VKPAP, ISS-4h4h1,2, ZK-1h4h1,2.
- Local area network (primary and secondary) are constructed from: ISS-4h4h1,2 and 7h4h1,2, PCB KSPZ, BKSPZ, T, TA PRPPM.
- wireline network (public radio was used USSR) built on PRPPM, MRMP, RBPZEP, RBPZEPB, RMPZEP, RMPZEPB. The last four stamps are a family with a hydrophobic filling. This includes products containing both aluminum and copper inclusions. When wet process begins electrochemical corrosion.
Formed glass filaments propagating waves close the visible spectrum. Treble will effectively encode a wealth of information. There are single-core, dual-mode.
- Backbone networks are built from single-mode optical cables with different numbers of wires (4, 8, or 16). At wavelengths of 1.3 and 1.55 microns.
- Intra-network based on the use of multimode fibers gradient of 4 or 8 pieces in the bundle. Operating Wavelength - 1.3 microns.
- Local networks differ from intra assumption applications 0.85 micron wavelength.
A variety of cables
It is time to clarify the term fashion. Wikipedia (not always reliable, but useful source) states: one when fashion, fiber diameter up to 10 microns, in the presence of a plurality of - 50 microns. Clearly not the relation, the more the better. Fashion called light region formed by a cross cut fibers interference phenomenon, other physical laws. Mods are longitudinal, it is currently considered to be a parasitic phenomenon. We assume in the future, the effect will be beneficial now leads to a distortion of the pulse shape. It may be slightly disturbed synchronization.
In practice, it is necessary to reduce the regeneration interval. As a result, the line would have to bet more amplifiers. Sometimes unacceptably expensive. Methods for laying communication cables under the water cause the appearance of many complications. They told how the Anglo-French company Alcatel paves the seabed optical cable. Loading ship takes three weeks, imagine now how long it takes an underwater installation.
Amplifier signal regenerator weighs half a ton. While the cable is on track, progress is fast, then stops, since veins need to be embedded in the body. Damage to the regenerator addresses the problem. The smaller stands on the main line, the better. Advantageous to make a profit for a paved road, there is no benefit from renovation. Therefore, in the line you want to use single-mode fiber.
Laying communication cable in the ground is carried out to the regenerators placed in nezataplivaemoy areas. There are exceptions to the rules from the technical side of the issue justification. Not applicable space landslides, mudflows. To ensure energy signal amplifiers, laying communication cable is carried in a special way:
Trench type stacking
- On the intra-zone networks use the maximum available points. Equipped with a ready source of energy.
- For local networks allowed the installation of associated equipment. Priority is given equipped nodal points. A key example one sees in the entrance. Distribution Provider box containing amplifying equipment. Power is taken from the local power grid.
Laying cable communications in the land
The method defined cable laying mark is discussed sixth section 116 BCH. PRPPM second lines applied with Class II private sewers on subscriber lines - in the ground with a few exceptions. Depending on the type of the link depth of the cable in the ground is changing:
- Electrical and optical cable primary networks of any level of non-urban lines and the connection of class II at the depth of 1.2 meters.
- Other intra-network are routed by 0.9 meters underground.
- Electrical cables of urban and rural telephone networks in settlements deepened to 0.7 meters, outside - 0.8. Smaller values used - use of protection bricks (slabs). Like used to equip power lines (see. appropriate review).
- 0.8 meter cable broadcasting uses a second class II.
You should know: soils are divided into groups, the above requirements apply to the categories I - IV. The fifth relates permafrost, rock: the depth of laying communication cable decreases (0.4 - 0.6 meters, depth of trench 10 cm greater). Many thematic information contains the TRN 600. Specifies the width of the trenches (developed mechanized method).
Slopes snake line sag deflection in the direction of 1.5 m (length linear portions 5 meters). It decided to use special armored cable brand. The air is allowed to lay subscriber, intra-network with carrying out a feasibility study. In the second case, using the existing poles. Laying of communication cables through the building is done according to the usual rules. Produced protection against conducted disturbances.
Hopefully, they told readers of the main ways of laying communication cables. Designated lines are often marked with signs. Commander Kazakhs know archaeological sites, the signs are the warning labels. The installer will make the project not to touch the neighboring lines. And help make the terrain are called special precautionary designations.