Broiler is a hybrid of domestic animals, obtained by crossing different breeds. He is distinguished for his precocity. Broilers call not only poultry, but also other animals, for example, rabbits.
In this article we will talk about the broiler chicken, namely: where to start, how to choose eggs, what and how feed on growth periods, how to give water, what vitamins to give, what to not feed, illnesses and what to treat. Let's talk about adult broilers: living conditions, feeding and water, diseases and what to treat.
In general, we will go through all stages of cultivation -from the egg, to the realization of the finished product.
Table of contents
- How to choose eggs for growing
- What and how to feed
- Broiler chicks from the very beginning
- Weekly chickens
- Chickens from 10 to 20 days
- How to raise monthly chickens
- Chickens 45-50 days
- Breeding adult broilers at home
- Cellular maintenance and care at home
- How to Grow: Tips for Beginners
- How to maintain and grow a broiler in the pen
- Proper feeding. Where to begin
- Than to drink
- Diseases of broilers chickens
How to choose eggs for growing
Choosing an egg for incubation is an important part of the broiler production process, because the percentage of chickens leaving depends on it, how healthy the offspring will be, how often they will be ill or not get sick at all, how fast they will gain weight, etc. Will you stay with a profit or at a loss, too, depend on the right choice for the bookmark eggs.
The egg should be uniform in color. It is advisable to choose medium sizes, because of the small eggs, the same offspring are obtained.
The large ones have a thin shell. Therefore, the appearance of microscopic cracks through which penetrate the embryo of the infection is not ruled out. In addition, from many eggs of this size, chickens simply will not come out.
The weight of the egg is also chosen, if possible, the same. Then the chickens are born with a slight difference in time.
Eggs are taken from the nests several times a day.Do not overheat or cool them. It is desirable to store them in a warm, dry room, in which the permissible temperature differences do not exceed 5 degrees.
The maximum shelf life between the recess from the nest and the bookmark in the incubator is two or three days. If this time is exceeded, the probability of negative consequences for their healthy development in the future increases.
A correct, competent approach to the process of selecting eggs for their bookmarking in the incubator is the key to a successful outcome.
The maximum age of a hen from which eggs are taken for an incubator is limited to 2 years..
What and how to feed
It is very important to feed the broiler chickens, starting from the first day of their life, because the starting feeding sets the corresponding rate of growth and development of this poultry. In addition, the composition of the feed plays a decisive role in the quality of the final product - meat..
Broiler chicks from the very beginning
There is a common opinion that daily broiler chickens should be given at once a crushed boiled egg, cottage cheese, mixed fodder, which contribute to strengthening the digestive system.
However, others caution against such a decision.They argue that this is the reason for the death of the bird population during the first 2 - 3 days of their life. A feeding a boiled egg of broiler chickens at a diurnal age not only does not strengthen their immunity, but also calls up a digestive system disorder, causes the plague in large numbers.
It is not recommended to give any wet food. It is useful at such an early age to give only millet and a small amount of egg powder. There should be free access of chickens to the stern and water. The size of the cage, the box, and the other place in which the brood is contained, allowed each chicken to eat and drink freely. In water, dilute in a very weak concentration of potassium permanganate (manganese).
In this case, you can not allow a change in the color of the water to pink. It is also advisable to prepare an aqueous solution of glucose separately. This will help to avoid dyspepsia - digestive tract disease
Gradually, to teach the kids to the starting feed is possible from the fifth day of their life. At the same time, they are soldered with a prominent solution of vitamins. Before this age, it is not recommended to give them antibiotics.
It is useful in the beak to drop every chicken "Trivitamin"- a drug for the treatment and prevention of avitaminosis. In the water, add "Baytril designed against infections at the rate of 1 gram per 2 liters of water.
From the week-old chickens are taught to eat cottage cheese. Diet is a variety of crushed boiled egg. The food can be slightly moistened with milk whey. The approximate daily rate of consumption during this period reaches 15 - 20 grams. The temperature in the room is 30 - 32 degrees.
Important! Make sure that the chickens are not soiled or soaked during meals. Otherwise, it is fraught with their case. In places where they are kept must be dry with the right temperature and humidity..
Chickens from 10 to 20 days
During this period, in the porridge (lightly moistened dry starting feed) add greens, for example, finely chopped onions, based on: 0. It contains the necessary vitamins. Besides,Green onions are used as an antiparasitic agent.
To avoid one of the most common diseases of poultry - coccidosis, which leads to disruption of the processes digestion and dehydration of the body, at a two-week age in the water add the drug "Baikox" at a rate of 1 gram per 2 liters water.
During this period they eat up to 30 grams of food per day. In order for the kids to have a good growth, from the first days take care of the enlarged daylight. The ambient temperature is at a level of at least 28 degrees. If the young at this age is overcooled, can get bronchopneumonia, which occurs just due to hypothermia.
