In this article we will talk about what the simplest household incubator consists of and how it can be done with our own hands without much capital investment. The components of a domestic incubator can vary depending on whether you want to make it completely manual, semi-automatic or automatic.
You will need:
- capwith a viewing window;
- latticefor eggs;
- bulbswith chamber;
- capacityfor water;
- fanat 12 V;
- Regulatorthe voltage is 12 V;
- thermal sensor;
- controllerFlip frequency (digital timer).
Table of contents
- Types and size of incubators
- Self-made incubator made of foam plastic, description and drawings
- From the cardboard box, circuit and device
- From plywood own hands
- From an old refrigerator
- Differences in temperature conditions for different bird species
Types and size of incubators
What can you do this useful thing at home?
- ofpolystyrene foam;
- from cardboardboxes;
- ofplywoodor wood;
- from the oldrefrigerator.
This list is not final. This list of different materials implies the manufacture of a cover and a casing of these materials. A detailed description, characteristics and device of each of the incubator types can be found below.
Dimensions of the incubatorwill depend primarily on:
- number of eggs, which you will put.
- from the locationlight bulbs, which heats the incubator.
For reference:with an average incubator length of 450-470 mm and a width of 300-400 mm egg capacity, pcs. (depending on the size):
- chicken up to 70;
- duck or turkey to 55;
- goose to 40;
- quail up to 200.
Self-made incubator made of foam plastic, description and drawings
You will need: sheets of styrofoam (expanded polystyrene) measuring 50 x 100 cm. Thickness - 50 mm.
Mark the sheet with a pencil and ruler. We take sizes arbitrary.Example:
Side wall:The length is 50 cm, the height is 50 cm.
End wall:length - 35 cm, height - 50 cm.
We cut the foam plastic in size with a sharp knife. If the foam is not extruded, it is better to cut itstationery knife- it is very sharp, the blade is thin.
The same is done with the second sheet.
Furtherwe collect the casein accordance with the presented drawing. This is done with the help of glue for rubber or simply wrap the joints with a wide adhesive tape. Thus, we will get the lateral, end faces and bottom of the case.In the bottom of the case, which is also cut to the dimensions of the walls, we must make 2-3 holes for air ventilation.
Covermade separately with a viewing window and a pair of holes forventilation, as shown in the diagram below.
Glass"Tightly" to fix it is not necessary. After the chicks appear, we adjust the temperature in the incubator, pushing it back a quarter or half. The proposed incubator design assumes that it will be heated by three electriclight bulbs for 25 watts, this is sufficient to maintain the required temperature. The lid must be made with partially cut out the sides so that it does not move along the body. To this end, you can also gluesides. As a material, wooden blocks or polystyrene bars are used.
On the lid, we mount threeelectric cartridgewith light bulbs.
On top of the thermoregulator (if the design assumes it).
The egg lattice is made from a weldedgalvanized wire mesh16 x 24 mm, closed inside with a plastic mosquito net. Grid is needed to ensure that small chicks do not fall into the cells with paws. In addition, they put their head in the cells, which ends up for them (and for you) lamentably. On the grid, build upsides(walls), the height of which should not be less than 8 - 10 cm, otherwise its chicks will jump. If you do not plan to roll eggs, turning the grate along its axis, then the skirts do less grating along the entire perimeter, and the grid will cover the entire internal space of the incubator, and will lie on bars. In this design, you will have toturn each egg manually, marking them with one side plus (+), and on the other, respectively - minus (-). Think of your designations.
This construction can beperfect, equipping it with a conventional computer 12-voltfan, using a voltage regulator, an adapter (12 volts respectively) and a thermostat.
It is possible to design an indicator withheating from light bulbs, which will be located below, under the tray (lattice) with eggs. Then the construction will be more compact. Its height can not exceed 25-30 cm. Lamps and chambers to them can be taken such as in a conventional household refrigerator. You can use a heater of a different type (film fromsystems of warm floors)..
