The vast majority of washing machines have a collector engine. Easier to manage. The reverse is made by changing the commutation of the rotor and stator windings. Included in one direction - in another, making a direct course and reverse. With regards to the speed of rotation, the parameter directly depends on the power, is regulated by the magnitude of the voltage cutoff angle. Do not be intimidated by the new terms, we consider in detail, at the same time we will show how to connect the motor of the washing machine-machine to the 230 V AC network. This is often done in repair shops, in unscrupulous stores you can buy - unknowingly - the result of such an experiment. Let's get down to business!
The work of the collector engine
Understanding the principles of operation of the collector engine start does not seem like a daunting task. Let's take a quick run to understand the essence of the problem. The figure below shows schematically:
- The design of the collector engine from the stator windings( rectangle with oblique lines), collector( narrow orange rectangles), brushes( vertical gray rectangles).
- Electrical connections are for direct current. The blue line shows the minus( north pole), the red - plus( south pole).
- Along the horizontal row, transverse sections of the rotor and stator are given( schematically).For simplicity, the stationary part of the engine is represented by two poles, although in reality there are more of them. Blue is marked north, red - south. If you disassemble the motor, you can see with your own eyes a similar picture. The rotor slice resembles the crossbar of a magnetron.
How it works. The engine manifold is formed by sections, which are schematically visible in the figure. The copper drum is broken by insulating crossbars into even rows of slats. Each section is provided with leads strictly on opposite sides of the circle. Accordingly, two brushes are suitable. One for each side. One section receives power, a field appears in the coil. Let's see what this leads to.
- In the upper part of the figure we see the direct inclusion of the stator and rotor. The field is distributed so that the shaft starts to rotate clockwise. The charges of the same signs of the stator and the rotor repel each other - attract each other. The section will pass some distance in a circle, the brushes are transferred to the next one, and it starts working. The cycle repeats while power is applied.
- Including brushes towards the stator, the charge distribution on the rotor is replaced by the opposite. See what the reverse leads to( bottom of the picture).The motor shaft turns counterclockwise. As before, charges of the same signs attract each other, repel each other.
To change the direction of movement of the motor of the washing machine, special contactors( power relays) are used. If necessary, the rotor is turned on towards the stator, a reverse is formed. One thing is important: if the shaft turns wrong, change the direction of the windings on. And how to do - tell you later.
Connector( connector) of the washing machine engine
The connector of the washing machine engine resembles the notorious plastic connector, which is painfully familiar to computer scientists. Easy to fit, but impossible to disconnect. Help repairmen hands slotted screwdriver. Each half contains more often 10 contacts, some of them are not involved. This is what the pins could serve( read, useful when studying):
- Two for the rotor, stator, in total, four terminals form the end of the windings. From the fixed part, the middle is sometimes displayed. Helps to implement a variety of modes of operation of the equipment. Speed control is usually done by changing the voltage cutoff angle. Imagine: a flat sine wave comes from the socket with a current value of 230 volts. A lot of engine. Part of the period of the sinusoid is cut off with a power key. For example, a thyristor. The actual value of the voltage drops rapidly. On the Samsung, there is a Korean engine with hieroglyphs, Russian( admittedly, in English) is written( take a pencil, if you need to determine the power of the electric motor), that in the spin mode 300 W is consumed( input current 3 A), washing - 40 W( current4 A).How to understand - the current is more, the consumption is less? Not. Just the cut-off angle is different. In the first case, the effective value will be 300/3 = 100 V, in the second - 40/4 = 10 V. The speed control will be needed by self-made. Or apply voltage through the transformer.
- As for the rotational speed, the tachogenerator( rather the tachometer) helps to evaluate the figure. It becomes, in fact, a source of pulses, following synchronously with the shaft, it accounts for at least two connector pins. One small difficulty: moving parts in a tachogenerator. Minus reliability of equipment. Commonly used Hall sensor. A plate of conductive material that reacts to an approaching magnetic field. In accordance with the speed of movement of the shaft, the pulse repetition rate changes. The plate can serve forever. Mechanical contact is devoid of moving parts. The Hall sensor is used not only to control the speed of the shaft in order to implement the washing program. Helps to weigh laundry. After soaking the fabric becomes wet, the weight determines the speed of the spin of the drum. Using special formulas, the apparatus calculates the weight of the laundry. Note, the Hall sensor is equipped with three findings. On two food, from the third impulses are removed.