In the diet, you can add a return, curdled milk, buttermilk. After 15 days of feeding in food, protein feeds of plant origin are mixed. The proportion of greenery can be gradually increased. Now it should be up to 10% of the total weight of the feed.
Mix the crushed egg shell, fodder yeast, grated carrots in small quantities.Do not give sand to chickens.Do not forget to make a very weak solution of potassium permanganate.
From 10 days for three or four days, broilers may begin to die. Therefore, during this period, we are digesting the poultry with antibiotics. Add a couple drops of iodine. After a short break, vitamins are given, especially during this period vitamin D from rickets.
The lack of vitamins leads to hypovitaminosis A, D, E, B. Chickens are given only high-quality feed. If you buy it ready-packed, keep an eye on the expiration dates.
How to raise monthly chickens
After 22-25 days they switch from feeding to the starting compound feed (croup) to growth (in granules). The composition of feed for the broiler should include mineral fill, protein (fish meal), cereals (corn), amino acids and vitamins. The green mass can also be added.
To save money we adviseDo not buy expensive growth food, but make its composition yourself:crushed wheat, oats, corn, barley, peas. All components are mixed in equal proportions. It is desirable to add fish oil, whey, meat-and-bone meal to the feed. Add (but not mix) the leaves of cabbage, lettuce, green onions.
By 35 days of life, you can gradually increase the amount of corn to 40% of the total, and reduce wheat, oats and barley. The meal or cake is about 15%. The percentage of green mass can be reduced.
Under normal conditions of maintenance and quality feeding, monthly chickens weigh about 800 grams.
We exclude from the diet all sorts of bread, boiled potatoes (if it does not go in combination with other ingredients), all stitched products, especially if smell is felt. We remind you of the need to refrain from pouring sand. We make sure that the water in the chickens is always clean, fresh, slightly warm. It is useful to use standing water.
We lower the temperature of the medium to 23-25 degrees.The duration of illumination is reduced to 14-16 hours per day.
To avoid at this age aspergillosis, you need to ventilate the room well, avoid dampness. For the prevention of food and water add a little iodine-containing drugs.
Chickens 45-50 days
After 40 days of life, young animals are given not crushed, but whole grains. Also used is the purchased final mixed feed containing the main nutrients. But if you want to have delicious meat, you can refuse to purchase it.
In the feeding troughs, the whole, rather than the crushed grain, is filled. Vitamins, fodder yeast, chalk should also be present in the stern. After reaching 45 days of age, we exclude any drugs. A good effect is provided by cooking porridge, which includes boiled small fry, corn, wheat, peas, greens.
All this is mixed and allowed to brew.In porridge, the percentage of corn is increased to half of the total mass.
If you did not save on feed and gave a complete diet, their weight at this age should be more than one kilogram. The breed also has a big impact on this indicator..
If the weight of one youngster of one breed reaches 1, 2 kg, then the weight of a grown chicken of such age may be, kg. other things being equal.
We continue to use clean water. The ambient temperature is gradually lowered to 21 - 23 degrees. The duration of daylight is reduced to 12-14 hours.
Breeding adult broilers at home
It is not economically feasible to keep broilers for fattening for longer than two months, as the bird grows slower with age, and consumes more food. In addition, broiler meat older than 70-75 days is less tasty than two months old.
Cellular maintenance and care at home
If you want to grow up to 10 broiler chickens at home, your cell content will suit you. Depending on the size of the cells, they contain 3-5 heads (then the cell sizes are made from this calculation to limit the free movement of the bird to necessary - go to the trough and the water bowl), or up to 10 heads (the cell size increases, the requirements for the spatial conditions of content and breeding remain former).
When growing a livestock more than 10 unitsyou need to do or additional cells(because one cell with more than a dozen heads in it is very cumbersome and uncomfortable to move, loses mobility), or think about keeping in a pen.
Let's say you are economically profitable to breed a livestock in cages. Then for dry feed (mixed fodder, grain), it is advisable to choose the gutter feeders, which are placed outside the cells along a whole tier. Drinking water, too, we build a solid, for example, a PVC sewage pipe.
The front side of the feeder can be made of metal rods of a combined type. This is convenient because chickens can be kept in such a cage first.
Steel bars on the walls are placed among themselves quite often, so that the brood does not run out of the cage or fall out of it (if the cage is in the second or third tier).
The field of how the young grows up, it is planted in different cells, removing the rods from the walls through one. Thus, we provide free access to the adult broiler forage.