Todo not turn every egg, it is possible to place the grate (tray) not on the uneven bars to the bottom, but to make holes closer to the bottom of the incubator, to insert the bushings there, to fix the baffles to the bushings or other clamps. Attach handles or holders from the outside. Thus, the grid can be rotated on its axis, changing the degree of inclination of the eggs and, accordingly, warming up one side of the eggs, then the other. The grating in this case should be smaller in size than the inner walls of the incubator so that it can change the angle of inclination without interference.Borders of latticesthen they should be higher than 5 cm, because otherwise the chicks can cross over the edge and fall to the bottom of the incubator to light bulbs and water tanks..
From the cardboard box, circuit and device
Perhaps the simplest and mostcheap incubator optionIs a cardboard box construction. Cardboard is very inferior in strength to all other materials, so in this type of incubator there are certain features.
Ventilation holesare located from the bottom to 3-4cm; on the side walls, at a distance of 6-7 cm from the bottom we attach the wooden slats to the walls. You can put the bars instead of the bars on the bottom of the box, which is covered with a film. It should be larger in size than the bottom, so that its edges go to the walls.To the palletinstall any container with water.
On the slats or bars lay the usual packaging for eggs. In the middle we cut a hole for the bestair ventilation. On the box makes a lid with two two holes: in the middle, for the lamp, and on the side for the thermometer..
From plywood own hands
If you make an incubator from this material, then itswalls must be double. The top cover, as in the previous versions, is made removable. In it a window with glass is cut. Doingventilation holessimilar to the previous versions.
From the inside of the incubator mountlamp holders, and below nail racks for the tray. In the plywood floor we also drill holes for ventilation. They can be 4-10 pieces.
Tray oregg latticearrange also a framework type. On the lattice we put a mosquito net or a building mesh for puttying. The incubator is installed in a warm room.
From an old refrigerator
If at you in an economy isold refrigerator, which you managed to replace with a new one, and the old one has not been thrown out, you can use it as a self-made incubator.
We throw out all unnecessary, including a freezer. From above are doneair vents. In the lower part of the incubator they are also made. At the bottom set12 volt fan.
Next you need to installheaters. This role is performed by electric25 watt light bulbs. Such bulbs need 4. Two lamps are placed in the upper part of the refrigerator, and two - in the lower part. Bottom mount the chamber so that the bottom was able to place a tray of water.
Trays for eggs are also made fromgalvanized welded wire meshwith bumps. If the material is chosen plastic boxes of fruit - also good. Then they cut off to a height of 6 cm. AllTrays are installed on the axleand are connected with each other by a rod, by means of which the inclination of the eggs changes..
In some of the foregoing embodiments,manual or semi-automatic incubator. In order to makeautomatic incubator, you must additionally purchase:
- trayautomatic egg coupwhich turns the eggs at a certain angle;
- frequency controllercoup (timer).
Differences in temperature conditions for different bird species
In the first two days it is necessary to warm the eggs well, so the temperature in the incubator is set at 38-3 ° C.
Chicken eggsin the first days of incubation keep at a temperature of 39 to 38 degrees, gradually lowering it. In the last days (20-21) - 3,.
Ducks- from 3, to 3, degrees down.
Goose- from 3, to 3,.
Turkeys- from 3, to 3,.
QuailAll 17 days of incubation is maintained at an equal temperature of 3 degrees.
As you see, doingincubator at home, the material can be varied and depends on what is at hand. To orient the reader, what will be the financial benefit from this event (meaning the difference between a ready-made incubator, bought in a store and made by one's own hands) whatthe benefit is at least three times. If you do not buy automation, the difference will be even greater. Of course, what you make will have andminuses:looks not so aesthetically pleasing, perhaps not such a long service life. Despite this, a lot of prudent masters prefermake an incubator, and not to buy.
Comparing the material from which the hull of the incubator is made, we can say thatincubator made of foam plastichas the lowest heat loss,from a cardboard box- the cheapest. From what material will you do - it's up to you..