- Most electric motors contain protection against overheating. Implemented by means of a primitive thermal protector. Overheating occurs - the element burns out. The connector has two outputs. Used circuit integrity control circuit. The central processor can track, in the simplest case, the motor windings simply feed through the protection. Thermal fuses are often mounted on the motor housing. For washing machines, the motor is made to form something resembling a magnetic conductor along the contour( a set of steel plates).The thermal fuse is located either there or under the winding insulation. It doesn’t matter to our goals if there is no fear of burning the engine. It is better to turn on the equipment through a protective circuit. A thermal fuse is placed in a series of windings.
The scheme is simple, now we try to understand the layout of the connector. Easier to find the contacts of the brushes. We'll have to ring from the graphite rods. And the brushes should be removed. Then comes the turn of the stator winding. Must be 10 - 30 ohm impedance. Where there is a thermal fuse, this can not be: either a short circuit or a break. As for the tachometer, the situation will be similar. The principle of the part is usually very simple.
Find the method to unambiguously understand where the stator is located? Find a copy of home appliances entirely, the thickness of the wires say a lot. Connecting the engine from the washing machine is a thick core. Sensors connect thin. The second sign is the relation to the relay controlling the direction of the shaft movement. Trace the route of the posting. Try to guess by the color of the cambric( braids).If the corresponding tone enters the stator, it is a winding. Please note that the colors of the wires of the response and direct parts of the connector do not match. Why? We believe the question will remain unanswered.
We recommend finding a thermal fuse, if available. The elongated body is tucked away in a cambric, and the side contacts stick outwards. There are other designs, with the help of a tester it is easy to find the appropriate connector pins. Some problems will be solved. Remember that six pins are required:
- Two stator windings, brushes.
- Two pieces of the tachometer( Hall sensor three pieces).
Thermal fuse is considered an option, it is in most washing machines. Understand as precisely as possible with the layout, because giving 230 volts to the rev sensor will not be a better idea.
Washing machine motor asynchronous
Showed how to start the engine of the washing machine collector, sometimes it comes across asynchronous( or synchronous).Control is usually conducted by switching the windings, in a fundamentally different way than shown above. On spin, washing on a separate branch. Starting coil for both directions one.
Keep an approximate set of contacts for the case of an induction motor in the washing machine:
- The tachometer is always worth it. May be replaced by a Hall sensor. Accordingly, two or three pins of the connector.
- Optionally, there are two fuse terminals on the connector. Or temperature relay.
- The common wire is one for all windings. Launchers, workers. You can find by following the path of least resistance. It is with this contact that any other will give the smallest face value. Except where the capacitors are attached. Capacities are connected in parallel to the starting windings to create a phase shift. After the promotion of the shaft, these branches are disabled. If the engine is not condenser.
- For the extraction of two contacts: working, starting windings. Common wire is the same as washing.
It turns out that there may be more contacts. When assessing the layout of the circuit elements, please note: the resistance of the starting windings always exceeds the operating rating. The values of washing, direct stroke, reverse in most cases the same. The connection of the electric motor of the washing machine is conducted to the 230-volt network( unless otherwise specified by the information communicated by the housing), the change in speed, direction of movement is carried out by correct switching of the power( to the corresponding terminals).Using an asynchronous motor is easier. Until you need to adjust the frequency of turns.
Considered how to connect a washing machine engine to 230 volts, you will find a voltage of 400 volts, just take any neutral-phase pair. Usually the effective value of each phase is 230 volts. It will look like the connection of the engine from the washing machine to the machine in a regular outlet. If you want to adjust the speed, the way of changing the amplitude works well. Change the voltage. The technique is suitable for any engine, including asynchronous, collector. Changing the frequency of the supply voltage has less potential.
In some cases, the craftsmen manage to rewind the electric motor, having obtained the necessary parameters. Allows at the proper level to carry out repair work, adjusting household appliances.