How to Grow: Tips for Beginners
Requirements for the conditions of keeping adult broiler birds are somewhat:
- so that the content area allowsto eat without hindranceeach individual, that is, not too small, but also not excessively large (on the causes indicated above);
- constantavailability of quality fresh foodin the feeding troughs. In addition, separate feeders for porridge can and should stand, if it is used;
- constant availability of fresh (better off)warm waterin waterers, but not higher than 22-25 degrees;
- a sufficient number of hoursdaylight(12-14 hours). If less - give additional lighting;
- humidityair 68-72%;
- nodampness, especially in cells;
- nodraftsmust not be;
- ambient temperature -within 20-21 degrees(if it is lower, the broiler activity decreases, the feed intake decreases, the buildup of the mass slows down, if higher, the bird becomes hot, the result is the same);
- mandatory availabilityventilation, since otherwise intensive accumulation of nitrogen adversely affects the life of the bird. A case is described when, in order to save on heating, the owner placed half a hundred broilers in a greenhouse, where green was grown in a small improvised paddock. In spite of the fact that fresh air was periodically accessible to the greenhouse, after a few days the greens began to wither because of the high nitrogen content in the air, although this was not felt. After the enclosure was fenced off with a film, the concentration of nitrogen in the environment in the pen reached such a level that the hens began to behave sluggishly, ate the food reluctantly, slowly gained weight.
- cells insidemust be clean. To do this, you can make the floor of a galvanized welded wire mesh, and clean the floor pan, based on the amount of litter accumulated in it;
- If broiler breeding at home is "put" on the flow, it is necessary to periodicallycell disinfection(after the slaughter of the previous batch, but before growing the second).
Disadvantages of keeping birds in cages:
- requiresmoney investmentsmore than with the corral cultivation method.
- convenientin service;
- compact(saves space used).
How to maintain and grow a broiler in the pen
This method of keeping broilers chickens and indokura from scratch does not differ from the previous one. The main differences are as follows:
- cost-effectivein terms of construction. In fact, to raise birds in the pen, you need a floor and walls. If you are going to grow a bird in a barn, then the part of the barn is partitioned off by folding sections of honeycomb wire, put the feeders and drinkers - and the paddock is ready;
- is designed for contentnot less than 10 goalsbirds;
- requires increased care and attention toElimination of dampnessand increased humidity, it is often necessary to change the litter to broilers so that the floor remains dry;
- by area ismore spacebased on one unit of livestock.
- less materialcosts, in comparison with the first method.
Requirements for ambient temperature, humidity, absence of drafts, dampness and other conditions of storage are preserved.
Proper feeding. Where to begin
As already mentioned above, it takes no more meaning to fatten broilers for more than two months. This is justified by the following:
- aftertwo monthsFeeding the bird is gaining weight more slowly;
- consumptionfeed increases;
- broiler meat older than a monthmore stringent, less tasty.
Feeding of adult broilers (in our case - in the recommended age range from 60 to 75 days) is reduced to the fact that they need to give only high-quality feed with the following diet:
But the worries will be added to breed the hens will need to buy separately grain of wheat, barley, corn, peas, etc., mix it all in proportional proportions. Do not forget to give greens, add fishmeal.
If not too lazy, then cook for your poultry porridge from the above ingredients with the addition of cooked small fry. If there is no fish, add fish oil.The main share should be corn (up to 50%).
Some grow birds after 2 months of fattening only for corn and greens (5 to 10 days before slaughter). At normal complex feeding expect, that your broilers will weigh to 70 - 75 days of fattening not less than two kg.
Attention! Do not give broilers:
- boiledpotatoes(if it does not go in combination with other components);
- all gradesof bread;
- medicines(if possible);
- severalnew productsfood in large quantities;
- Other components, if we see that they causenegative reactionin the bird.
Than to drink
Adhere to the same rules as when growing young. Water should be:
- clean, preferably stand-by;
- moderatelywarm(in the area of 20 - 21 degrees);
- in waterers, providingunhindered accessbirds (depends on the number of livestock);
- can be diluted in a very weak concentrationpotassium permanganate(manganese). In this case, you can not allow a change in the color of the water to pink.
Diseases of broilers chickens
Broiler chickens can be sick with quite a few diseases. Some of them:
- heterocidosis -wormsin the intestine. Against this disease, you can use piperazine. Preventive measures - carefully wash the room in which the chickens are located;
arthritis- joints suffer from chicken (broilers run less, try to sit down). You can use ampicillin (10 mg per 05 kg of chicken weight) for 5 consecutive days.
Measures to prevent arthritis: give only high-quality food, litter should be dry;
- ascites(fat accumulates in the abdomen). The bird languidly and reluctantly walks. To avoid this disease, it is necessary to give greens;
- salmonellosis is manifested inupset stomach. Can be treated with tetracycline or ditrevit. The dosage is indicated in the instructions for these medications;
- pseudo-reason- chickens can get infected through an infected egg shell. It is necessary to set the sick and disinfect the room;
- simplepoisoning. To avoid this, you need to make sure that the food is fresh and quality, and there are no foreign objects, such as fish bones, in the feeder).
If you do everything right, the result will not be long in coming.
Recommendation for beginners:there is nothing better than personal experience. Therefore, at the initial stages of the development of your business, you can use the information and recommendations of others. But if in practice you will achieve better results due to your experience - it's a sin not to use it.
If you see that some recommendation does not fit the conditions of growing broiler chickens under your conditions, think for yourself how to get out of the situation to achieve the optimal result..